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Zhou W.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco Physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | Zhou W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lv T.-F.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco Physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | Lv T.-F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Scientific World Journal | Year: 2014

Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between wetting and drying under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; such rotations affect the soil C and N cycles, make the chemical speciation and biological effectiveness of soil nutrient elements varied with seasons, increase the diversity of soil organisms, and make the soil physical properties more difficult to analyze. Consequently, maintaining or improving soil quality at a desirable level has become a complicated issue. Therefore, fully understanding the soil characteristics of paddy-upland rotation is necessary for the sustainable development of the system. In this paper, we offer helpful insight into the effect of rice-upland combinations on the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, which could provide guidance for reasonable cultivation management measures and contribute to the improvement of soil quality and crop yield. © 2014 Wei Zhou et al.


Zhou W.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | Zhou W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lyu T.-F.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | Lyu T.-F.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2016

Unreasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer to cropland decreases nitrogen use efficiency of crop. A large amount of nitrogen loss to environment through runoff, leaching, ammonia volatilization, nitrification-denitrification, etc., causes water and atmospheric pollution, poses serious environmental problems and threatens human health. The type of nitrogen fertilizer and its application rate, time, and method have significant effects on nitrogen loss. The primary reason for nitrogen loss is attributed to the supersaturated soil nitrogen concentration. Making full use of environmental nitrogen sources, reducing the application rate of chemical nitrogen fertilizers, applying deep placement fertilizing method, and applying organic fertilizers with chemical nitrogen fertilizers, are effective practices for reducing nitrogen loss and improving nitrogen use efficiency. It is suggested that developing new high efficiency nitrogen fertilizers, enhancing nitrogen management, and strengthening the monitoring and use of environmental nitrogen sources are the powerful tools to decrease nitrogen application rate and increase efficiency of cropland. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.


Zhou W.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | Zhou W.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lv T.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Lv T.,Key Laboratory of Crop Eco physiology and Farming System in Southwest China | And 8 more authors.
Agronomy Journal | Year: 2016

On the basis of research and practical production experience of many years, regular nitrogen fertilizer application (RFA) was used to improve rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield and increase nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE). Two field experiments (manually transplanted rice with three indica hybrid rice cultivars and four N treatments, mechanically transplanted rice with eight N applications) were conducted in 2011 and 2012, to investigate the effects of RFA on rice yield and NUE. The results showed that RFA increased the total amount of N uptake in the plants and improved NUE when compared with the farmers’ nitrogen fertilizer practices (FFP). The average increment in agronomy efficiency (AE), recovery efficiency (RE), and partial factor productivity for applied nitrogen (PFP) were 12.16, 10.91, and 6.01% for the mechanically transplanted rice and 30.81, 65.57, 6.18% for the manually transplanted rice. The main reason for the increase was the improvement in N concentration of the plant organs. For RFA, the grains per panicle was 12.15 and 7.59% higher than that of FFP, which was the main reason for the 6.19 and 3.33% increase in the yield of the manually and mechanically transplanted rice, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first RFA strategy to be applied, and the jointing stage and 15 to 20 d after the jointing stage are the key periods for increasing the total amount of N uptake and grain yield; this strategy should be widely applied for indica hybrid rice production. © 2016 by the American Society of Agronomy

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