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Zhang H.,Shandong Agricultural University | Zhang H.,Sino German Cooperative Research Center for Zoonosis of Animal Origin Shandong Province | Zhang H.,Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention of Shandong Province | Li X.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 18 more authors.
Virology Journal | Year: 2013

Background: The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-O 2009 IV) can cause respiratory infectious diseases in humans and pigs, but there are few studies investigating the airborne spread of the virus. In January 2011, a swine-origin H1N1 epidemic emerged in eastern China that rapidly spread to neighboring farms, likely by aerosols carried by the wind. Methods. In this study, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect viruses in air samples from pig farms. Based on two aerosol infection models (Pig and guinea pig), we evaluated aerosol transmission and infection of the novel S-O 2009 IV isolate. Results: Three novel S-O 2009 IV were isolated from the diseased pig. The positive rate and viral loads of air samples were 26.1% and 3.14-5.72 log10copies/m3 air, respectively. In both pig and guinea pig infection models, the isolate (A/swine/Shandong/07/2011) was capable of forming aerosols and infected experimental animals at a range of 2.0-4.2 m by aerosols, but aerosol route was less efficient than direct contact. Conclusions: The results indicated that S-O 2009 IV is able to be aerosolized by infected animals and to be transmitted to susceptible animals by airborne routes. © 2013 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Gao L.L.,Shandong Agricultural University | Gao L.L.,Sino German Cooperative Research Center for Zoonosis of Animal Origin Shandong Province | Gao L.L.,Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention of Shandong Province | Tan Y.,Taian City Central Hospital | And 11 more authors.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health | Year: 2015

The dissemination of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from food-producing animals to the surrounding environment has attracted much attention. To determine the emissions of ESBL-producing E. Coli from pig farms to the surrounding environment, fecal and environmental samples from six pig farms were collected. In total, 119 ESBL-producing E. Coli were isolated from feces, air samples, water, sludge and soil samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed that the ESBL-producing isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics and isolates of different origin within the same farm showed similar resistance phenotypes. Both CTX-M and TEM ESBL-encoding genes were detected in these isolates. CTX-M-14 and CTX-M-15 were the predominant ESBL genes identified. ESBL producers from feces and environmental samples within the same farm carried similar CTX-M types. The results indicated that the ESBL-producing E. Coli carrying multidrug resistance could readily disseminate to the surrounding environment. © 2015, by the authors. Source


Lv J.,Shandong Agricultural University | Lv J.,Sino German Cooperative Research Center for Zoonosis of Animal Origin | Lv J.,Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention of Shandong Province | Lv J.,Tsinghua University | And 38 more authors.
Virus Research | Year: 2012

This study aimed to determine the transmission characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) derived from the air. Eight H9N2 AIVs were isolated from chicken houses between 2009 and 2010. We analyzed the phylogenic and pathogenic traits of these isolates. What is more, transmission characteristics in guinea pigs of two airborne isolates were determined in experimental conditions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the homologies of HA and NA genes of eight isolates were 95.4-99.7% and 86.6-99.8% respectively. They were able to duplicate in lung tissues of guinea pigs without prior adaptation. Two airborne isolates could both transmit among guinea pigs by direct contact. No infection was detected in aerosol contact animals while H9N2 AIV aerosols were detected in the air of isolators. Aerosol infection dose experiment showed that aerosol median infective dose (ID50) of H9N2 AIV to guinea pigs was 3.58×106copies, demonstrating that the aerosols could infect guinea pigs at certain concentrations in experimental condition. In conclusion, H9N2 AIV aerosols were infectious to mammals, suggesting that urgent attention will need to be paid to its transmission. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Huang R.,Shandong Agricultural University | Huang R.,Sino German Cooperative Research Center for Zoonosis of Animal Origin Shandong Province | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention of Shandong Province | Liu J.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 21 more authors.
Medical Microbiology and Immunology | Year: 2014

The circulation of H9N2 viruses throughout the world, along with their expanded host range, poses a potential health risk to the public, but the host responses to H9N2 virus in mammals were little known. To obtain insight into the host immune responses to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of both cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of infected mice were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was the dominant antiviral component, and IFN-γ-induced protein 10 kDa, interleukin 6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha all played a role in pro-inflammatory responses to H9N2 viruses. In conclusion, this research can make us further understand the infection characteristics of H9N2 virus in mammalian host by providing the data on mice lung immune responses to the avian H9N2 virus. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Huang R.,Shandong Agricultural University | Huang R.,Sino German Cooperative Research Center for Zoonosis of Animal Origin Shandong Province | Huang R.,Key Laboratory of Animal Biotechnology and Disease Control and Prevention of Shandong Province | Wang A.-R.,Shandong Agricultural University | And 16 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases | Year: 2013

H9N2 avian influenza virus has been circulating widely in birds, with occasional infection among humans. Poultry workers are considered to be at high risk of infection with avian influenza due to their frequent exposure to chickens, but the frequency of H9N2 avian influenza virus infections among them is still indistinct. This study was carried out in order to identify the seroprevalence of H9N2 avian influenza virus among poultry workers in Shandong, China. During the period from December 2011 to February 2012, a total of 482 subjects took part in this study, including 382 poultry workers and 100 healthy residents without occupational poultry exposure. Serum samples were collected and tested for the presence of antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays. Nine subjects (9/382 = 2.3 %) were positive for antibodies against H9N2 avian influenza virus among poultry workers by either HI or MN assays using ≥40 cut-off, while none of the 100 healthy residents were seropositive. In conclusion, our study identified H9N2 avian influenza infections among poultry workers in Shandong, China, and continuous surveillance of H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in humans should be carried out to evaluate the threat to public health. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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