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Feng K.,South China Agricultural University | Feng K.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | Xue Y.,Guangdong Wen's Food Co. | Wang F.,Guangdong Wen's Food Co. | And 5 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2014

Sixty-two strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) were isolated from diseased chickens at different farms in southern China during 2011–2012, and 66.1 % of the isolated strains were associated with typical nephritis. Analysis of the S1 gene sequences amplified from the 62 isolated strains together with 40 reference strains published in Genbank showed nucleotide homologies ranging from 63.5 to 99.9 % and amino acid homologies ranging from 57.9 to 100 %. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese IBV strains were clustered into six distinct genetic groups (I–VI). Most of the isolated strains belonged to group I, and the isolation of group V strains was increased compared with an earlier period of surveillance. Current vaccine strains used in China (H120, H52, W93, and Ma5) formed the group Mass which is evolutionarily distant from Chinese isolates. Alignment of S1 amino acid sequences revealed polymorphic and diverse substitutions, insertions, and deletions, and the S1 protein of major pandemic strains contained 540 amino acids with a cleavage site sequence of HRRRR or RRF(L/S)RR. Further analysis showed that recombination events formed a new subgroup. Taken together, these findings suggest that various IBV variants were co-circulating and undergoing genetic evolution in southern China during the observation period. Therefore, long-term continuing surveillance is significantly important for prevention and control of IBV infection. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Dai Z.,South China Agricultural University | Ji J.,Nanyang Normal University | Yan Y.,South China Agricultural University | Lin W.,South China Agricultural University | And 18 more authors.
Viruses | Year: 2015

Subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) causes a neoplastic disease in infected chickens. Differential expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely related to the formation and growth of tumors. (1) Background: This study was undertaken to understand how miRNAs might be related to tumor growth during ALV-J infection. We chose to characterize the effects of miR-221 and miR-222 on cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis based on previous microarray data. (2) Methods: In vivo, the expression levels of miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly increased in the liver of ALV-J infected chickens (p < 0.01). Over-expression of gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 promoted the proliferation, migration, and growth of DF-1 cells, and decreased the expression of BCL-2 modifying factor (BMF) making cells more resistant to apoptosis. (3) Results: Our results suggest that gga-miR-221 and gga-miR-222 may be tumour formation relevant gene in chicken that promote proliferation, migration, and growth of cancer cells, and inhibit apoptosis. BMF expression was significantly reduced in vivo 70 days after ALV-J infection. They may also play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis during ALV-J infection. © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Feng K.,South China Agricultural University | Feng K.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | Xue Y.,South China Agricultural University | Xue Y.,Enterprise Group | And 12 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

In this study, we attenuated a Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strain, YX10, by passaging through fertilized chicken eggs. The 90th passage strain (YX10p90) was selected as the live-attenuated vaccine candidate strain. YX10p90 was found to be safe in 7-day-old specific pathogen free chickens without induction of morbidity or mortality. YX10p90 provided nearly complete protection against QX-like (CH I genotype) strains and partial protection against other two major Chinese genotype strains. YX10p90 also showed no reversion to virulence after five back passages in chickens. An IBV polyvalent vaccine containing YX10p90 was developed and showed that it could provide better protection against major Chinese IBV virulent strains than commercial polyvalent vaccines. In addition, the complete genome sequence of YX10p90 was sequenced. Multiple-sequence alignments identified 38 nucleotide substitutions in the whole genome which resulted in 26 amino acid substitutions and a 110-bp deletion in the 3' untranslated region. In conclusion, the attenuated YX10p90 strain exhibited a fine balance between attenuation and immunogenicity, and should be considered as a candidate vaccine to prevent infection of Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic IBV. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Lin W.,South China Agricultural University | Lin W.,Key Laboratory of Animal Health Aquaculture and Environmental Control | Lin W.,South China Collaborative Innovation Center for Poultry Disease Control and Product Safety | Li X.,South China Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Archives of Virology | Year: 2016

