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Guo S.,Harbin Medical University | Sun X.,Harbin Medical University | Sun X.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Cheng J.,Harbin Medical University | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) was developed as a localized ultrasound-activated cytotoxic therapy for cancer. The ability of SDT to destroy target tissues selectively is especially appealing for atherosclerotic plaque, in which selective accumulation of the sonosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), had been demonstrated. Here we investigate the effects of PpIX-mediated SDT on macrophages, which are the main culprit in progression of atherosclerosis. Methods and results: Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with PpIX. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the intracellular PpIX concentration increased with the concentration of PpIX in the incubation medium. MTT assay demonstrated that SDT with PpIX significantly decreased cell viability, and this effect increased with duration of ultrasound exposure and PpIX concentration. PpIX-mediated SDT induced both apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis to necrosis ratio was obtained after SDT with 20 μg/mL PpIX and five minutes of sonication. Production of intracellular singlet oxygen and secondary disruption of the cytoskeleton were also observed after SDT with PpIX. Conclusion: PpIX-mediated SDT had apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages via generation of intracellular singlet oxygen and disruption of the cytoskeleton. PpIX-mediated SDT may be a potential treatment to attenuate progression of atherosclerotic plaque. © 2013 Guo et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Cheng J.,Harbin Medical University | Sun X.,Harbin Medical University | Sun X.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Guo S.,Harbin Medical University | And 14 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: Inflammatory cells exhibit an elevated level of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) after the administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Here, we investigate the sonodynamic effects of ALA-derived PpIX (ALA-PpIX) on macrophages, which are the pivotal inflammatory cells in atherosclerosis. Methods and results: Cultured THP-1 macrophages were incubated with ALA. Fluorescence microscope and fluorescence spectrometer detection showed that intracellular PpIX increased with the concentration of ALA in the incubation solution in a time dependent manner; the highest level of intracellular PpIX was observed after 3-hour incubation. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays demonstrated that lower concentrations (less than 2 mM) of ALA have no influence on cell viability (more than 90% of cells survived), but sonodynamic therapy (SDT) with a low concentration of ALA significantly decreased the survival rate of cells, and the effect was increased with both ALA concentration and ultrasound exposure time. Cell apoptosis and necrosis induced by ALA-mediated SDT (ALA-SDT) were measured using Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide assay. ALA-SDT induced both cell apoptosis and necrosis, and the maximum apoptosis/necrosis ratio was observed at 6 hours after SDT with 1 mM of ALA and 5 minutes of ultrasound exposure. Flow cytometry analysis showed that ALA-SDT significantly increased late stage apoptotic cells (about 10-fold control). Furthermore, ALA-SDT induced reactive oxygen species generation in THP-1 macrophages immediately after the treatment and a conspicuous loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) at 6 hours compared with that of the control, ALA alone, and ultrasound alone groups. Conclusion: ALA-SDT exhibited synergistic apoptotic effects on THP-1 macrophages, involving excessive intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and MMP loss. Therefore, ALA-SDT is a potential treatment for atherosclerosis. © 2013 Cheng et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Zhang Y.,Harbin Medical University | Zhang Y.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Dong Z.,Harbin Medical University | Dong Z.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | And 10 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the rapidly activating, delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) important for cardiac repolarization. Dysfunction of the hERG channel can cause Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). A wide variety of structurally diverse therapeutic compounds reduce the hERG current by acute direct inhibition of the hERG current or/and selective disruption of hERG protein expression. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia, can cause LQTS type 2 (LQT2) by reducing the hERG current through the diversion of hERG trafficking to the cytoplasmic membrane. This cardiotoxicity limits its clinical applications. Our aim was to develop cardioprotective agents to decrease As2O 3-induced cardiotoxicity. We reported that superfusion of hERG-expressing HEK293 (hERG-HEK) cells with matrine (1, 10 μM) increased the hERG current by promoting hERG channel activation. Long-term treatment with 1 μM matrine or oxymatrine increased expression of the hERG protein and rescued the hERG surface expression disrupted by As2O3. In addition, Matrine and oxymatrine significantly shortened action potential duration prolonged by As2O3 in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. These results were ascribed to the up-regulation of hERG at both mRNA and protein levels via an increase in the expression of transcription factor Sp1, an established transactivator of the hERG gene. Therefore, matrine and oxymatrine may have the potential to cure LQT2 as a potassium channel activator by promoting hERG channel activation and increasing hERG channel expression. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Sun X.,Harbin Medical University | Sun X.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Tian Y.,Harbin Medical University | Tian Y.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | And 6 more authors.
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry | Year: 2015

