Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest

Chengdu, China

Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest

Chengdu, China

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Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Rahman T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Song C.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Song C.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 9 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2017

The maize-soybean intercropping system has become increasingly popular in many areas of the world, particularly in China, due to its high productivity and the harvest of two different grains. While efforts have been made to maintain the yield of the taller maize crop, there is limited understanding of how the morphology, growth and yield of the lower soybean crop changes in response to the shading by maize. We therefore conducted a three-year field experiment from 2013 to 2015 to investigate the changes in light environment, growth of individual organs, biomass, and grain yield of soybean under two intercropping patterns (1M1S, one row of maize with one row of soybean; 2M2S, two rows of maize with two rows of soybean) as compared to monoculture. Our results showed that at soybean flowering stage, the R:FR ratio at the top of soybean canopy was reduced 17–21% more than the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) under intercropping compared to monoculture, with 15–19% more reduction under 1M1S than 2M2S. This led to increased internode lengths, plant height and specific leaf area (SLA), but reduced branching of soybean plants under intercropping. These morphological changes enabled the crop to intercept relatively more light and the shading also increased the light use efficiency (LUE) of soybean. However, these positive responses were not able to compensate the effect of reduced leaf area (due to smaller leaf size and less branching) and total light interception, leading to reduced biomass and grain. The reduction in grain yield was mainly caused by the reduced number of grains (particularly on the middle nodes) produced by the intercropped soybean plants, while the grain size remained unchanged. The data and results of this study may be used to develop and parameterize crop models for simulating development and growth of soybean crop in response to changes in the light environment under intercropping. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Wu H.-J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Deng J.-C.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Yang C.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Zhang J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | And 11 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2017

Metabolite profiling of isoflavones and anthocyanins in black soybean seeds (BSSs) collected from different geographical locations in Southwest China was performed. A more rapid and convenient method was established to identify and quantify twelve isoflavones and eight anthocyanins in BSSs by HPLC-MS analyses. The results indicated that β-glucoside (G-type) and malonylglucoside (M-type) derivatives, cyanidin-3-glucoside (CYL) and peonidin-3-glucoside (PEO) are the major compounds found predominantly in the isoflavones and anthocyanins of BSSs. Combined with geographical data and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), it was demonstrated that higher isoflavone contents were found in the samples grown in the high-longitude areas of Guizhou and Chongqing, while higher anthocyanin contents were found in the samples grown in the high-latitude areas of Chongqing and Sichuan. Geographical location affected the accumulation of secondary metabolites involved in the phenylpropane pathway, especially in the trade-off/balance between isoflavone and anthocyanin biosynthesis in BSSs. Overall, a high-latitude environment has beneficial effects on the metabolism of the phenylpropane pathway, and a high-longitude environment can promote isoflavone biosynthesis, while a low-longitude environment is favorable for anthocyanin biosynthesis in BSSs. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Qin W.-T.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Zhang J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Zhang J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wu H.-J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | And 3 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

In this present study, two soybean cultivars with different drought tolerance in serial number of JP-6 (high drought-tolerant species) and JP-16 (low drought-tolerant species) were researched. The HPLC and real-time PCR analyses were used to determine the isoflavone contents and relative expression levels of key genes, which encoded isoflavone synthesis relative enzymes in leaves and roots under different drought stress levels, respectively. The results indicated that the isoflavone contents in roots were significantly higher than that in leaves, whereas the relative expression of isoflavone synthetic enzyme related genes in leaves was significantly higher than that in roots. Analysis of isoflavone accumulation by comparing two different drought tolerance soybean cultivars found that the isoflavone accumulation in roots of JP-6 was greater than that in others. With increasing levels of the drought stress, there were significant differences in both isoflavone synthesis and accumulation between JP-6 and JP-16 soybean cultivars. In JP-6, the isoflavone accumulation in root and leaf increased after slight decreasing, while the opposite result was obtained in JP-16, in which the isoflavone accumulation in different parts were decreased after slight increasing. The expression of isoflavone synthesis relative enzyme genes presented a trend that decreased and then gradually increased with the increasing level of drought stress, except C4H, 4CL and IFS2 which were synthesis genes upstream of isoflavones in leaves of JP-6. Soybean isoflavones were mainly synthesized in leaves, little was synthesized in roots. The isoflavone synthesis and accumulation of low drought-tolerant species were scare, while those of high drought-resistant variety were relatively higher. The variety with high isoflavone accumulation in the root was more drought-resistant. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liu J.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Liu J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang C.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Zhang Q.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | And 6 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Yang F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang F.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Huang S.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Gao R.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2014

