Ip C.-K.,Sun Yat Sen University |
Ip C.-K.,Key Laboratory of Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia of Guangdong Province |
Jin D.-M.,Sun Yat Sen University |
Gao J.-J.,Sun Yat Sen University |
And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2015
Background In patients at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs), residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target LDL cholesterol levels with statin therapy. It is still unclear whether adding lipid-modifying agent to statin treatment can further improve clinical outcomes. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in terms of adding lipid-modifying agent to statin versus statin monotherapy in patients at high risk of ASCVD were identified by electronic and manual searches. Results were expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Eleven RCTs with 109,244 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, the incidences of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) were 9.70% in the statin combination groups and 9.92% in the statin monotherapy groups. No significant difference was observed in the risk of MACEs either in overall (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93-1.05, P = 0.76) or subgroup analysis (CETP inhibitor: RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.93-1.23, P = 0.37; niacin: RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85-1.25, P = 0.79; n - 3 fatty acid: RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.88-1.09, P = 0.70; fenofibrate: RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.80-1.09, P = 0.38), with the exception of the statin/ezetimibe combination subgroup (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97, P = 0.004). Adding lipid-modifying agent to statin significantly increased liver injury risk. Adding ezetimibe to statin did not alter side effect profile. Conclusion Adding niacin, CETP inhibitors, n - 3 fatty acid or fibrates to statin therapy has all failed to achieve a clinical benefit. Adding ezetimibe to statin therapy further lowers LDL-cholesterol safely and translates into a clinical benefit in patients at high risk of ASCVD. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.