Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry

Nanjing, China

Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry

Nanjing, China
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Zhou Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zheng W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Shang W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Du H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 3 more authors.
Annals of Microbiology | Year: 2015

To clarify the role of intestinal microbiota on skatole production and the influences of host gender, individual fecal samples were collected from female, castrated and entire male pigs at the ages of 20, 85, and 185 days. Concentrations of skatole in feces were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the bacterial community in the pig feces was analyzed using 454-pyrosequencing based on 16S rRNA genes. Results showed that, compared to the gilts, the phyla Firmicutes was lower in boars and barrows, and the abundance of Proteobacteria was higher in barrows. The host gender significantly affected the proportion of ten and 11 genera in total community at the ages of 85 and 185 days, respectively. Skatole concentrations in entire male pigs were higher than in gilts at 20 days. No significant differences in the feces of different-gendered pigs remained at 85 and 185 days. The fecal skatole concentrations were significantly related to the presence of some genera of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in the feces, including Clostridium and Oscillibacter. This is the first study using a barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method to survey pigs’ fecal microbiota composition by gender. This gender-related microbiota correlated with the fecal concentration of indolic compounds. These results provide a new vision for pig welfare, as well as the possibility of controlling boar taints by modulating the gut microbiota instead of castration. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and the University of Milan.


Waqas M.Y.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry | Lisi H.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry | Yang P.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry | Ullah S.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology | Year: 2015

The oviduct is the location of fertilization and sperm storage. We examined the ultrastructure of the oviduct epithelium and its glandular secretions in the isthmus, uterus and vagina of Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis using light and transmission electron microscopy. The epithelium in these segments is lined with ciliated, secretory and other cells; the first two cell types span the entire epithelium, with secretory cells being predominant. The ciliated cells are characterized by the presence of a secretory vacuole that releases apocrine secretions into the lumen, whereas the secretory cells contain typical biphasic granules with both dark and light aspects. The third type of cells observed have wider proximal portion, abundant mitochondria, vacuoles, and narrow nuclei. The storage of spermatozoa is restricted to the isthmus, uterus, and vagina. In addition, the gland cells show prominent features, including the presence of granules of different shapes, sizes, and electron densities. The synthesis of these granules is described for the first time in this study. Mitochondria appear to play an important role in the formation of dense granules, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and microfilaments may also play a role in the maturation of these dense granules. After completing the maturation process, these granules are released into the lumen of the gland cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Zheng W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hou Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Su Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry
Anaerobe | Year: 2014

Equol has higher biological effects than other isoflavones. However, only about 30-50% of humans possess a microbiota capable of producing equol from dietary daidzein. In recent years, interest has grown in dietary applications to improve equol production in human and other animals. In this study, lactulose was used as a potential equol-promoting prebiotic invitro. The effect of lactulose on transformation of daidzein into equol by sows' fecal microbiota was investigated. Results showed that lactulose treatment improved bacteria growth parameters, changing the kinetics of fermentation invitro. Lactulose significantly increased total gas production, T1/2, Tmax, and Rmax. Furthermore, lactulose altered the microflora composition, increased equol production associated with a reduction in the population of methanogen and increased the sulfate-reducing bacteria population during 24h of incubation. Here, we report for the first time that in a certain condition (sealing or high pressure), via a dihydrodaidzein (DHD) pathway equol might be able to reform to daidzein by further metabolism using lactulose as a substrate. This study proposes that "hydrogen-producing prebiotic" might be a novel way to promote equol production invivo or invitro. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Li G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Su H.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Zhou Z.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are not only an important energy source, but they also play a regulatory role in various physiological processes in humans and rodents. Current studies, mostly in humans and rodents, have revealed that SCFAs acted as endogenous ligands for G protein-coupled receptor GPR41 and GPR43. Whether proteins similar to human GPR41 and GPR43 mediate the regulatory effects of SCFAs in swine remains unclear to date. The aims of this study were to determine whether GPR41 and GPR43 genes are expressed in porcine different tissues; and whether the expression of GPR41 and GPR43 is tissue-specific and/or time-associated. The alignment results showed that pig chromosome 6 contained GPR41 and GPR43 genes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that GPR41 and GPR43 were expressed in porcine various tissues. The 2218 bp and 1908 bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine GPR41 and GPR43 was obtained from the ileum and spleen using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), which were capable of encoding 335 and 329 amino acid sequences, respectively. The structure prediction revealed that porcine GPR41 and GPR43 proteins had seven putative trans-membrane domains. The real-time PCR results indicated that GPR41 and GPR43 were expressed throughout the developmental stages in a tissue-specific and time-associated manner. GPR41 and GPR43 were most highly expressed in the ileum (P<0.01) and the spleen (P<0.01), respectively. Western blot results showed that porcine GPR41 and GPR43 proteins were expressed in a variety of porcine tissues, including the spleen, ileum, colon, and adipose tissue. In situ GPR41 and GPR43 immunoreactivities were observed through immunohistochemistry in the spleen, ileum, colon, and adipose tissue. In conclusion, the pig genome encoded GPR41 and GPR43 genes, and these two genes were detected in a variety of porcine tissues and expressed in tissue-specific and time-associated manner. © 2014 Li et al.


Zheng W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Hou Y.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yao W.,Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Equol, one of the intestinal microflora metabolites of daidzein, has gained much attention for having greater bioactivity than its precursor (daidzein and daidzin) and seeming to be promoted by hydrogen gas. The effects of lactulose on the equol-producing capacity and liver antioxidant status of barrows treated with daidzein were investigated in this study. Male castrated piglets (barrows) of LandracexDuroc, aged 40 days, were randomly divided into the following three groups: control group (C, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet), daidzein group (D, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation) and daidzein+lactulose group (D+L, n = 12, fed an isoflavones-free basic diet with 1% of lactulose and 50 mg/kg of daidzein supplementation). After 20 days, the profile of short-chain fatty acids in the colon digesta showed that lactulose significantly increased the fermented capacity in the gastrointestinal tract of the barrows. First-void urinary equol concentrations were significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (3.13±0.93 compared to 2.11±0.82 μg/ml, respectively). Furthermore, fecal equol levels were also significantly higher in the D+L group than in the D group (12.00±2.68 compared to 10.00±2.26 μg/g, respectively). The population of bacteroidetes and the percentage of bacteroidetes to bacteria in feces were higher in the D+L group than in the D group. The DGGE profiles results indicate that lactulose might shift the pathways of hydrogen utilization, and changing the profiles of SRB in feces. Moreover, the D+L group had weak enhancement of T-SOD and CuZn-SOD activities in the livers of barrows treated with daidzein. © 2014 Zheng et al.

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