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Lai S.-K.,Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province | Zhuang S.-T.,Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province | Wu Y.-Z.,Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province | Wang Y.-X.,Yangzhou University | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015

Using Chinese FACE (Free Air gas Concentration Enrichment) facility, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the impacts of ambient air (Ambient), elevated [CO2] (EC, Ambient+200 μmol • mol-1), elevated temperature (ET, Ambient+2 °C) and elevated [CO2] + elevated temperature (EC+ET) on growth and development of a super rice cultivar II Y084. The results showed that the heading and maturity stage arrived 1-3 days later in EC and EC+ET treatments than in Ambient, but no response was detected in ET treatment. Compared with Ambient, EC and EC + ET treatments significantly increased the final dry weight per stem by 49% and 40%, respectively, but ET treatment showed the opposite tendency. On average, leaf, stem and sheath, panicle and above-ground biomass at maturity increased under EC by 40% (P<0.01), 69% (P <0.01), 30% (P <0.01), and 39% (P <0.01), but decreased under ET by 11% (P<0.05), 21% (P = 0.14), 31% (P<0.01) and 26% (P<0.01), respectively. The respective increase due to EC+ET treatment was 40% (P<0.05), 47% (P<0.05), 10% (P = 0.33) and 18% (P <0.05), respectively. In general, above-ground biomass and its components at heading and 20 days alter heading showed a similar pattern, with the magnitude of responses being less than those at maturity. In contrast to biomass production, less effect of CO2 or temperature treatment was found on dry matter allocation in plants. EC and EC+ET treatments significantly increased the concentration and content of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in stem and sheath at the maturity stage, but ET showed the opposite trend. The above results indicated that, as for super rice II Y084, the combination of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature in the near future would result in increases in the concentration and content of NSC in stem and sheath, total biomass production and its components at harvest time, but the magnitudes of the increases are less than those by elevated CO2 concentration alone. © 2015, editorial Board of Chinese Journal of Ecology. All rights reserved.

Hong L.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | Qian Q.,China National Rice Research Institute | Zhu K.,Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology of Jiangsu Province | Tang D.,CAS Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2010

Although there is evident homology among reproductive organs when comparing Poaceae (grass) and eudicots, the identity of grass specific organs, such as lodicules, palea, lemma, and glumes has been the subject of a vast and largely inconclusive discussion. Here we provide some direct evidence to support the idea that the empty glumes of rice (Oryza sativa) are counterparts of lemmas. We show that the development of empty glumes is regulated by ELE (elongated empty glume), which belongs to a plant specific novel gene family. Mutations at the ELE locus cause elongated empty glumes, which mimic the lemmas and have the epidermal morphology of lemmas with four or five vascular bundles. As a nuclear-localized gene, ELE is specifically expressed at the empty glumes of immature spikelets, and its ectopic expression causes many floral development defects, including lemma-like palea, extra palea-like structures, elongated lodicules, extra stamens and stigmas. Our result suggests that empty glumes are lemmas of the sterile florets located at the lateral side of the rice spikelet, and ELE acts as a regulator restraining its growth to maintain its small size in wild-type plants. © 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China.

Zhao J.,Yangzhou University | He Q.,Yangzhou University | Chen G.,Yangzhou University | Wang L.,Yangzhou University | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Heat stress is an important factor limiting plant growth, development, and productivity; thus, plants have evolved special adaptive mechanisms to cope with high-temperature stress. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are a class of regulatory RNAs that play an important role in many biological processes. Recently developed advanced technologies, such as genome-wide transcriptomic analysis, have revealed that abundant ncRNAs are expressed under heat stress. Although this area of research is still in its infancy, an increasing number of several classes of regulatory ncRNA (i.e., miRNA, siRNA, and lncRNA) related to heat stress responses have been reported. In this mini-review, we discuss our current understanding of the role of ncRNAs in heat stress responses in plants, especially miRNAs, siRNAs, and their targets. For example, the miR398-CSD/CCS-HSF, miR396-WRKY6, miR159-GAMYB, and TAS1-HTT-HSF pathways regulate plant heat tolerance. We highlight the hormone/development-related miRNAs involved in heat stress, and discuss the regulatory networks of miRNA-targets. We also note that DNA methylation and alternative splicing could affect miRNA expression under heat stress, and some lncRNAs could respond to heat stress. Finally, we briefly discuss future prospects concerning the ncRNA-related mechanisms of heat stress responses in plants. © 2016 Zhao, He, Chen, Wang and Jin.

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