Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau

Taiyuan, China

Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau

Taiyuan, China
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Liu Z.,Hebei University | Yang S.,Hebei University | Zhao Y.,Ludong University | Wang X.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2013

Compared with C3 plants, C4 plants possess a mechanism to concentrate CO2 around the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in chloroplasts of bundle sheath cells so that the carboxylation reaction work at a much more efficient rate, thereby substantially eliminate the oxygenation reaction and the resulting photorespiration. It is observed that C4 photosynthesis is more efficient than C3 photosynthesis under conditions of low atmospheric CO2, heat, drought and salinity, suggesting that these factors are the important drivers to promote C4 evolution. Although C4 evolution took over 66 times independently, it is hypothesized that it shared the following evolutionary trajectory: 1) gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization; 2) anatomical and ultrastructral changes of leaf architecture to improve the hydraulic systems; 3) establishment of two-celled photorespiratory pump; 4) addition of transport system; 5) co-option of the duplicated genes into C4 pathway and adaptive changes of C4 enzymes. Based on our current understanding on C4 evolution, several strategies for engineering C4 rice have been proposed to increase both photosynthetic efficiency and yield significantly in order to avoid international food crisis in the future, especially in the developing countries. Here we summarize the latest progresses on the studies of C4 evolution and discuss the strategies to introduce two-celled C4 pathway into rice. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien.

Liu Z.,Hebei University | Zhang S.,Hebei University | Liu H.,Hebei University | Zhao Y.,Ludong University | And 4 more authors.
Rice | Year: 2015

Phytohormone jasmonates (JA) play essential roles in plants, such as regulating development and growth, responding to environmental changes, and resisting abiotic and biotic stresses. During signaling, JA interacts, either synergistically or antagonistically, with other hormones, such as salicylic acid (SA), gibberellin (GA), ethylene (ET), auxin, brassinosteroid (BR), and abscisic acid (ABA), to regulate gene expression in regulatory networks, conferring physiological and metabolic adjustments in plants. As an important staple crop, rice is a major nutritional source for human beings and feeds one third of the world’s population. Recent years have seen significant progress in the understanding of the JA pathway in rice. In this review, we summarize the diverse functions of JA, and discuss the JA interplay with other hormones, as well as light, in this economically important crop. We believe that a better understanding of the JA pathway will lead to practical biotechnological applications in rice breeding and cultivation. © 2015, Liu et al.; licensee Springer.

Wang X.,Shanxi University | Wang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Bai J.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Plant Molecular Biology Reporter | Year: 2013

Maize (Zea mays L.) yield is limited by the poor availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in many arable areas worldwide. Phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) is a complex multigene trait, with a single gene contributing only a small percentage to the phenotype. Transcription factors (TFs) are very important as a single TF frequently coordinates the expression of multiple genes in response to environmental signals. Previous studies have indicated that the TFs AtPHR1 and OsPHR2 play important roles in the regulation of plant phosphorus accumulation. However, little is known about the functions of PHR-like genes in maize. In this study, a member of the MYB-CC family encoding a 449-amino acid protein, ZmPHR1, was isolated. The ZmPHR1{proportion}GFP fusion was localized in the nucleus, which indicates that ZmPHR1 is also a TF. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that ZmPHR1 belongs to the same subfamily of MYB-CCs as OsPHR1, OsPHR2 and AtPHR1. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing ZmPHR1 were used to investigate the pleiotropic effects of this gene under low Pi conditions. Overexpression of ZmPHR1 led to the upregulation of multiple genes that regulate metabolism during Pi-starvation, which in turn resulted in an elevation in Pi content in shoots. Most notably, Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmPHR1 showed better growth under low-Pi conditions. The results presented in this study suggest that PUE could be improved through the manipulation of the TF ZmPHR1 in maize and possibly in other species under Pi-deficient conditions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Liu J.,Shanxi University | Chang Z.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chang Z.,Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau | Zhang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 10 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2013

