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Lihua L.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Lihua L.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | Jianhui W.,Second Street | Jialin Y.,Second Street | And 6 more authors.
Polish Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2013

The Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial pathogen is reputed for its resistance to multiple antibiotics, and this property is strongly associated with the development of biofilms. Bacterial biofilms form by aggregation of microorganisms on a solid surface and secretion of an extracellular polysaccharide substances that acts as a physical protection barrier for the encased bacteria. In addition, the P. aeruginosa quorum-sensing system contributes to antibiotic resistance by regulating the expression of several virulence factors, including exotoxin A, elastase, pyoverdin and rhamnolipid. The organosulfur compound allicin, derived from garlic, has been shown to inhibit both surface-adherence of bacteria and production of virulence factors. In this study, the effects of allicin on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and the production of quorum-sensing controlled virulence factors were investigated. The results demonstrated that allicin could inhibit early bacterial adhesion, reduce EPS secretion, and down-regulate virulence factors' production. Collectively, these findings suggest the potential of allicin as a therapeutic agent for controlling P. aeruginosa biofilm.


Dang H.,Chongqing Medical University | Dang H.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Wang S.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Wang S.,Women and Children Health Institute | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Medicine Reports | Year: 2012

The aim of the present study was to observe the expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Ptc signaling molecules in the lungs of newborn rats exposed to prolonged hyperoxia, and to explore the role of the SHH signaling pathway in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rat pups were placed in chambers containing room air or oxygen above 95% for 14 days following birth. The rats were sacrificed after 3, 7 or 14 days and their lungs were removed. Sections were fixed and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Shh and Ptc1 were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. The total RNA and protein were also extracted from lung tissue; real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis were utilized to assess the mRNA and protein expression of Shh and Ptc1. H&E staining demonstrated significant histomorphological changes in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3, 7 and 14 days of age. The results of the immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression of Shh was significantly higher in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3, 7 and 14 days, while Ptc1 was significantly elevated at 7 and 14 days. Exposure of the neonatal rat lung to prolonged hyperoxia resulted in acute lung injury and histomorphological changes. Shh and Ptc1 were upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the course of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. The SHH signal pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced lung injury. This is the first evidence that in vivo hyperoxia induces activation of the SHH signal transduction pathway in newborn lung.


Hu Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | Hu Y.,Cooperation Technology | And 10 more authors.
Child's Nervous System | Year: 2012

Objective The expression of 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1, 2-oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits in the hippocampus of naive immature and adult rats (IRs, ARs) was investigated after status convulsion (SC). Methods Seizures were induced in IRs and ARs with intraperitonealinjections of lithium and pilocarpine. Rats were killed at four time points (3 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) after SC. The proportion of apoptotic cells was quantified by Annexin VFITC apoptosis detection. The location and type of apoptotic cells were assessed by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling staining. Immunoblotting techniques were used to demonstrate changes in AMPAR subunit expression. Results Severe seizures induced neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus. The proportion of apoptotic cells in IRs was consistently lower than that in ARs after SC. The expressions of four AMPAR subunits in IRs were consistently lower than those in ARs before and after SC. SC for 1 h inhibited the expression of glutamate receptors (GluR1-4) in the hippocampus of IRs and ARs and altered the subunit composition of AMPARs. GluR2 was the predominant AMPAR subunit in the hippocampus of normal ARs, while the GluR2/3 subunits were predominantly expressed 7 days after SC. GluR3/4 subunits were mainly expressed in the hippocampus of normal IRs, which had the lowest levels of GluR2. Conclusions Immature brain was more resistant to seizureinduced neural damage. The time course of reduction and recovery differed for each subunit and was dependent on developmental stage. The increased expression of GluR2 could confer early but transient protection in the immature brain after SC. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Hu J.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Hu J.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | Hu J.,Chongqing Medical University | Hu J.,Fujian Medical University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Neurochemistry | Year: 2014

Creatine kinase has been utilized as a diagnostic marker for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), but it correlates less well with the DMD pathological progression. In this study, we hypothesized that muscle-specific microRNAs (miR-1, -133, and -206) in serum may be useful for monitoring the DMD pathological progression, and explored the possibility of these miRNAs as potential non-invasive biomarkers for the disease. By using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in a randomized and controlled trial, we detected that miR-1, -133, and -206 were significantly over-expressed in the serum of 39 children with DMD (up to 3.20 ± 1.20, 2-ΔΔCt): almost 2- to 4-fold enriched in comparison to samples from the healthy controls (less than 1.15 ± 0.34, 2 -ΔΔCt). To determine whether these miRNAs were related to the clinical features of children with DMD, we analyzed the associations compared to creatine kinase. There were very good inverse correlations between the levels of these miRNAs, especially miR-206, and functional performances: high levels corresponded to low muscle strength, muscle function, and quality of life. Moreover, by receiver operating characteristic curves analyses, we revealed that these miRNAs, especially miR-206, were able to discriminate DMD from controls. Thus, miR-206 and other muscle-specific miRNAs in serum are useful for monitoring the DMD pathological progression, and hence as potential non-invasive biomarkers for the disease. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.


