Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology

Shanghai, China

Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology

Shanghai, China
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Su Y.,Donghua University | Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2016

Steam burns severely threaten the life of firefighters in the course of their fire-ground activities. The aim of this paper was to characterize thermal protective performance of flame-retardant fabrics exposed to hot steam and low-level thermal radiation. An improved testing apparatus based on ASTM F2731-11 was developed in order to simulate the routine fire-ground conditions by controlling steam pressure, flow rate and temperature of steam box. The thermal protective performance of single-layer and multi-layer fabric system with/without an air gap was studied based on the calibrated tester. It was indicated that the new testing apparatus effectively evaluated thermal properties of fabric in hot steam and thermal radiation. Hot steam significantly exacerbated the skin burn injuries while the condensed water on the skin's surface contributed to cool down the skin tissues during the cooling. Also, the absorbed thermal energy during the exposure and the cooling was mainly determined by the fabric's configuration, the air gap size, the exposure time and the existence of hot steam. The research provides a effective method to characterize the thermal protection of fabric in complex conditions, which will help in optimization of thermal protection performance of clothing and reduction of steam burn. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Su Y.,Donghua University | He J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2016

A finite difference model was introduced to simulate the transmitted and stored energy in firefighters' protective clothing exposed to low-level thermal radiation. The model domain consists of a three-layer fire-resistant fabric system (outer shell, moisture barrier, and thermal liner), the human skin, and the air gap between clothing and the skin. The model accounted for the relationship between the transmitted heat during the exposure and the discharged heat during the cooling-down period. The numerical model predictions were compared with experimental data. Additionally, the parameters that affect the transmitted and stored energy of protective clothing were investigated. The results demonstrate that for the typical multilayer firefighter protective clothing, the transmitted heat during exposure and the discharged heat after exposure totally determine the skin burn under low-level heat exposure, especially for third-degree skin burns. The findings obtained in this study can be used to engineer fabric systems that provide better protection for the stored thermal burn. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Lu Y.,Donghua University | Song G.,University of Alberta | Zeng H.,University of Alberta | Zhang L.,University of Alberta | And 2 more authors.
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2014

Hot liquid hazards present in work environments are well known to be a considerable risk in workplace safety for numerous industries. In this work, the effects of different liquids and temperatures on penetration performance of fabrics were investigated, and the influence of impingement angle on protective performance of liquid penetration was also studied. Several kinds of fabrics for protective clothing were used to characterize the penetration behaviors of protective materials. The results showed the liquid temperature had a significant impact on the stored and penetrated amount of liquids. Different liquids can lead to distinct damage to fabrics. The impingement angle affects liquid transfer (storage and penetration) through the fabric. The addition of a thermal liner or moisture barrier can sharply decrease the penetration. The results provide new insights into the development of functional garments/materials and better methods for evaluating the performance of these materials under hazardous work environments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology | Lu Y.,Donghua University | Li X.,Donghua University
Textile Research Journal | Year: 2012

Relative humidity (RH) and air gap size are two characteristic indices of clothing microclimate. The current thermal protective performance (TPP) tests cannot evaluate protective performance of fabrics under a microclimate with high temperature and humidity. In this study, a newly modified TPP test apparatus was applied to investigate the effect of RH in a microclimate on heat transfer of fabrics exposed to flash fires. Air gap heights from 0 to 24 mm with increments of 3 mm were employed. Three microclimates with different RH were preconditioned respectively. The results indicate that the RH in a microclimate significantly improves thermal protection of fabric with various air gaps. Under 35% RH, the TPP obviously increases with the air gap up to 15 mm and then the increment becomes a little lower; under humidified conditions (65% or 95% RH), it becomes higher substantially with air gap height increasing until 12 mm, subsequently it decreases or increases alternatively if the size keeps increasing. The positive effect of air gap with small size on TPP of fabrics is enhanced due to the increase of the vapor in the air; however, the positive effect of air gap with large size is interfered by the RH. It is indicated that around 12-15 mm was a critical air gap size under 35% RH, while about 12 mm was a key air gap size for a damp microclimate with 65% or 95% RH. © The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.


He J.C.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The study is to weave the yarns of silver-plated fiber and photocatalyst fiber together to make 18 kinds of fabrics with different woven proportions and structures, and conduct antibacterial experiments on the fabrics with agar diffusion plate method. The experimental results show that for the strains of E.coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with the increasing woven proportion of silver-plated fiber and photocatalyst fiber, the width of inhibition zone grows; and in the condition of the same woven proportion of the two fibers, the plain weave fabric has the best antibacterial activity. And overall considering the antibacterial activity, cost and safety of the fabric, the plain weave fabric with 12.5% distribution ratio of silver-plated fiber is the optimal antibacterial fabric among the 18 samples. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology | Zhang Z.,Donghua University | Zhang Z.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology | Wang Y.,Donghua University
Journal of the Textile Institute | Year: 2013

