Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change

Beijing, China

Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change

Beijing, China
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Wu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Gong Z.,China Agricultural University | Liu B.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li M.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Lu M.,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery | Year: 2010

In view of the shortages of traditional agro-meteorological observations and current automatic collecting techniques based on the sensors, an automatic collecting system of agro-meteorology information was built based on remote monitoring technique. Its total devices were composed of collecting front of the field microclimate, collecting front of the video, data collecting device, data transmission device and power equipment. The system highly integrated collection and transmission of the field microclimate data and video information, and automatically collected precipitation, air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind direction, photosynthetic active radiation, soil temperature, soil moisture and crop video information. The remote client software could achieve a real-time dynamic display and remote monitoring for all information. The test in Zhengzhou, Hebi, Wenjiang and Jingzhou stations showed that the system had a good performance in automatic collection, integrated transmission, real-time dynamic display and remote monitoring. It provided the basis for automatic identification, disasters information extracting and even crop yields estimation.

Dong Y.-W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dong Y.-W.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming and Water Saving Agriculture | Yang S.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu C.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Dryland Farming and Water Saving Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Pedosphere | Year: 2011

Soil quality monitoring is important in precision agriculture. This study aimed to examine the possibility of assessing the soil parameters in apple-growing regions using spectroscopic methods. A total of 111 soil samples were collected from 11 typical sites of apple orchards, and the croplands surrounding them. Near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, combined with partial least square regression, were used to predict the soil parameters, including organic matter (OM) content, pH, and the contents of As, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr. Organic matter and pH were closely correlated with As and the heavy metals. The NIR model showed a high prediction accuracy for the determination of OM, pH, and As, with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.89, 0.89, and 0.90, respectively. The predictions of these three parameters by MIR showed reduced accuracy, with r values of 0.77, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively. The heavy metals could also be measured by spectroscopy due to their correlation with organic matter. Both NIR and MIR had high correlation coefficients for the determination of Cu, Zn, and Cr, with standard errors of prediction of 2.95, 10.48, and 9.49 mg kg -1 for NIR and 3.69, 5.84, and 6.94 mg kg -1 for MIR, respectively. Pb content behaved differently from the other parameters. Both NIR and MIR underestimated Pb content, with r values of 0.67 and 0.56 and standard errors of prediction of 3.46 and 2.99, respectively. Cu and Zn had a higher correlation with OM and pH and were better predicted than Pb and Cr. Thus, NIR spectra could accurately predict several soil parameters, metallic and nonmetallic, simultaneously, and were more feasible than MIR in analyzing soil parameters in the study area. © 2011 Soil Science Society of China.

Yang S.Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang S.Q.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Wang Y.S.,CERN | Han R.Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2015

The Yellow River irrigation of Ningxia is an important irrigation area in North China, and is a region with severe nitrate leaching and water pollution. Water quality in many drainage ditches is classified as Inferior Category V, and the main pollutants are nitrate and ammonium. The concentration of ammonium is generally 20—30 mg/L and the maximum concentration can reach 70 mg/L; therefore, quality of downstream water can be markedly affected. The contribution of field total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen are up to 61%—66% and 76%—81%, respectively. The concentration of nitrate is more than 10 mg/L in half of all shallow groundwater. The content of soil organic matter is low in this area, which ranges from 9.2 to 14.5 g/kg with an average level of 10.2 g/kg. This may cause nitrate to be easily lost from the soil. In order to control the leaching of soil nitrate nitrogen in the Yellow River irrigation area, we intended to restore soil organic matter through the straw-returning method. In a case study conducted in the Yellow River irrigation of the Ningxia area, the patterns of nitrate leaching were studied in soil using the rice straw-returning. The field experiment contained three treatments including tradition fertilization without rice straw (CK), tradition fertilization combined with rice straw of 4500 kg/hm2(T1, half straw application), and traditional fertilization combined with rice straw of 9000 kg/hm2(T2, total straw application). Nitrate nitrogen leaching loss in soil layers 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 cm deep was measured by the resin core method. We found that nitrate leaching losses with and without treatments ranged from 6.26 to 12. 85 kg/hm2 (pure nitrogen), representing 2.78%—5.71% of fertilizer nitrogen. Compared to CK, the nitrate leaching loss at 10 cm depth in T1 and T2 had a 0.09% decrease and 3.97% decrease, respectively; at 20 cm depth, T, and T2 decreased the loss by 8.51% and 9.81%; at 30 cm depth, the reduction of nitrate leaching loss reached to 2.25% (T1) and 10.34% (T2); at 60 cm depth. Such decreases were 23.85% (T1) and 13.08% (T2); at 90 cm depth, T1 and T2 further reduced 27.65% and 20.73% loss, respectively. T1, T2 and CK were not significantly different in nitrate leaching loss at 10 and 20 cm depth (P <0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between T1 and CK or between T1 and T2 However, T2 led to significant improvement at 30 cm depth, indicating that total straw application was an effective way to prevent nitrate leaching loss in the irrigation area. Nitrate nitrogen leaching losses among T1, T2 and CK at 60 cm depth were significantly different. Both treatments showed significant alleviation for nitrate leaching loss compared with CK at 90 cm depth, although there was no significant difference between these two methods. The critical period of nitrate nitrogen leaching loss began from spring to the early filling stage, because nitrate nitrogen leaching loss during this time was 52.95%—67.79% of the total. The yield increase of winter wheat in T1 and T2 fields was 10.11% and 11.51%, respectively. Taken together, these data suggest that the rice straw returning method is effective at reducing the nitrate nitrogen leaching loss at deep soil layers in the Yellow River irrigation of Ningxia area. © 2015, Ecological Society of China. All rights reserved.

