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Liu S.,Central South University | Tao Y.,Central South University | Tao Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Tao Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis
Biological Reviews

The dynamic interplay between chromatin modification (e.g. DNA methylation) and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) plays a critical role in gene transcription during stem cell development, establishment, and maintenance and in the cellular response to extracellular stimuli such as those that cause DNA damage. Pol II is recruited to the promoter-proximal regions of numerous inactive genes at high conentrations in a process called Pol II stalling. This is a key process prior to gene activation and it involves many interacting factors. Chromatin modification including nucleosome position is dependent on chromatin structure. Stalled genes create a particular structural conformation of chromatin, which acts as a target for chromatin modification. In this way, Pol II stalling may be regarded as a type of signal for chromatin modification in these regions during the dynamic transition between stalled and activated genes. © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society. Source

Jiang Y.,Central South University | Jiang Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Jiang Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis | Liu S.,Central South University | And 7 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer

DNA methylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression, as it is the first epigenetic modification to take place on a given DNA strand. Several factors may directly or indirectly regulate the dynamic distribution of DNA methylation and demethylation between intergenic and intragenic gene regions, thereby controlling gene expression. CpG islands have direct implications for the understanding of DNA methylation patterns in normal conditions and in some common disease states, including cancer. Here, we summarize several recent studies on the genome-wide distribution of DNA methylation and demethylation and their related factors, and we discuss the potential of DNA methylation and demethylation patterns to contribute to gene transcription patterns in tumorigenesis. © 2012. Source

Hu Z.-Y.,Central South University | Hu Z.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Hu Z.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis | Xiao L.,Central South University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Medicine

Nearly a hundred years of scientific research has revealed a notable preference of cancer cells to utilize aerobic glycolysis rather than mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for glucose-dependent ATP production, which is thought to be the root of tumor formation and growth. Glycolysis is a complex biochemical process that is mediated by multiple glycolytic genes. Besides regulating glucose metabolism, these genes are also suggested to possess various other functions related to cancer, including roles in cancer development and promotion, inhibition of apoptosis, cell cycle progression, and tumor metastasis. This article highlights the biological functions of glycolytic genes beyond their role in regulation of glycolysis and discusses their clinical implications, especially in regard to the use of glycolytic genes as biomarkers for early detection of cancer or as targets for novel anticancer treatments. © 2014 Springer-Verlag. Source

Zhou J.,Fudan University | Zhou J.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Shi Y.-H.,Fudan University | Shi Y.-H.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | And 2 more authors.
Seminars in Oncology

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered to be a fatal disease because of its late diagnosis, underlying liver disease, and refractoriness to systemic treatments. Biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity that are minimally invasive, reproducible, and easily available have important clinical utility for early diagnosis, prognostication, and pharmacodynamics evaluation. Until now, most of the circulating HCC biomarkers used in clinical practice were protein molecules. However, these biomarkers often had low sensitivity and specificity. In the past decade, circulating cell-free nucleic acids (cfNAs) have been extensively studied. We review the studies that evaluated cfNAs as circulating HCC biomarkers and discuss recent advances with regard to their diagnostic and prognostic significance. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Tang J.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Tao Z.-H.,Fudan University | Wen D.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | Wan J.-L.,Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion | And 10 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

Previous research showed that microRNA-612 (miR-612) has inhibitory effects on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AKT2 was confirmed to be a direct target of miR-612, through which the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of HCC were inhibited. Our present findings reveal that miR-612 is able to suppress the stemness of HCC by reducing the number and size of tumorspheres as well as clone formation in soft agar, and to relieve drug resistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. In addition, miR-612 hampered the capacity of tumorigenesis in NOD/SCID mice and redistributed the tumor invasive frontier of miR-612-modulating cells. Finally, our findings suggest that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required in the regulation of EMT-associated stem cell-like traits by miR-612. ©2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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