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss have been proven recently to be involved in sonodynamic therapy (SDT)-induced macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. This study aims to develop an experimental system to monitor intracellular ROS and MMP in real-time during ultrasonic irradiation in order to achieve optimal effect in SDT. Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and then sonicated at different intensities. Intracellular ROS elevation and MMP loss were detected in real-time by fluorospectrophotometer using fluorescence probe DCFH-DA and jc-1, respectively. Ultrasound at low intensities (less than 0.48 W/cm2) had no influence on ROS and MMP in macrophages, whereas at an intensity of 0.48 W/cm2, ROS elevation and MMP loss were observed during ultrasonic irradiation. These effects were strongly enhanced in the presence of ALA. Quantitative analysis showed that ROS elevation and MMP loss monotonically increased with the rise of ultrasonic intensity between 0.48 and 1.16 W/cm2. SDT at 0.48 and 0.84 W/cm 2 induced mainly apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages while SDT at 1.16 W/cm2 mainly cell necrosis. This study supports the validity and potential utility of real-time ROS and MMP detection as a dosimetric tool for the determination of optimal SDT. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chen C.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Huo R.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Tong Y.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Sheng Y.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | And 6 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2011

Background/Aims: Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) has been reported to protect against cardiac hypertrophy in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes treated with HO-1 inducer, cardiac specific HO-1 transgenic mice, or animals treated with HO-1 inducer. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of systemic HO-1 transgenic overexpression on pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice. Methods: Pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy was induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in WT (wild type) and systemic HO-1 transgenic overexpression (TG) mice. Results: We found that systemic HO-1 transgenic overexpression aggravated pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure-overload induced the more increases of heart weight/body weigh index, left ventricular weight/body weight index, β-MHC protein expression, cardiac interstitial fibrosis in TG mice than in WT mice. Pressure-overload increased cardiac HO-1 protein expression in WT but not TG mice, but the cardiac HO-1 protein level was still higher in TAC-treated TG mice than in TAC-treated WT mice. The basal cardiac calcineurin protein level in TG mice was lower than that in WT mice. Pressure-overload increased calcineurin protein expression in both WT and TG mice; however, pressure-overload induced more calcineurin protein expression in TG mice than in WT mice. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that systemic HO-1 transgenic overexpression aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Sun Z.-J.,Harbin Engineering University | Sun B.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Sun C.-W.,Harbin Engineering University | Wang L.-B.,Harbin Medical University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers | Year: 2012

In this study, 5-fluorouracil-1-acetic acid was chemically conjugated with poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS) to form a unitary polymer poly(glycerol-sebacate- (5-fluorouracil-1-acetic acid)) (PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH). The structure, the in vitro antitumor activity of 5-FU-CH 2COOH, the in vitro degradation, the drug release, and antitumor activity as well as the in vivo degradation and tissue biocompatibility of PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH were investigated. The 5-FU-CH 2COOH inhibited HeLa (human cervical cancer cell line) and SGC-7901 (human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line) tumor cells with a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) of 0.196 and 0.267 μM, respectively, after a 3-day incubation. The in vitro drug release profiles of PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH exhibited a biphasic release with an initial exponential phase in the first week and then the second constant linear phase. An in vitro antitumor assay of the PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH polymer showed significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells. The implanted PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH degraded completely in 1 month after implantation. The antitumor activity and improved drug release profile of PGS-5-FU-CH 2COOH indicate its potential as an implantable polymer for cancer therapy. © SAGE Publications 2011.