Maize-soybean intercropping is a common system in several countries. However, different spatial patterns of maize and soybean can directly affect the light environment of soybean growth under this system through the combined effects of the altered light quality and the reduced light quanta. This work aimed to investigate the differences in the light environment of the soybean canopy in terms of the red:far-red (R/FR) ratio and the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) as well as the different rates of soybean seedling growth under maize-soybean relay strip intercropping and soybean sole planting, to analyze the relationship between the morphological characteristics and the light environment, and to assess the relative contributions of the R/FR ratio and PAR transmittance to soybean seedling growth in intercropping conditions.Field experiments were performed in 2011-2013. The intercropping patterns involved the wide-narrow row planting of alternating maize and soybean. The light environment of the soybean canopy and the morphology of the soybean seedlings were estimated in the relay strip intercropping system by changing the distances of the maize and soybean rows as well as the number of maize vs. soybean rows per strip. These parameters of the intercropping system were compared with those of the soybean monocultures. Furthermore, the relationship between the light environment of the soybean canopy and its morphological parameters were analyzed using correlation analysis.Incident light in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems was partly reflected and absorbed by maize leaves. Thus, the spectral irradiance, R/FR ratio, and PAR of the soybean canopy were decreased with maize-soybean intercropping as compared to soybean monocropping. Simultaneously, the stem diameter, root length, aboveground biomass, total root biomass, and root-shoot ratio of relay intercropped soybean were reduced significantly, while its seedling height was increased. The correlation relationship between morphological parameters of soybean and the light environment (R/FR ratio and PAR transmittance) in different planting pattern were significant ( P<. 0.05). Compared to PAR transmittance, the R/FR ratio of the relay intercropped soybean canopy was strongly correlated with morphological parameters of soybean seedling ( P<. 0.01), and the correlation coefficients were higher than 0.88. The response of soybean seedlings to shading by maize was not solely influenced by the PAR or the R/FR ratio. It may be the summed effects of both parameters under relay strip intercropping systems. Therefore, the results reveal the physiological response mechanisms of soybean seedlings to changes in the quality and amount of light, which may support the building three-dimensional growth model of the responses of plant to light quantity and quality, and guide the identification of suitable population planting patterns in the intercropping system in the future. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Yang F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Liao D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lu F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2015

Planting geometries directly affect crop yields in intercropping systems. Two different field experiments were conducted in 2012-2013 to analyze how different planting geometries in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] relay strip intercropping systems at 2:2 maize-to-soybean affect yields. Maize plants were planted in narrow-row planting patterns, whereas soybean was planted in wide rows. The effects of bandwidth, row spacing, plant spacing, and the distance between maize and soybean rows on crop yields were studied. Total intercrop yields were higher than those of sole crop maize and soybean, and the land equivalent ratios of the intercropping systems were above 1.3. The yield of the intercropped maize increased with bandwidth reduction at the same plant density, and similar results were found with increased maize narrow-row spacing at the same bandwidth. Plant spacing had a dominant function when the bandwidth of the intercropped soybean was >200 cm. By contrast, the distance between maize and soybean rows had a dominant function when bandwidth was <200 cm. The optimum bandwidth and maize narrow-row spacing in maize-soybean relay intercropping systems were 200 and 40 cm, respectively. These results suggest that the appropriate reduction in the spacing of the narrow maize rows and increase in the distance between maize and soybean rows could be used to achieve high yields in maize-soybean intercropping. © 2015 by the American Society of Agronomy, 5585 Guilford Road, Madison, WI 53711. All rights reserved.


