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Chen J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen J.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Chen J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province | Zhang H.-Q.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2013

Irrigation with cyanobacterial-blooming water containing microcystin-LR (MC-LR) poses threat to the growth of agricultural plants. Large amounts of rice (. Oryza sativa) field in the middle part of China has been irrigating with cyanobacterial-blooming water. Nevertheless, the mechanism of MC-LR-induced phytotoxicity in the root of monocot rice remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that MC-LR stress significantly inhibits the growth of rice root by impacting the morphogenesis rice crown root. MC-LR treatment results in the decrease in IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) concentration as well as the expression of CRL1 and WOX11 in rice roots. The application of NAA (1-naphthylacetic acid), an IAA homologue, is able to attenuate the inhibitory effect of MC-LR on rice root development. MC-LR treatment significantly inhibits OsNia1-dependent NO generation in rice roots. The application of NO donor SNP (sodium nitroprusside) is able to partially reverse the inhibitory effects of MC-LR on the growth of rice root and the expression of CRL1 and WOX11 by enhancing endogenous NO level in rice roots. The application of NO scavenger cPTIO [2-(4-carboxy-2-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylinidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide] eliminates the effects of SNP. Treatment with NAA stimulates the generation of endogenous NO in MC-LR-treated rice roots. Treatment with NO scavenger cPTIO abolishes the ameliorated effect of NAA on MC-LR-induced growth inhibition of rice root. Treatment with SNP enhanced IAA concentration in MC-LR-treated rice roots. Altogether, our data suggest that NO acts both downstream and upstream of auxin in regulating rice root morphogenesis under MC-LR stress. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Zhao Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Liang Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liang Y.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Liu Y.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 16 more authors.
Analytical Biochemistry | Year: 2016

An antibody to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), the conserved chemical region of pyrethroids, was developed using a domain antibody (DAB) library to enable pyrethroid detection in agricultural products. The DAB library, constructed without animal immunization and based on a human VH framework, displayed repertoires on filamentous bacteriophage. After four rounds of panning, we obtained five domain antibodies that are capable of binding to PBA. Antibody A3 has strong identification capability to cypermethrin, β-cypermethrin, and fenvalerate. The antibody A3 was used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The IC50 values were 2.586, 1.814, and 2.251 μg/ml for cypermethrin, β-cypermethrin, and fenvalerate, respectively. The assay shows weak competition with flucythrinate but shows no competition with fenpropathrin, deltamethrin, and permethrin. The developed ELISA process was successfully applied to fortified Chinese cabbage samples, with the recoveries of cypermethrin, β-cypermethrin, and fenvalerate ranging from 84.4 to 112.3%. We developed an immunoassay to detect pyrethroids depending on the domain antibody library, which overcomes the limitation of requiring protein antigen to immunize animals raising antibody. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Gao T.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Zhou H.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Molecules | Year: 2016

Thymol is a natural plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmaceutical and food preservation applications. However, the antifungal mechanism for thymol against phytopathogens remains unclear. In this study, we identified the antifungal action of thymol against Fusarium graminearum, an economically important phytopathogen showing severe resistance to traditional chemical fungicides. The sensitivity of thymol on different F. graminearum isolates was screened. The hyphal growth, as well as conidial production and germination, were quantified under thymol treatment. Histochemical, microscopic, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate thymol-induced cell membrane damage. The average EC50 value of thymol for 59 F. graminearum isolates was 26.3 μg·mL-1. Thymol strongly inhibited conidial production and hyphal growth. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was indicated by propidium iodide (PI) staining, morphological observation, relative conductivity, and glycerol measurement. Thymol induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and a remarkable decrease in ergosterol content. Taken together, thymol showed potential antifungal activity against F. graminearum due to the cell membrane damage originating from lipid peroxidation and the disturbance of ergosterol biosynthesis. These results not only shed new light on the antifungal mechanism of thymol, but also imply a promising alternative for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease caused by F. graminearum. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI. Source


Qiu J.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province | Qiu J.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Qiu J.,Key Laboratory of Agro product Safety Risk Evaluation | Qiu J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2014

Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) are important pathogens on wheat, maize, barley, and rice in China. Harvested grains are often contaminated by mycotoxins, such as the trichothecene nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON) and the estrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN), which is a big threat to humans and animals. In this study, 97 isolates were collected from maize, wheat, and rice in Jiangsu and Anhui provinces in 2013 and characterized by species- and chemotype-specific PCR. F. graminearum sensu stricto (s. str.) was predominant on maize, while most of the isolates collected from rice and wheat were identified as F. asiaticum. Fusarium isolates from three hosts varied in trichothecene chemotypes. The 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON) chemotype predominated on wheat and rice population, while 15ADON was prevailing in the remaining isolates. Sequence analysis of the translation elongation factor 1α and trichodiene synthase indicated the accuracy of the above conclusion. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis suggested four groups with strong correlation with species, chemotype, and host. These isolates were also evaluated for their sensitivity to carbendazim and mycotoxins production. The maize population was less sensitive than the other two. The DON levels were similar in three populations, while those isolates on maize produced more ZEN. More DON was produced in carbendazim resistant strains than sensitive ones, but it seemed that carbendazim resistance had no effect on ZEN production in wheat culture. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source


Gao T.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Food Quality and Safety of Jiangsu Province State Key Laboratory Breeding Base | Gao T.,Key Laboratory of Control Technology and Standard for Agro product Safety and Quality | Chen J.,Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is an important mitochondrial enzyme that blocks the production of acetyl-CoA by selectively inhibiting the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) through phosphorylation. PDK is an effectively therapeutic target in cancer cells, but the physiological roles of PDK in phytopathogens are largely unknown. To address these gaps, a PDK gene (FgPDK1) was isolated from Fusarium graminearum that is an economically important pathogen infecting cereals. The deletion of FgPDK1 in F. graminearum resulted in the increase in PDH activity, coinciding with several phenotypic defects, such as growth retardation, failure in perithecia and conidia production, and increase in pigment formation. The ΔFgPDK1 mutants showed enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress and cell membrane-damaging agent. Physiological detection indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and plasma membrane damage (indicated by PI staining, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage) occurred in ΔFgPDK1 mutants. The deletion of FgPDK1 also prohibited the production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and pathogenicity of F. graminearum, which may resulted from the decrease in the expression of Tri6. Taken together, this study firstly identified the vital roles of FgPDK1 in the development of phytopathogen F. graminearum, which may provide a potentially novel clue for target-directed development of agricultural fungicides. © 2016 Gao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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