The objective of the study is to establish a quantitative relationship between air gap sizes and clothing thermal performance. Using a three-dimensional human body scanner, the thicknesses and volumes of air gaps of 35 experimental shirts were measured. Relationships between the thermal insulations of clothing, measured on a thermal manikin, and air gap volumes were examined by regression analysis. Also, the regression model between clothing surface temperatures, measured by an infrared thermal camera, and air gap thicknesses was established. The results proved that the thermal insulation of experimental shirts increased with air gap sizes but began to decrease as a result of natural convection when the air gap thickness was higher than 1 cm or the air gap volume was greater than 6000 cm3. The 3D human body scanner can accurately measure air gaps under clothing, but it is expensive and is not available everywhere. A substitute method is to build a mathematical model for predicting air gap sizes. In this paper, regression models were established to estimate volumes and thicknesses of air gaps when the ease allowances of chest circumference and fabric properties were known. This study can be used to predict the thermal performance of clothing at the product's design stage. © 2013 The Textile Institute.


Lu Y.,Donghua University | Lu Y.,University of Alberta | Song G.,University of Alberta | Ackerman M.Y.,University of Alberta | And 3 more authors.
Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science | Year: 2013

A hot liquid splash tester and a protocol were developed to investigate the thermal protective performance and impact penetration performance of fabrics used in protective clothing. The instrument developed could be used to characterize penetration resistance and thermal protection against hot liquid splash. Different liquids were employed to explore the effect of liquid properties on penetration performance and thermal protection. The correlation between penetration and thermal protection was discussed. The results showed that liquid viscosity and fabric surface property determined the impact penetration. Impermeable fabrics showed better protection than permeable fabrics. Increasing penetration resistance improved thermal protection of a permeable fabric. Liquid thermal diffusivity, mass transfer rate and total amount affected heat transfer through the fabric to skin simulant. The findings will provide technical data to improve protective material performance and modify test standard. © 2012.


Lu Y.,Donghua University | Lu Y.,University of Alberta | Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Fire Sciences | Year: 2013

The distribution of air gaps and moisture in thermal protective clothing has a large and complicated impact on thermal protective performance. The effect of air gap size on the thermal protective performance of flame-resistant fabrics with different moisture content was investigated under intense exposures. The air gap sizes from 0 to 24 mm were analyzed using an air gap height regulation device. Fabrics with different moisture content were prepared, and the thermal protective performance was evaluated. The results showed that the effect of air gaps was influenced by the amount of moisture added to the fabric. It was also determined that the moisture in the fabric significantly increased the thermal protective performance (P < 0.05). The positive effect of moisture was enhanced by the amount of moisture if the air gap size was less than 12 mm; the effect of moisture varied for air gaps larger than 12 mm. The mechanisms associated with heat and mass transfer in moist fabric were discussed. The results suggest that protective clothing design should consider the combined effects of air gap and moisture. Based on the current study, air gaps of 9-12 mm seem to achieve maximum thermal protection. © The Author(s) 2012.


Lu Y.,Soochow University of China | Song G.,University of Alberta | Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology
Applied Ergonomics | Year: 2014

The garment fit played an important role in protective performance, comfort and mobility. The purpose of this study is to quantify the air gap to quantitatively characterize a three-dimensional (3-D) garment fit using a 3-D body scanning technique. A method for processing of scanned data was developed to investigate the air gap size and distribution between the clothing and human body. The mesh model formed from nude and clothed body was aligned, superimposed and sectioned using Rapidform software. The air gap size and distribution over the body surface were analyzed. The total air volume was also calculated. The effects of fabric properties and garment size on air gap distribution were explored. The results indicated that average air gap of the fit clothing was around 25-30 mm and the overall air gap distribution was similar. The air gap was unevenly distributed over the body and it was strongly associated with the body parts, fabric properties and garment size. The research will help understand the overall clothing fit and its association with protection, thermal and movement comfort, and provide guidelines for clothing engineers to improve thermal performance and reduce physiological burden. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society.


Lu Y.,Donghua University | Lu Y.,University of Alberta | Song G.,University of Alberta | Li J.,Donghua University | Li J.,Key Laboratory of Clothing Design and Technology
Annals of Occupational Hygiene | Year: 2013

Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments present a common risk in workplace safety in numerous industries. In this study, a newly developed instrumented manikin system was used to assess the protective performance provided by protective clothing against hot liquid splash. The skin burn injury and its distribution for the selected clothing system were predicted and the effects of clothing design features (fabric properties and garment size) on protective performance were investigated. The air gap size and distribution existing between protective clothing and human skin were characterized using 3D body scanning, and their relation to skin burn injury was identified. The mechanism associated with heat and mass transfer under exposure to hot liquid splashes was discussed. The findings provided technical bases to improve the performance of protective clothing. For protective clothing design, minimizing mass transfer through clothing system is very important to provide high performance. Keeping the air gap between the garment and the human body is an essential approach to improve thermal performance. This can be achieved by proper design in size and fit, or applying functional textile materials. © 2013 The Author.

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