Yong T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yong T.,Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest | Liu X.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yang F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Plant Production Science | Year: 2015

Intercropping and relay intercropping systems, which significantly improve land use efficiency, are used worldwide to increase crops yield. The wheat-maize-soybean relay intercropping system has been widely employed by famers in Southwestern China for years, but the detailed mechanisms through which the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency reach the high level in this system remain unclear. In the present study, two separate pot experiments were performed by 15N isotope dilution (ID) labeling and direct 15N foliar feeding (FF) assays, and a solid barrier was employed to prevent the roots intergrowth and N movement among crops in the first experiment, using no barrier as the control. The results showed that, under the no-barrier condition, the grain yields, 15N uptake and 15N recovery efficiency of wheat and maize were significantly increased, but those measures in soybean were decreased compared to the solid barrier condition. Furthermore, bi-directional N transfer was detected during the co-growing stage of crops, the amount (Ntransfer) and percentage (%NT) of 15N transferred varied significantly with the fertilizer-N rate, and the maximum reached at 150 – 300 kg N ha–1 level. The Ntransfer from maize to wheat was 16.1% – 163.0% higher than that from wheat to maize; the Ntransfer from soybean to maize was 1.7 – 6.0 times higher than those from maize to soybean, while the %NT from soybean to maize were 6.7 – 22.2 times higher than those from maize to soybean. Conclusively, this study revealed that the interaction of the roots among crops significantly increased the uptake efficiency and recovery efficiency, and further, the positive N competition and bi-directional N transfer of each crops were the main contributors to improve the N use efficiency in the wheat-maize-soybean relay intercropping system. © 2015, Crop Science Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest and Sichuan Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2016

The profiles of isoflavone and fatty acids constitute important quality traits in soybean seeds, for making soy-based functional food products, due to their important contributions to the flavor and nutritional value of these products. In general, the composition of these constituents in raw soybeans is affected by cultivation factors, such as sunlight; however, the relationship of the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles with cultivation factors is not well understood. This study evaluated the isoflavone and fatty acid profiles in soybeans grown under a maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system with different row spacings, and with changes in the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) transmittance. The effects of PAR on the isoflavone and fatty acid contents were found to be quadratic. Appropriate intercropping shading may reduce the bitterness of soybeans caused by soy aglycone and could improve their fatty acid composition.


PubMed | Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest and Sichuan Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2017

The effects of storage duration on the seed germination and metabolite profiling of soybean seeds with five different coloured coats were studied. Their germination, constituents and transcript expressions of isoflavones and free fatty acids (FFAs) were compared using chromatographic metabolomic profiling and transcriptome sequencing. The seed water content was characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Results showed that dark-coloured seeds were less inactivated than light-coloured seeds. The aglycone and -glucoside concentrations of upstream constituents increased significantly, whereas the acetylglucosides and malonylglucosides of downstream constituents decreased with an increase in the storage period. FFAs increased considerably in the soybean seeds as a result of storage. These results indicate that dark-coloured soybean seeds have better storability than light-coloured seeds, and seed water content plays a role in seed inactivation. It was concluded that there are certain metabolic regularities that are associated with different coloured seed coats of soybeans under storage conditions.


PubMed | Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

Seedpods are the outermost barrier of legume plants encountered by pests and pathogens, but research on this tissue, especially regarding their chemical constituents, is limited. In the present study, a mildew-index-model-based cluster analysis was used to evaluate and identify groups of soybean genotypes with different organ-specific resistance against field mold. The constituents of soybean pods, including proteins, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and isoflavones, were analyzed. Linear regression and correlation analyses were also conducted between these main pod constituents and the organ-specific mildew indexes of seed (MIS) and pod (MIP). With increases in the contents of infection constituents, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fatty acids, the MIP increased and the MIS decreased. The MIS decreased with increases in the contents of glycitein (GLE)-type isoflavonoids, which act as antibiotic constituents. Although the infection constituents in the soybean pods caused pod mildew, they also helped mitigate the corresponding seed mildew to a certain extent.

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