Stripe rust-resistant wheat introgression line CH223 was developed by crossing the resistant partial amphiploid TAI7047 derived from Thinopyrum intermedium with susceptible cultivars. The resistance is effective against all the existing Chinese stripe rust races, including the most widely virulent and predominant pathotypes CYR32 and CYR33. Cytological analyses using GISH detected no chromosomal segments from Th. intermedium. It was presumed that the segment was too small to be detected. Normal bivalent pairing at meiosis in CH223 and its hybrids confirmed its stability. Genetic analysis of the F1, F2, F3 and BC1 populations from crosses of CH223 with susceptible lines indicated that resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. The resistance gene was mapped using an F2:3 population from Taichung 29/CH223. The gene was linked to five co-dominant genomic SSR markers, Xgwm540, Xbarc1096, Xwmc47, Xwmc310 and Xgpw7272, and flanked by Xbarc1096 and Xwmc47 at 8. 0 and 7. 2 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL. As no permanently named stripe rust resistance genes had been assigned to chromosome 4BL, this new resistance gene is designated Yr50. The gene, together with the identified closely linked markers, could be used in marker-assisted selection to combine two or more resistance genes in a single genotype. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Zhan H.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhan H.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li G.,University of Electronic Science and Technology of China | Zhang X.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Powdery mildew (PM) is a very destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum introgression line CH7086 was shown to possess powdery mildew resistance possibly originating from Th. ponticum. Genomic in situ hybridization and molecular characterization of the alien introgression failed to identify alien chromatin. To study the genetics of resistance, CH7086 was crossed with susceptible genotypes. Segregation in F2 populations and F2:3 lines tested with Chinese Bgt race E09 under controlled conditions indicated that CH7086 carries a single dominant gene for powdery mildew resistance. Fourteen SSR and EST-PCR markers linked with the locus were identified. The genetic distances between the locus and the two flanking markers were 1.5 and 3.2 cM, respectively. Based on the locations of the markers by nullisomic-tetrasomic and deletion lines of 'Chinese Spring', the resistance gene was located in deletion bin 2BL-0.89-1.00. Conserved orthologous marker analysis indicated that the genomic region flanking the resistance gene has a high level of collinearity to that of rice chromosome 4 and Brachypodium chromosome 5. Both resistance specificities and tests of allelism suggested the resistance gene in CH7086 was different from previously reported powdery mildew resistance genes on 2BL, and the gene was provisionally designated PmCH86. Molecular analysis of PmCH86 compared with other genes for resistance to Bgt in the 2BL-0.89-1.00 region suggested that PmCH86 may be a new PM resistance gene, and it was therefore designated as Pm51. The closely linked flanking markers could be useful in exploiting this putative wheat-Thinopyrum translocation line for rapid transfer of Pm51 to wheat breeding programs. © 2014 Zhan et al.

Yang L.,Shanxi Normal University | Han R.,Shanxi Normal University | Sun Y.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun Y.,Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

