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Wu Y.,South China Agricultural University | Wu Y.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | Huang L.,South China Agricultural University | Wang X.,South China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering | Year: 2011

Veterinary drug residue in the sewage is one of the most important factors which impacts the effect of anaerobic digestion. Effects of tylosin on anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater at two concentration levels were studied by two methods as adding swine manure collected from swine fed with tylosin in diets and adding tylosin into antibiotic free swine manure. Anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted at 20°C in laboratory digesters which the effective volume was 1300 mL. The results showed that the parent material of tylosin was not detected in the anaerobic digestion during the experimental period after seven consecutive days of adding tylosin at a rate of 7.42 μg/g and 12.96 μg/g respectively. Compared with the control, the presence of tylosin in swine manure enhanced methane production by 24.6% averagely. The trials adding tylosin at the concentration of 7.42 μg/g swine manure produced more methane than that of 12.96 μg/g. But there were no significantly difference between two methods. The NH 4 +-N concentration in trials adding swine manure collected from swine fed with tylosin in diets was significantly higher than that in the trials adding tylosin into antibiotic free swine manure. But there were no significantly difference between two adding concentrations of tylosin. Compared with the control, the trial with addition of tylosin had no significant effect on the pH, TN, COD of biogas slurry, and TN, organic matter of biogas sludge. Under the condition recommended by this article, it was observed that the presence of tylosin with the concentration of 7.42 μg/g and 12.96 μg/g swine manure had no negative effect on anaerobic digestion of swine sewage, and two methods suited for studying the effect of tylosin on anaerobic digestion. Source


Xiao Q.-M.,South China Agricultural University | Xiao Q.-M.,Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Tropical Agricultural Environment of Southern China | Xiao Q.-M.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | Wang J.-W.,South China Agricultural University | And 5 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2012

A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying ciprofloxacin (CIP) on the growth of flowering Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris), radish (Raphanus sativus), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and long bean (Vigna unguiculata), the bioaccumation of CIP in the vegetables, and the degradation of the antibiotics in soil. The results showed that applying 5, 30 and 75 mg · kg-1 of CIP had no significant effects on the plant biomass of flowering Chinese cabbage, tomato and long bean, but the high concentration of CIP (≥ 30 mg · kg-1) inhibited the radish growth significantly. The degradation of CIP in soil was fast at beginning, but slowed down gradually since then. The DT50 and DT90 of CIP in long bean soil were 18.3-43.9 d and 260-738 d, respectively. The CIP could be absorbed by the roots of all the four vegetables and allocated to their aboveground parts, and the CIP residues in the vegetables in creased with the concentration of CIP in soil. The CIP concentration in flowering Chinese cabbage roots was higher than that in the cabbage aboveground parts, that in radish showed a higher concentration in aboveground parts than in roots, and the CIP concentration in tomato and long bean was in the same order of root > stem > leaf. Source


Chen G.,South China Agricultural University | Chen G.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | Yang J.,South China Agricultural University | Yang J.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | And 4 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2010

A pot experiment was conducted to study the stress effects of different concentration levels of perchlorate (ClO- 4) and hexavalent chromium (Cr6 +) as well as their combination (ClO- 4 + Cr6 +) upon the changes of chlorophyll florescence parameters, antioxidant enzyme activity, and chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents of leaves of rice. Results showed that an increase in ClO- 4, Cr6+, and ClO- 4 + Cr6+ concentrations decreased the chlorophyll florescence and chlorophyll contents of leaves significantly. Such a decrease was higher in the earlier than in the later growth stage of the rice. Both single treatment and combined treatment enhanced the peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) activities and increased MDA contents in leaf. The activities of POD and CAT and the contents of MDA were higher for the ClO- 4 + Cr6 + combined treatment than for the individual ClO- 4 or Cr6+ treatment. As the pollution of perchlorate and hexavalent chromium increased, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased in the tillering phase but increased in the heading stage. Toxicity and injury of the ClO- 4 + Cr6+ combined treatment were higher than that of individual ClO- 4 or Cr6 + treatment. Interaction mechanism of perchlorate and chromium pollution on rice were warranted for further study. Source


Wang G.,South China Agricultural University | Wang G.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | Yuan K.,South China Agricultural University | Yuan K.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | And 4 more authors.
Allelopathy Journal | Year: 2015

We studied the Mikania micrantha wilt virus and found that this wilt virus inhibited the growth of M. micrantha. The MMWV did not infect the 15 plants species from 11 families (neighboring plants of M. micrantha). The MMWV infection did not change the allelopathic potential of leaf aqueous leachates and dried leaf litter of M. micrantha. Chemical composition of leachates obtained from healthy and MMWV-infected leaves of M. micrantha was investigated by GC-MS. Twenty-two components were identified and the MMWV infection significantly changed their contents. When MMWV was present, the floret numbers of M. micrantha significantly decreased from 11862/0.25 m2 to 2334/0.25 m2 and seed production from 3060/0.25 m2 to 716/0.25 m2. These results indicated that MMWV could be used as a biocontrol agent against M. micrantha. © 2015, International Allelopathy Foundation. All rights reserved. Source


Chen G.,South China Agricultural University | Chen G.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | Luo S.,South China Agricultural University | Luo S.,Key Laboratory of Agroecology and Rural Environment of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions | And 6 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2014

Two rice varieties with varied perchlorate-sensitivity were selected to study their response when exposed to perchlorate-contaminated environment. Gannuoxiang is a perchlorate-resistance rice variety while IR65598-112-2 is a perchlorate-sensitive rice variety. A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of perchlorate stress on plant growth, development and nutrient uptake. Perchlorate with three concentration levels at 0.2, 2.0 and 4.0 mmol/kg was added to the soil for different treatments at the end of recovering stage after transplanting. Results showed that (1) the higher the concentration of perchlorate in soil, the higher the rate of growth inhibition of the two rice varieties. The symptom of the perchlorate effect on rice was more and more obvious as time went on. The rates of the growth inhibition were 3. 08%, 33. 39%, 39.03% to Gannuoxiang and 9.18%, 21.07%, 34.97% to IR65598.112.2 under the three concentration levels of perchlorate in the tillering stage of rice. (2) The rice tiller number of all treatments except Gannuoxiang at 0.2 mmol/kg level decreased significantly. (3) All perchlorate treatments delayed heading and maturity. The delay reached about one month under high level perchlorate treatment. (4) IR65598-112-2 showed earlier respond to perchlorate and more sensitive to low concentration of perchlorate than Gannuoxiang. (5) The phytotoxic effect of perchlorate on rice root was more serious than on its aboveground parts. (6) Perchlorate pollution significantly decreased the biomass of rice. The accumulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus was reduced markedly. In conclusion, perchlorate pollution can decrease the growth and tiller number of the two rice varieties, delay their development, consequently, result in low biomass and low accumulation of nutrient. The phyto-toxicity of perchlorate to rice not only depended on the pollutant concentration and its duration, but also on the specific rice varieties and its organs. © 2014 Science Press. All rights reserved. Source

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