Members of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) cause various diseases associated with tumor formation and decreased fertility, resulting in major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. To assess the status of ALV-J infection in meat-type chickens in southern China, the molecular epidemiology of ALV-J strains was investigated. A total of 265 clinical samples collected from southern China from 2013 to 2014 were investigated in this study for the presence of ALV-J, which resulted in 12 virus isolates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 91.7 % (11/12) of the ALV-J isolates have possessed high homology to Chinese layer isolates and belong to one subgroup. One of the ALV isolates (designated GD1411-1) was relatively closely related to the ALV-J broiler isolates, indicating that the GD1411-1 isolate might be a transition strain. Several unique nucleotide substitutions in gp85 and the U3 region were detected in all 12 ALV-J isolates. This study provides some interesting information on the molecular characterization of ALV-J isolates. These findings will be beneficial for understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ALV-J infection. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Wien

Liao C.T.,South China Agricultural University | Liao C.T.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | Chen S.Y.,South China Agricultural University | Chen W.G.,South China Agricultural University | And 10 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Avian leukosis is an immunosuppressive neoplastic disease caused by avian leukosis viruses (ALV), which causes tremendous economic losses in the worldwide poultry industry. The susceptibility or resistance of chicken cells to subgroup A ALV and subgroup B, D, and E ALV are determined by the receptor genes tumor virus locus A (tva) and tumor virus locus B (tvb), respectively. Four genetic resistant loci (tvar1, tvar2, tvar3, and tvar4) in tva receptor gene and a genetic resistant locus tvbr in the tvb receptor gene have been identified in inbred lines of White Leghorn. To evaluate the genetic resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV, genetic variations within resistant loci in tva and tvb genes were screened in Chinese local chicken breeds and commercial broiler lines. Here, the heterozygote tvas1/r1 and the resistant genotype tvar2/r2, tvar3/r3, and tvar4/r4 were detected in Chinese chickens by direct sequencing. The heterozygote tvas1/r1 was detected in Huiyang Bearded chicken (HYBC), Rizhaoma chicken, and commercial broiler line 13 to 15 (CB13 to CB15), with the frequencies at 0.08, 0.18, 0.17, 0.25, and 0.15, respectively. The resistant genotype tvar2/r2 was detected in Jiningbairi chicken (JNBRC), HYBC, and CB15, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.08, and 0.06, respectively, whereas tvar3/r3 and tvar4/r4 were detected in 19 and 17 of the 25 Chinese chickens tested, with the average frequencies at 0.13 and 0.20, respectively. Furthermore, the resistant genotype tvbr/r was detected in JNBRC, CB07, CB12, CB14, and CB15 by pyrosequencing assay, with the frequencies at 0.03, 0.03, 0.11, 0.09, and 0.15, respectively. These results demonstrated that the potential for genetic improvement of resistance to subgroup A, B, D, and E ALV were great both in Chinese local chickens and commercial broilers. This study provides valuable insight into the selective breeding for chickens genetically resistant to ALV. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Zhang X.,South China Agricultural University | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | Wu B.,South China Agricultural University | Wu B.,Key Laboratory of Chicken Genetics | And 13 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

Background: Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes chicken infectious anemia (CIA) which is a highly contagious avian disease. CAV causes major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The current CAV vaccine is a live attenuated strain administered in the drinking water that risks horizontal infection of other chickens. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine against CAV that can be administered safely using a highly pathogenic isolate inactivated with β-propiolactone hydrolysis that would protect chicks from CAV. Methods: Hens were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a novel CAV GD-G-12 inactivated vaccine and the humoral immune responses of the hens and offspring were monitored by ELISA. A heterologous intramuscular challenge using the CAV strain GD-E-12 was conducted in the chicks hatched from vaccinated or unvaccinated hens. Results: The vaccine strain, GD-G-12, was shown to be highly pathogenic prior to inactivation evidenced by thymic atrophy and bleeding, and weight loss. The inactivated vaccine was considered safe and showed no signs of pathogenicity. High titers of CAV specific antibodies were detected in the vaccinated hens and in their chicks, indicating vertical transfer of maternal antibodies. Furthermore, the chicks hatched from vaccinated hens were resistant to a heterologous CAV challenge and showed no signs of weight loss and thymic atrophy and bleeding. Conclusion: Our studies are proof of principle that inactivated GD-G-12 might be a novel vaccine candidate to prevent CAV infection, and highlight the utility of using an inactivated virus for this vaccine. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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