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Rehmani M.I.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Rehmani M.I.A.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Zhang J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | And 13 more authors.
Plant Methods | Year: 2011

To simulate expected future global warming, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters have previously been used to warm open-field canopies of upland crops such as wheat. Through the use of concrete-anchored posts, improved software, overhead wires, extensive grounding, and monitoring with a thermal camera, the technology was safely and reliably extended to paddy rice fields. The system maintained canopy temperature increases within 0.5°C of daytime and nighttime set-point differences of 1.3 and 2.7°C 67% of the time. © 2011 Rehmani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Rehmani M.I.A.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Rehmani M.I.A.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Rehmani M.I.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Wei G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 12 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

Rice production is challenged by asymmetric rise in day and night temperatures. Efforts are required to improve our understanding about the impact of climate change induced asymmetrical fluctuations in temperature extremes. This paper presents first effort to investigate effect of post-anthesis asymmetric daytime, nighttime and diel warming, as predicted under low emission scenario (B1) of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), on yield and milling quality of two indica rice hybrids, Teyou-559 (susceptible) and Shanyou-63 (resistant), differing in response to temperature. Four canopy warming regimes, ambient reference (AT), daytime warming (HDT, +1.3. °C), nighttime warming (HNT, +2.7. °C), and diel warming (HDNT, +1.3/2.7. °C), were imposed through free-air temperature enhancement (FATE) facility using infrared heaters. Both hybrids responded differentially to daytime, nighttime and diel warming and shortened grain filling duration (1-2 days), reduced grain yield and 1000-grain weight were determined. Nighttime warming caused more deleterious impact than daytime or diel warming. These results indicate that the daytime (-4%), nighttime (-7%) and diel (-6%) warming under low emission scenario will have differential effects on rice production. This reduction is mainly due to differential decrease in grain weight. Resistant Shanyou-63 proved to be more susceptible to daytime warming, while susceptible Teyou-559 was affected more by nighttime and diel warming. Diel warming had significantly negative influence on head rice recovery of both cultivars, with slight inter-annual variation, followed by nighttime and daytime warming. Reduction in head rice recovery indicated the breakage of rice kernels. Daytime warming had greater effect on grain yield 1000-grain weight than nighttime warming considering per 1. °C warming. Effect of warming on yield and quality can be attributed to reduction in translocation of photosynthates during grain filling, resulting in reduced grain filling, grain weight and development of chalky kernels. Further studies are required to elucidate mechanism underlying differential response to asymmetric warming and to suggest appropriate management practices to minimize yield loses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Zhang C.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Jiang D.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Liu F.,Copenhagen University | Cai J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2010

Mature wheat endosperm contains A-, B-, C-type starch granules, and each class has unique physiochemical properties which determine the quality of starch. The dynamics of the starch granule size distribution, activities of starch synthases and expression of starch synthase encoding genes were studied in superior and inferior grains during grain filling. Compared with inferior grains, superior grains showed higher grain weight, contents of starch, amylose and amylopectin. The formation of A-, B-, C-type starch granules initiated at 4, 8, 20 DAF, respectively, and was well consistent with the temporally change patterns of starch synthase activities and relative gene expression levels. For instance, activities of soluble and granule-bound starch synthases (designated SSS and GBSS) peaked at 20 and 24 DAF. Genes encoding isoforms of starch synthases expressed at different grain filling periods. In addition, SS I was generally expressed over the grain filling stage; the SS II and SS III were expressed over the early and mid grain filling stage, and the GBSS I was expressed during the mid to late grain filling stage. In addition, the time-course changes in activities of starch synthases and expression of starch synthase encoding genes explained well the dynamics of the starch granule size distribution. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Xu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Zha M.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zha M.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | And 12 more authors.
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2015

Key message: Nitrogen availability and cytokinin could promote shoot branching in rice, whereas auxin and strigolactone inhibited it. The interaction between nitrogen availability and the three hormones is discussed. Abstract: Rice shoot branching is strongly affected by nitrogen availability and the plant hormones auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone; however, the interaction of them in the regulation of rice shoot branching remains a subject of debate. In the present study, nitrogen and the three hormones were used to regulate rice tiller bud growth in the indica rice variety Yangdao 6. Both nitrogen and CK promoted shoot branching in rice, whereas auxin and SL inhibited it. We used HPLC to determine the amounts of endogenous IAA and CK, and we used quantitative real-time PCR analysis to quantify the expression levels of several genes. Nitrogen enhanced the amount of CK by promoting the expression levels of OsIPTs in nodes. In addition, both nitrogen and CK downregulated the expression of genes related to SL synthesis in root and nodes, implying that the inhibition of SL synthesis by nitrogen may occur at least partially through the CK pathway. SL did not significantly reduce the amount of CK or the expression levels of OsIPT genes, but it did significantly reduce the amount of auxin and the auxin transport capacity in nodes. Auxin itself inhibited CK synthesis and promoted SL synthesis in nodes rather than in roots. Furthermore, we found that CK and SL quickly reduced and increased the expression of FC1 in buds, respectively, implying that FC1 might be a common target for the CK and SL pathways. Nitrogen and auxin delayed expression change patterns of FC1, potentially by changing the downstream signals for CK and SL. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Xu J.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Xu J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | Ding C.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Ding C.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology and Ecology in Southern China | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2015

Apical dominance refers to the inhibition of shoot branching by the dominant shoot apex. The underlying mechanisms of apical dominance, especially in rice (Oryza sativa), remain a subject of debate. Here, we studied apical dominance in the indica rice variety ‘Yangdao 6’ and carried out a comparative proteomic analysis to analyze the different levels of expression of proteins after decapitation. A total of 38 differentially expressed proteins in nodes and buds were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF and these proteins comprised ten functional categories. Among them, several proteins in this study involved in signal transduction, transporters, and cytokinin biosynthesis may play an important role in the mechanism of apical dominance. In addition, qRT-PCR was used to quantitate the expression levels of several genes in rice nodes and buds. The results showed that after decapitation, the expression level of a CK synthesis gene, OsLOG7, was reduced in buds, however, expression levels of several CK synthesis genes, OsIPTs, were markedly increased in nodes, indicating that after panicle removal, cytokinins were synthesized in nodes and subsequently delivered to buds, which will trigger release from dormancy in buds. Expression levels of several strigolactone-related genes were reduced in nodes after decapitation, which may become a factor facilitating auxin transport out of buds to stems. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

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