Peng C.,Chongqing Medical University | Peng C.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Peng C.,Cooperation Technology | Zhu J.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear. Methods and Results: Pregnant mice were gavaged with ethanol or saline. Fetal mouse hearts were collected for analysis. The results of ethanol fed groups showed that global HAT activity was unusually high in the hearts of fetal mice while global HDAC activity remained unchanged. Binding of P300, CBP, PCAF, SRC1, but not GCN5, were increased on the Gata4 promoter relative to the saline treated group. Increased acetylation of H3K9 and increased mRNA expression of Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT were observed in these hearts. Treatment with the pan-histone acetylase inhibitor, anacardic acid, reduced the binding of P300, PCAF to the Gata4 promoter and reversed H3K9 hyperacetylation in the presence of ethanol. Interestingly, anacardic acid attenuated over-expression of Gata4, α-MHC and cTnT in fetal mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Conclusions: Our results suggest that P300 and PCAF may be critical regulatory factors that mediate Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol exposure. Alternatively, P300, PCAF and Gata4 may coordinate over-expression of cardiac downstream genes in mouse hearts exposed to ethanol. Anacardic acid may thus protect against ethanol-induced Gata4, α-MHC, cTnT over-expression by inhibiting the binding of P300 and PCAF to the promoter region of these genes. © 2014 Peng et al.


Hu Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Hu Y.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | Hu Y.,Cooperation Technology | And 8 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2015

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of nervous system damage caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in pediatric patients. Study Design: Clinical data and outcomes were retrospectively analyzed for 134 cases of laboratory confirmed pediatric EV71 infection admitted to the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University from January to December 2013. Results: EV71 infection was significantly more common in patients 1-4 years of age, in males and during the months of April-July. Fifty-six cases complicated by hand, foot and mouth disease were diagnosed. Fever was the most common symptom (128 of 134 patients) and lasted on average 5.3 ± 2.1 days. The most common neurologic complication was aseptic meningitis (n = 74), followed by brain stem encephalitis (n = 24), acute flaccid paralysis (AFP; n = 20), acute parencephalitis (n = 12) and encephalomyelitis (n = 4). Each was characterized by a unique profile of clinical symptoms. Damage to the pons and medulla oblongata was apparent in 28 brain magnetic resonance images. Lesions associated with AFP were concentrated in the cervical spinal cord and thoracic 8. The anterior root of the spinal anterior horn was a specific lesion. Fourteen of the AFP patients had unilateral or bilateral femoral nerve involvement. None of the patients died, and in 132 of 134 patients, follow-up visits showed that their physical and neuropsychologic abilities had returned to normal. Conclusions: Most children infected with EV71 have a good prognosis if they are diagnosed early and receive proper supportive treatment. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.


Peng W.,309th Hospital of PLA | Huang X.,309th Hospital of PLA | Yang D.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Yang D.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing | Yang D.,Chongqing Medical University
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2014

An increasing number of T-cell epitopes derived from various tumor-associated antigens have been reported, and they proved to play significant roles for tumor rejection both in vivo and in vitro. Over 85% of Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs) express tumor-specific chimeric protein EWS/FLI-1, making it an attractive target for therapeutic cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Here, we identified a novel peptide epitope derived from the EWS/FLI-1 protein and demonstrated that effectors induced by the peptide could specifically secrete IFN-γ and lyse the tumor cell line of EWS/FLI-1-positive and HLA-matched cells. In addition, mice treated with dendritic cells pulsed with the EWS/FLI-1 epitope were able to reject a lethal tumor inoculation of the Ewing's sarcoma A673 cells. Therefore, these data provide evidence for the use of the EWS/FLI-l peptide epitope in T cell-based immunotherapeutic concepts against Ewing's sarcoma cell in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Gong M.,Chongqing Medical University | Gong M.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Bi Y.,Chongqing Medical University | Bi Y.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | And 16 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Science | Year: 2011

Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be induced to differentiate into neuronal cells under appropriate cellular conditions and transplanted in brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases animal models for neuroregeneration studies. In contrast to the embryonic stem cells (ESCs), MSCs are easily subject to aging and senescence because of their finite ability of self-renewal. MSCs senescence seriously affected theirs application prospects as a promising tool for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. In the present study, we established a reversible immortalized mesenchymal stem cells (IMSCs) line by using SSR#69 retrovirus expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T) antigen as an alternative to primary MSCs. Methods. The retroviral vector SSR#69 expressing simian virus 40 large T (SV40T) antigen was used to construct IMSCs. IMSCs were identified by flow cytometry to detect cell surface makers. To investigate proliferation and differentiation potential of IMSCs, cell growth curve determination and mesodermal trilineage differentiation tests were performed. Neuronal differentiation characteristics of IMSCs were detected in vitro. Before IMSCs transplantation, we excluded its tumorigenicity in nude mice firstly. The Morris water maze tests and shuttle box tests were performed five weeks after HIBD models received cells transplantation therapy. Results: In this study, reversible IMSCs were constructed successfully and had the similar morphology and cell surface makers as primary MSCs. IMSCs possessed better ability of proliferation and anti-senescence compared with primary MSCs, while maintained multilineage differentiation capacity. Neural-like cells derived from IMSCs had similar expressions of neural-specific genes, protein expression patterns and resting membrane potential (RMP) compared with their counterparts derived from primary MSCs. There was no bump formation in nude mice subcutaneously injected with IMSCs. IMSCs played same role as primary MSCs to improve learning ability and spatial memory of HIBD rats. Conclusions: IMSCs not only retain their features of primary MSCs but also possess the ability of high proliferation and anti-senescence. IMSCs can definitely be induced to differentiate into neuronal cells in vitro and take the place of primary MSCs for cell transplantation therapy without tumorigenesis in vivo. The stable cell line is particularly useful and valuable as an alternative to MSCs in neuronal differentiation and neuroregeneration associated studies. © 2011 Gong et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Xu L.-J.,Chongqing Medical University | Xu L.-J.,Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders | Xu L.-J.,Key Laboratory of Pediatrics in Chongqing CSTC2009CA5002 | Xu L.-J.,Cooperation Technology | And 7 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causative agents of viral encephalitis in East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australia. However, no clinical JEV strain has yet been isolated from JE patients in Chongqing, China. In this study, we report the genomic analysis of a new JEV strain, CQ11-66, isolated from a pediatric patient in Chongqing, China. Findings. Virus isolation was carried out in BHK-21 cells. Nested PCR was used to detect and isolate the JEV strain, and computer analysis of phylogenetic relationships, nucleic acid homology studies and deduction of the amino acid sequence were conducted using ClustalX (1.8) and Mega5 software. The JEV strain CQ11-66 was isolated from patient cerebrospinal fluid. The sequenced genome of CQ11-66 was 10,863 nucleotides in length, whereas other strains, such as SX09S-01, contain 10,965 nucleotides. Sequence comparison of the CQ11-66 polyprotein open reading frame (ORF) with those of 21 other JEV strains revealed that the nucleotide sequence divergence ranged from 1.68% to 18.46%. Sequence analysis of the full-length CQ11-66 E gene sequence with those of 30 other JEV isolates also identified nucleotide divergence, ranging from 1.69% to 18.74%. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the CQ11-66 strain belonged to genotype III. Conclusions: JEV genotype III still circulates in Chongqing and it is therefore important for active surveillance of JEV genotype III to be conducted in the pediatric population. © 2013 Xu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Fujian Medical University and Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Muscle & nerve | Year: 2016

In this study we aimed to determine the influence of daily prednisone treatment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by performing a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in southwestern China.Sixty-six children with DMD (4-12 years of age) were divided randomly into prednisone and placebo groups. Efficacy and safety of daily prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg/day were evaluated over 12 months by muscle strength and function, quality of life (QoL), quantitative muscle ultrasound (QMUS), and side effects.Significant improvements in muscle strength and function, QoL, and QMUS were observed in the prednisone group compared with the placebo-treated group (P < 0.05). Changes in body weight, height, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure were similar in both groups (P > 0.05).This pilot study in southwestern China found that daily prednisone at 0.75 mg/kg/day is suitable for children with DMD. It slowed disease progression and improved QoL and QMUS. Moderate side effects were generally well tolerated.

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