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Yang L.,Shanxi Normal University | Han R.,Shanxi Normal University | Sun Y.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun Y.,Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry

We explored the use of He-Ne laser on alleviating the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on winter wheat development. Triticum aestivum L. cv. Linyuan 077038 seeds were irradiated with either UV-B (10.08 kJ m-2 d-1) (enhanced UV-B) or a combination of UV-B light and the He-Ne laser (5.43 mW mm-2). Plants also were exposed to the He-Ne laser alone. Our results showed that enhanced UV-B produced negative effects on seed germination and seedling development. Germination rate and shoot growth decreased compared with the control. Root development was inhibited, and root length was decreased. Chlorophyll content and expression of peroxidase (POD) isozymes and their activity decreased. Seedling height and shoot biomass dropped significantly compared to the control. Implementing the He-Ne laser partially alleviated the injury of enhanced UV-B radiation, because germination rate and shoot growth were enhanced together with root development. Chlorophyll content and POD expression and activity increased. Seedling height and shoot biomass were increased. Furthermore, the use of the He-Ne laser alone showed a favorable effect on seedling growth compared with the control. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Zhan H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhan H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences

A new wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line CH13-21 was selected from the progenies derived from a cross between wheat-Th. intermedium partial amphiploid TAI7047 and wheat line Mianyang11. CH13-21 was characterized by using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), multicolor-GISH (mc-GISH), multicolor-fluorescence in situ hybridization (mc-FISH) and chromosome-specific molecular markers. When inoculated with stripe rust and powdery mildew isolates, CH13-21 displayed novel resistance to powdery mildew and stripe rust which inherited from its Thinopyrum parent. The chromosomal counting analyses indicated that CH13-21 has 42 chromosomes, with normal bivalent pairing at metaphase I of meiosis. GISH probed by Th. intermedium genomic DNA showed that CH13-21 contained a pair of wheat-Th. intermedium translocated chromosomes. Sequential mc-FISH analyses probed by pSc119.2 and pAs1 clearly revealed that chromosome arm 6BS of CH13-21 was replaced by Thinopyrum chromatin in the translocation chromosome. The molecular markers analysis further confirmed that the introduced Th. intermedium chromatin in CH13-21 belonged to the long arm of homoeologous group 6 chromosome. Therefore, CH13-21 was a new T6BS.6Ai#1L compensating Robertsonian translocation line. It concludes that CH13-21 is a new genetic resource for wheat breeding programs providing novel variation for disease resistances. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Wang X.,Shanxi University | Wang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Bai J.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter

Maize (Zea mays L.) yield is limited by the poor availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in many arable areas worldwide. Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is a complex multigene trait, with a single gene contributing only a small percentage to the phenotype. Transcription factors (TFs) are very important as a single TF frequently coordinates the expression of multiple genes in response to environmental signals. Previous studies have indicated that the TFs AtPHR1 and OsPHR2 play important roles in the regulation of plant phosphorus accumulation. However, little is known about the functions of PHR-like genes in maize. In this study, a member of the MYB-CC family encoding a 449-amino acid protein, ZmPHR1, was isolated. The ZmPHR1{proportion}GFP fusion was localized in the nucleus, which indicates that ZmPHR1 is also a TF. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that ZmPHR1 belongs to the same subfamily of MYB-CCs as OsPHR1, OsPHR2 and AtPHR1. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing ZmPHR1 were used to investigate the pleiotropic effects of this gene under low Pi conditions. Overexpression of ZmPHR1 led to the upregulation of multiple genes that regulate metabolism during Pi-starvation, which in turn resulted in an elevation in Pi content in shoots. Most notably, Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmPHR1 showed better growth under low-Pi conditions. The results presented in this study suggest that PUE could be improved through the manipulation of the TF ZmPHR1 in maize and possibly in other species under Pi-deficient conditions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source

Zhan H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhan H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 9 more authors.

Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs. © 2014 Zhan et al. Source

Liu Z.,Hebei University | Yang S.,Hebei University | Zhao Y.,Ludong University | Wang X.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biologia (Poland)

Compared with C3 plants, C4 plants possess a mechanism to concentrate CO2 around the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells so that the carboxylation reaction work at a much more efficient rate, thereby substantially eliminate the oxygenation reaction and the resulting photorespiration. It is observed that C4 photosynthesis is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis under conditions of low atmospheric CO2, heat, drought and salinity, suggesting that these factors are the important drivers to promote C4 evolution. Although C4 evolution took over 66 times independently, it is hypothesized that it shared the following evolutionary trajectory: 1) gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization; 2) anatomical and ultrastructral changes of leaf architecture to improve the hydraulic systems; 3) establishment of two-celled photorespiratory pump; 4) addition of transport system; 5) co-option of the duplicated genes into C4 pathway and adaptive changes of C4 enzymes. Based on our current understanding on C4 evolution, several strategies for engineering C4 rice have been proposed to increase both photosynthetic efficiency and yield significantly in order to avoid international food crisis in the future, especially in the developing countries. Here we summarize the latest progresses on the studies of C4 evolution and discuss the strategies to introduce two-celled C4 pathway into rice. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

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