Wu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu Y.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Ma Y.,Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology
2010 International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering, MACE2010 | Year: 2010

Understanding of seasonal drought characteristics of the hilly areas in southern China is helpful to guide reasonably the local environment management. In this paper, the seasonal drought is divided into spring drought (SPD), spring-summer continuous drought (SSD), summer drought (SUD), summer-autumn continuous drought (SAD), autumn drought (AUD), autumn-winter continuous drought (AWD), winter drought (WID) and winter-spring continuous drought (WSD). Based on the monthly precipitation data of the 295 ground-based meteorological stations of southern China and its surrounding regions from 1961 to 2005, a Drought Severity index (DSI) is built firstly and graded into Mild, Moderate, Severe and Extreme, to reflect the spatial patterns of the various drought occurrences in 1961-2005 under the support of GIS technique. The results indicate that: (1) WID, WSD and SPD mainly occur in the west of southern China, SAD and AUD in the southeast. AWD mainly occurs in the west and southeast. SUD is most extensive in the regions. (2) In the SPD, SUD, AUD, AWD and WSD regions, the seasonal drought events always occur along with higher air temperature. Almost all seasons have a trend to become hot. SPD, SAD, WID and WSD are gradually alleviative. SUD and AUD have a trend to become severe. AWD is gradually alleviative until 1983. ©2010 IEEE.

Xu X.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Zhang M.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Jia M.,Shaanxi University of Science and Technology | Song J.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Ma X.,Northwestern Polytechnical University
Gaofenzi Cailiao Kexue Yu Gongcheng/Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

The bamboo fiber (BF) was acetylated and blended with poly (butylene succinate) (PBS). The effects of acetylation condition on mechanical properties, the crystallization properties and thermal properties of bamboo fiber/PBS composites were investigated. Molecular dynamics simulation was used to study the compatibility of composites. The results show that the acetyl is introduced into the bamboo fiber in FT-IR. The mass ratio of bamboo fiber, acetic anhydride and ice acetic acid set as 1∶2.16∶9.18, the amount of catalyst as 0.15% of bamboo fiber at 50℃ for 2 h, the (Ac-BF)/PBS composites get the best mechanical properties, crystallization and thermal properties. Molecular simulations results show that strong interaction exists between Ac-BF and PBS matrix. The lower Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) and mixed energy (Emix) show a more stable system of Ac-BF/PBS composites. The interface compatibility is effectively improved which verify the performance improvement of the composites. © 2015, Editorial Board of Polymer Materials Science & Engineering. All right reserved.

Bai W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang H.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Liu B.,Key Laboratory for Dryland Agriculture | Wu Y.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Soil Use and Management | Year: 2010

Super-absorbent polymers (SAPs), a group of new water-saving materials and soil conditioners, have been widely adopted in agriculture, but little is known about their effects on soil physical and chemical properties under alternating dry and wet conditions. This study assesses soil moisture, bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and available P and K after different wetting and drying cycles. Four types of SAPs, labelled BF, JP, BJ and WT, with organic macromolecules were mixed with sandy soils to give concentrations of 0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, with the aim of determining water retention and soil properties after amendment with the SAPs. Soil moisture increased by 6.2-32.8% with SAP application, while soil bulk density was reduced by 5.5-9.4% relative to the control, especially with a moderate water deficit when the relative soil moisture contents were about 40-50%. The largest increase in soil moisture and the greatest reduction in bulk density resulted from the WT treatment. The effects of SAPs on soil pH and EC were contrary. Soil available P increased slightly while available K significantly decreased, except following the first wetting and drying cycle. Available K increased with drying, but the opposite effect was observed for available P. Particular SAPs (JP and WT) seem more suitable under alternating dry and wet conditions. The effects on soil-water retention and other soil properties varied according to the structure of the SAP and soil moisture. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Society of Soil Science.

