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Wu S.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wu S.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Improvement and Conversion of Anhui Province | Wu M.,Anhui Agricultural University | Dong Q.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Improvement and Conversion of Anhui Province | And 4 more authors.
Gene | Year: 2016

The plant homeobox domain (PHD) proteins are widespread in eukaryotes, and play important roles in regulating chromatin and transcription. Comprehensive analyses of PHD-finger proteins have been performed in animals, but few plant PHD-finger proteins involved in growth and development have been characterized functionally. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey of PHD-finger proteins in Populus trichocarpa by describing the phylogenetic relationship, gene structure, and chromosomal location and microarray analyses of each predicted PHD-finger family member. We identified 73 PHD-finger genes (PtPHD1-73) and classified them into eleven subfamilies (A-K) by phylogenetic analysis. Seventy-two of the 73 genes were unevenly distributed on all 19 chromosomes, with seven segmental duplication events. Analysis of the Ka (non-synonymous substitution rate)/Ks (synonymous substitution rate) ratios suggested that the duplicated genes of the PHD-finger family mainly underwent purifying selection with restrictive functional divergence after the duplication events. Expression profiles analysis indicated that 67 PHD-finger genes were differentially expressed in various tissues. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of nine selected PtPHD genes under high salinity, drought and cold stresses were also performed to explore their stress-related expression patterns. The results of this study provide a thorough overview of poplar PHD-finger proteins and will be valuable for further functional research of poplar PHD-finger genes to unravel their biological roles. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Wu M.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wu M.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Improvement and Conversion of Anhui Province | Wu S.,Anhui Agricultural University | Wu S.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Improvement and Conversion of Anhui Province | And 6 more authors.
Tree Genetics and Genomes | Year: 2015

Members of the amino acid transporters (AATs) gene family transported amino acid across cellular membranes and participated in various aspects of normal plant growth and developmental processes as well as environmental responses. To date, no overall analysis or expression profiling of the AAT gene family in Populus has been reported. An investigation of the Populus genome revealed 100 putative AAT genes. These genes were classified into 11 subfamilies based on phylogenetic analysis. In each subfamily, the constituent parts of gene structure and motif were relatively conserved. A total of 100 genes were distributed on 19 chromosomes with 18-pair segmental duplication and 19-gene tandem duplication events, indicating that segmental and tandem duplications contribute almost equally to the expansion of the PtAAT gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the AAT family basically underwent purifying selection. The expression levels of the 17 amino acid/auxin permease (AAAP) subfamily genes under abiotic stresses and in different tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to explore their stress-related and tissue-specific expression patterns. The qRT-PCR results to explore the precise role of individual PtAAT gene. This study presents a thorough overview of the Populus AAT gene family and provides a new perspective on the evolution of this gene family. The results indicate that AAT family genes may be involved in many plant responses to stress conditions. Additionally, this study provides a solid foundation for uncovering the biological roles of AAT genes. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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