We explored the use of He-Ne laser on alleviating the effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) light on winter wheat development. Triticum aestivum L. cv. Linyuan 077038 seeds were irradiated with either UV-B (10.08 kJ m-2 d-1) (enhanced UV-B) or a combination of UV-B light and the He-Ne laser (5.43 mW mm-2). Plants also were exposed to the He-Ne laser alone. Our results showed that enhanced UV-B produced negative effects on seed germination and seedling development. Germination rate and shoot growth decreased compared with the control. Root development was inhibited, and root length was decreased. Chlorophyll content and expression of peroxidase (POD) isozymes and their activity decreased. Seedling height and shoot biomass dropped significantly compared to the control. Implementing the He-Ne laser partially alleviated the injury of enhanced UV-B radiation, because germination rate and shoot growth were enhanced together with root development. Chlorophyll content and POD expression and activity increased. Seedling height and shoot biomass were increased. Furthermore, the use of the He-Ne laser alone showed a favorable effect on seedling growth compared with the control. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Yang L.,Shanxi Normal University | Sun Y.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Sun Y.,Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau | Wang Y.,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of Bt crops on animals. Insect-resistant bioassays have revealed that the chitinase-BmkIT combination could be used as a new pest-resistant gene source and might be a complementary alien gene source to the Bt toxin gene. So it is necessary to assay the effects of chitinase-BmkIT plants on animals. RESULTS: Forty 40-day old New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were fed for 60 consecutive days with formulated feed containing dehydrated poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd) leaves harbouring chitinase-BmkIT gene combination or untransformed counterparts, and the potential toxicological effects of transgenic leaves on rabbits were explored. The results of the growth study revealed no significant differences for daily weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio where they were 101.6%, 99.2% and 97.8% of the treatment compared to the control, respectively. No obvious pathological change was observed in the small intestine, stomach, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, bladder, pancreas, prostate and ovary. Electron microscopy observations of liver cells and renal cells showed they were both normal in the two groups. No feed-derived chitinase, BmkIT and NPTII genes were found in small intestine, blood, or leg muscle samples although they were detected in the formulated feed. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the processed poplar leaves with foreign chitinase-BmkIT genes had no obviously harmful effects on rabbits. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Wang X.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Wang X.,Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau | Yang Z.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Wang M.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture | Year: 2014

In vitro plant regeneration requires the coordinated action of various enzymes in addition to phytohormones. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis Branching Enzyme 1 (BE1) gene, encoding a putative glycoside hydrolase involved in carbohydrate metabolism, is critical for explant regeneration. A partial loss-of-function mutation of the BE1 gene (be1-3 mutant) severely impaired adventitious shoot formation and somatic embryogenesis but not root formation in tissue culture. An in planta hormone response assay revealed that be1-3 seedlings showed normal response to cytokinin and auxin. The calli formed from be1-3 mutants were less plump than those of wild type hypocotyls. The BE1 gene is mainly expressed in the xylem pericycle of the hypocotyl and root and in dedifferentiated and differentiating calli. Expression levels of BE1 decreases gradually during shoot formation. Consistent with its role in carbohydrate metabolism, mutation of the BE1 gene dramatically reduces the content of glucose and fructose in seeds. Transcriptomic profiles showed 1,860 and 832 differentially expressed genes between the mutant and wild type during callus and shoot development, respectively. Most of them were related to metabolism, hormone signal transduction and stress response. These results indicate that the BE1 gene is involved in organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis by regulating carbohydrate metabolism. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Wang X.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Yang Z.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Zhang S.,Shanxi Agricultural University | Li H.,Shanxi Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Shengwu Gongcheng Xuebao/Chinese Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Most current research in the field of adventitious shoot formation is focused on the regulatory function of a single gene. However, a systematic transcriptomic analysis of the early adventitious shoot formation is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiling of the early adventitious shoot formation in Arabidopsis by RNA-seq high throughput sequencing technology, and identified 2 457 differentially expressed genes. Detailed categorization revealed that these genes were mainly involved in hormone homeostasis or signal transduction, callus and lateral root formation, shoot apical meristem development and photosynthesis. Further pathway enrichment analysis showed that genes involved in phenylalanine metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis were significantly enriched. Moreover, exogenous phenylalanine could repress adventitious shoot formation, indicating that phenylalanine metabolism and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis might be important for adventitious shoot formation. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Microbiology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Society for Microbiology.

PubMed | Key Laboratory of Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Enhancement on Loess Plateau, China West Normal University and Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2014

Maize (Zea mays L.) is among the crops with the greatest worldwide economic importance. Ear height is a very important trait that is considered necessary in maize and is related to morphology, lodging, and yield. To realize its genetic basis, an F9 recombinant inbred line population and a genetic map consisting of 101 simple sequence repeat markers were used to detect the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for ear height, and the result showed that one QTL on chromosome 1 was identified with a mapping interval of 5 cM to its linked marker Umc1358. The QTL from elite inbred line Mo17 could explain 9.55% of the phenotypic variance, and because of the additive effect, it could result in an ear height increase of 4.86 cm. This result was beneficial for understanding the genetic basis of ear height in maize.

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