Xie F.,Harbin Medical University | Zhang R.,Harbin Medical University | Zhang R.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Yang C.,Harbin Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important neuronal element involved in cardiovascular regulation. Since elevated plasma levels of NPY have been observed in numerous pathological situations, this study aimed to determine whether long-term elevated plasma concentrations of NPY could result in aberrant baroreflex sensitivity. Mini-osmotic pump containing NPY (85 μg per 30 days) was subcutaneously implanted between scapulae in male rats for 4 months. The rats treated with NPY showed the following characters compared with control group: (1) attenuated heart rate responding to the increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) induced by phenylephrine, but enhanced heart rate responding to the decreases in MABP induced by sodium nitroprusside; (2) decreased protein levels of substance P (SP) and GluR2, while increased the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA AR) in brainstem; (3) abdominal obesity indicated by increased body weight and accumulated fat mass in peritoneal cavity; (4) significant increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein levels in the periphery. These findings indicate that long-term NPY administration in the periphery leads to abnormal baroreflex sensitivity due, at least in part, to the down-regulated expression of SP/GluR2 and elevated expression of GABA AR in both protein and RNA levels, which indicate the alternations in glutamate function and GABA action in the nucleus tractus solitarii in NPY-treated rats. Furthermore, long-term NPY administration results in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Zhang L.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Zhang L.,Harbin Medical University | Wu Y.,Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research | Li Y.,Harbin Medical University | And 9 more authors.
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

Tanshinone IIA is a lipid-soluble pharmacologically active compound extracted from the rhizome of Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. Previous studies have identified that tanshinone IIA inhibited overexpression of miR-1 in hypoxic neonatal cardiomyocytes. This study was designed to examine the effects of tanshinone IIA on miR-133 expression under hypoxic condition. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured in a hypoxic environment (2% O 2+93% N2+5% CO2) at 37°C for 24 hours. MTT, TUNEL assays, and Flow Cytometry (FCM) were performed to identify cell apoptosis. Western blot was used to examine the expression of ERK1/2 and miR-133. level was quantified by Real-time PCR. Our results showed that apoptosis was induced by hypoxia. Typical apoptotic cells were seen by TUNEL assay, and FCM showed an apoptosis rate of 13.32% in hypoxic group. Apoptosis rate in hypoxic cells was reduced significantly by tanshinone IIA. In addition, the expression level of miR-133 was increased in hypoxic cells and further upregulated by tanshinone IIA. The stress-activated protein kinase MAPK ERK1/2 was activated by hypoxia and further increased with tanshinone IIA treatment. The present study demonstrated that tanshinone IIA enhanced cell resistance to hypoxic insult by upregulating miR-133 expression through activating MAPK ERK1/2 in neonatal cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | Harbin Medical University and Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Research
Type: | Journal: Ultrasonics sonochemistry | Year: 2014

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss have been proven recently to be involved in sonodynamic therapy (SDT)-induced macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. This study aims to develop an experimental system to monitor intracellular ROS and MMP in real-time during ultrasonic irradiation in order to achieve optimal effect in SDT. Cultured THP-1 derived macrophages were incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and then sonicated at different intensities. Intracellular ROS elevation and MMP loss were detected in real-time by fluorospectrophotometer using fluorescence probe DCFH-DA and jc-1, respectively. Ultrasound at low intensities (less than 0.48W/cm(2)) had no influence on ROS and MMP in macrophages, whereas at an intensity of 0.48W/cm(2), ROS elevation and MMP loss were observed during ultrasonic irradiation. These effects were strongly enhanced in the presence of ALA. Quantitative analysis showed that ROS elevation and MMP loss monotonically increased with the rise of ultrasonic intensity between 0.48 and 1.16W/cm(2). SDT at 0.48 and 0.84W/cm(2) induced mainly apoptosis in THP-1 macrophages while SDT at 1.16W/cm(2) mainly cell necrosis. This study supports the validity and potential utility of real-time ROS and MMP detection as a dosimetric tool for the determination of optimal SDT.

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