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Chen C.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xia Q.-W.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xiao H.-J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xiao L.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Insect Science | Year: 2014

In order to understand the differences of life-history traits between diapause and direct development individuals in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the development time, body size, growth rate, and adult longevity were investigated between the two populations, which were induced under 12:12 L:D and 16:8 L:D photoperiods, respectively, at 20, 22, and 25°C. The results indicated that the larval development time, pupal weight, adult weight, and growth rate were significantly different between diapause and direct developing individuals. The diapause developing individuals had a significantly higher pupal and adult weight and a longer larval time compared with direct developing individuals. However, the growth rate in diapause developing individuals was lower than that in the direct developing individuals. Analysis by GLM showed that larval time, pupal and adult weight, and growth rate were significantly influenced by both temperature and developmental pathway. The pupal and adult weights were greater in males than females in both developmental pathways, exhibiting sexual size dimorphism. The dimorphism in adult weight was more pronounced than in pupal weight because female pupae lost more weight at metamorphosis compared to male pupae. Protogyny was observed in both developmental pathways. However, the protogyny phenomenon was more pronounced at lower temperatures in direct developing individuals, whereas it was more pronounced in diapause developing individuals when they experienced higher temperatures in their larval stage and partial pupal period. The adult longevity of diapause developing individuals was significantly longer than that of direct developing individuals. The results reveal that the lifehistory strategy was different between diapause and direct developing individuals. © 2014 Journal of Insect Science. Source

Chen C.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xia Q.-W.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Chen Y.-S.,JiangXi Environmental Engineering Vocational College | Xiao H.-J.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Insect Physiology | Year: 2012

Pupae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera display a diapause in response to the exposure of their larvae to short photoperiods and relatively low temperatures. Due to geographic variation in photoperiodic response, moths from a northern population, Langfang (39°32'N, 116°41'E), enter diapause in response to short daylengths (D strain) while moths from a southern population, Ledong (18°28'N, 108°53'E), exhibit no diapause under the same conditions (N strain). In the present study, crosses between the two strains are utilized to evaluate the inheritance of diapause under different photoperiods at temperatures 20, 22 and 25°C. The moths in both reciprocal crosses and backcrosses to D strain showed a clear long-day response, similar to that of the D strain, suggesting that the photoperiodic response controlling diapause in this moth is heritable. The incidences of diapause for all F1 hybrids were intermediate between those of their parents. However, the incidences of diapause at 20°C in F1 (N×D) strain were significantly higher than those in F1 (D×N) strain, indicating that the male parent plays a more important role in the determination of diapause. The N strain also showed a short-day photoperiodic response at the lower temperature of 20°C, indicating that the N strain still has the capability to enter a photoperiodically induced diapause, depending on the rearing temperature. Results from all crosses under photoperiods LD 12:12 or LD 13:11 at 22°C showed that inheritance of diapause in H. armigera did not fit an additive hypothesis and that the capacity for diapause was transmitted genetically in the manner of incomplete dominance with non-diapause characteristic partially dominant over the diapausing. Diapause duration in hybrid pupae was also influenced by their inheritance from both parents. Diapause duration in hybrid pupae was intermediate between those of their parents. These results reveal that both diapause induction and duration are under the control of polygene. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Liu X.P.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | He H.M.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xue F.S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xue F.S.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2013

It is generally thought that females can receive more of the material benefits from males by increasing mating frequency and polyandry can lead to greater reproductive success. The cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a highly promiscuous species, in which females or males can readily mate repeatedly with a given partner or multiple partners at a very high frequency. In the present study, the effect of mating frequency (number of matings) and mating pattern (polyandry vs. monogamy) on female reproductive fitness was investigated by measuring fecundity, fertility, and female longevity. The results indicated that increased female mating frequency with the same male did not result in variation in lifetime fecundity, but significantly increased fertility and decreased female longevity. Moreover, five copulations were sufficient to acquire maximal reproductive potential. Female lifetime fecundity also did not differ between polyandrous and monogamous treatments. However, monogamous females exhibited a significant increase in fertility and significant prolongation of longevity compared with polyandrous females, further demonstrating that monogamy is superior to polyandry in this beetle. © 2013 The Netherlands Entomological Society. Source

Liu X.-P.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | He H.-M.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xue F.-S.,Jiangxi Agricultural University | Xue F.-S.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology
Insect Science | Year: 2014

The influence of female age on male mating preference and reproductive success has been studied using a promiscuous cabbage beetle, Colaphellus bowringi Baly (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). In a simultaneous choice test, middle-aged females had significantly greater mating success than young and old females. In single pair trials, when paired with middle-aged virgin males, middle-aged females mated faster, copulated longer, and had greater fecundity and fertility than young or old females, while the longevity of males was not significantly affected by female age. This study on C. bowringi suggests that middle-aged females are more receptive to mating, which can result in the highest male reproductive success. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Source

Zhang G.,Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University | Wen Y.,Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology | Guo C.,Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University | Xu J.,Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University | And 4 more authors.
Analytica Chimica Acta | Year: 2013

A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd2+) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd2+ in the concentration range of 5nM-0.12mM with a detection limit of 0.277nM and quantification limit of 0.925nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd2+ enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd2+ determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd2+ will be a good candidate for application in agriculture and environment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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