Ju H.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ju H.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Lin E.-D.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Lin E.-D.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Integrative Agriculture | Year: 2013

Climate has been changing in the last fifty years in China and will continue to change regardless any efforts for mitigation. Agriculture is a climate-dependent activity and highly sensitive to climate changes and climate variability. Understanding the interactions between climate change and agricultural production is essential for society stable development of China. The first mission is to fully understand how to predict future climate and link it with agriculture production system. In this paper, recent studies both domestic and international are reviewed in order to provide an overall image of the progress in climate change researches. The methods for climate change scenarios construction are introduced. The pivotal techniques linking crop model and climate models are systematically assessed and climate change impacts on Chinese crops yield among model results are summarized. The study found that simulated productions of grain crop inherit uncertainty from using different climate models, emission scenarios and the crops simulation models. Moreover, studies have different spatial resolutions, and methods for general circulation model (GCM) downscaling which increase the uncertainty for regional impacts assessment. However, the magnitude of change in crop production due to climate change (at 700 ppm CO2 eq correct) appears within ±10% for China in these assessments. In most literatures, the three cereal crop yields showed decline under climate change scenarios and only wheat in some region showed increase. Finally, the paper points out several gaps in current researches which need more studies to shorten the distance for objective recognizing the impacts of climate change on crops. The uncertainty for crop yield projection is associated with climate change scenarios, CO2 fertilization effects and adaptation options. Therefore, more studies on the fields such as free air CO2 enrichment experiment and practical adaptations implemented need to be carried out. © 2013 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences.

Yang S.-Q.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Yang S.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Wang Y.-S.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Xie X.-J.,Northwest University, China | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2014

The effect of swine manure application on nitrate nitrogen leaching was investigated in the Yellow River irrigation area of Ningxia. The field experiment was conducted with 3 Treatments: Traditional fertilization 225 kg N kg·hm-2 without swine manure(CK), traditional fertilization with swine manure 4500 kg · hm-2(T1) and traditional fertilization with swine manure 9000 kg·hm-2(T2). Nitrate nitrogen leaching rates were measured for 30, 60, 90 cm depth soil layers with a resin core absorption method. The results indicated that the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 treatments ranged from 9.33 to 14.04 kg·hm-2(pure nitrogen), which accounted for 4.2% - 6.2% of applied nitrogen fertilizer. Compared to CK, the nitrate leaching losses of T1 and T2 increased by 2.6% and 2.1% at 30 cm depth, increased by 1.5% and decreased by 1.3% at 60 cm depth, decreased by 8.7% and increased by 4.0% at 90 cm depth, respectively. The difference did not reach statistical significance among CK and T1 and T2 in nitrate leaching loss at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. However, there was a declining trend of nitrate leaching at deep soil layers of treatments. The key period of nitrate leaching loss was from spring reviving to early filling stage, which had a higher daily leaching loss than the average of the whole growth period, and accounted for 58.7%-75.3% of total leaching loss. Compared with CK, the yields of T1 and T2 increased by 9.3% and 12.5%, respectively.

Wu Y.-F.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wu Y.-F.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Zhang Y.,National Climate Center | Chen X.-Y.,National Climate Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Natural Disasters | Year: 2011

Supported by geographic information system (GIS) technique and gray comprehensive assessment method, this study set up a rainstorm risk evaluation model of highway based on the raster data, through which the rainstorm risk of the highways in Hunan Province were evaluated. The risks of the rainstom were graded into low, middle, relatively high, high and very high. The results of the risk evaluation are validated using the local disaster losses and shows that the regions with the serious road washouts are mainly distributed in Yueyang, Yongzhou, Chenzhou, Changde, Zhangjiajie, Xiangxi and Loudi, and their rainstorm risks are greater than that of other regions. The mostly damaged highways locate in the high risk areas and above it. It is proved that the risk model is effective for the assessment on the rainstorm risk of the highways. The model breaks through the limitation of administrative boundaries and reveals the spatiotemporal patterns of the rainstorm risk of the highways, even supplies a technical support forecasts of the rainstorm disaster of highways.

Liu B.C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu B.C.,Key Laboratory of Agro Environment and Climate Change | Liu B.C.,Key Laboratory for Dryland Agriculture | Li M.S.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia | Year: 2010

As an innovative tool, weather index agricultural insurance (WIAI) was introduced into China in 2008. Before product designing and selling to farmers, it is necessary to understand farmers' real desire so that the product can be tailored to fit their needs. This paper focuses on the demand analysis for WIAI on household level. With this goal, 660 households located in 22 administrative villages in Changfeng and Huaiyuan county, Anhui province, China were surveyed. Survey questions covered risks faced by households, their coping mechanisms and willingness to pay for WIAI. Survey data were assessed and findings are shown as below: drought and flood were major weather risks for crops; the key coping strategies to crop loss were seeking employment elsewhere, or borrowing money from relatives or friends; most of investigated farmers showed interest in WIAI; those who were more familiar with insurance, or whose losses were higher due to deficient or excessive rainfall, or who had more trust in the accuracy of local weather forecasts, expressed more interest in WIAI with the quite low correlation coefficient, while statistically significant. It hints that there are potential demands for WIAI among farmers. However, methodologies deserve further development so as to provide more reliable assessment of the relationships between the willingness to pay and the abovementioned three factors. © 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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