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Liu H.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine
Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] | Year: 2011

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized clinically by rigidity, akinesia, resting tremor and postural instability. It has recently been suggested that low frequency stimulation of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has a role in the therapy for Parkinsonism, particularly in gait disorder and postural instability. However, there is limited information about the mechanism of low frequency stimulation of the PPN on Parkinson's disease. The present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of low frequency stimulation of the PPN on the firing rate of the ventrolateral thalamic nucleus (VL) in a rat model with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra pars compacta. In vivo extracellular recording and microiontophoresis were adopted. The results showed that the firing rate of 60.71% VL neurons in normal rats and 59.57% VL neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats increased with low frequency stimulation of the PPN. Using microiontophoresis to VL neurons, we found the firing rate in VL neurons responded with either an increase or decrease in application of acetylcholine (ACh) in normal rats, whereas with a predominant decrease in M receptor antagonist atropine. Furthermore, the VL neurons were mainly inhibited by application of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excited by GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Importantly, the VL neurons responding to ACh were also inhibited by application of GABA. We also found that the excitatory response of the VL neurons to the low frequency stimulation of the PPN was significantly reversed by microiontophoresis of atropine. These results demonstrate that cholinergic and GABAergic afferent nerve fibers may converge on the same VL neurons and they are involved in the effects of low frequency stimulation of the PPN, with ACh combining M(2) receptors on the presynaptic membrane of GABAergic afferents, which will inhibit the release of GABA in the VL and then improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

Dou J.-P.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Jiao B.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Sheng J.-J.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Yu Z.-B.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine
Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] | Year: 2014

The intercalated disc (ICD) complex of cardiomyocyte consists of fascia adherens, desmosomes and gap junctions which are mainly constructed by their transmembrane proteins: N-cadherin (N-cad), desmoglein-2 (DSG2) and connexin 43 (Cx43), respectively. The aim of this study was to observe the dynamic changes in colocalization of N-cad, DSG2 and Cx43 with each other in the rat left ventricular myocardium at 1, 7, 14, 28 and 90 day(s) after birth (P1, P7, P14, P28 and P90) using immunofluorescent staining. The results showed that, N-cad, DSG2 and Cx43 located all around the plasma membrane at the P1. These proteins accumulated to the long ends of cardiomyocytes, indicating preliminary formation of the ICD at the P7. The localization of three proteins at the ICD increased progressively, but their lateral localization showed an inverse trend from the P14 to P90. However, Cx43 still kept a certain amount of lateral localization in cardiomyocytes even at the P90 as compared with N-cad and DSG2. Quantitative colocalization of proteins was analyzed by the stereological method. Total percentage of colocalization of N-cad with DSG2 was 33.5% at the P1, and increased to 38.6% at the P7, 9.4% in ICD and 29.2% in lateral side. The total percentage of colocalization of N-cad with DSG2 increased to 65.7% at the P90, ICD colocalization increasing to 60.5% and lateral colocalization decreasing to 5.2%. Total percentage of colocalization of N-cad with Cx43 increased from 10.3% at the P1 to 37.1% at the P90, and only ICD colocalization increased, but lateral colocalization kept about 5%. The colocalization pattern of DSG2 with Cx43 was similar to that of N-cad with Cx43. Total percentage of colocalization of N-cad with DSG2 was higher than those of N-cad or DSG2 with Cx43. The above results suggest that the formation of mechanical junctions at the ICD of cardiomyocyte is prior to that of electrochemistry junctions during postnatal development. In other words, cardiomyocyte growth needs a stable mechanical environment at first.

Ma Y.-G.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Ma Y.-G.,Lanzhou University | Ma Y.-G.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Dong L.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 12 more authors.
Apoptosis | Year: 2010

The large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (BK Ca) channels are highly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and play an essential role in the regulation of various physiological functions. Besides its electrophysiological function in vascular relaxation, BKCa has also been reported to be implicated in nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis of VSMCs. However, the molecular mechanism is not clear and has not been determined on cloned channels. The present study was designed to clarify whether activation of cloned BKCa channel was involved in NO-induced apoptosis in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cell. The cDNA encoding the α-subunit of BKCa channel, hSloα, was transiently transfected into HEK293 cells. The apoptotic death in HEK-hSloα cells was detected using immunocytochemistry, analysis of fragmented DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis, MTT test, and flow cytometry assays. Whole-cell and single-channel characteristics of HEK-hSloα cells exhibited functional features similar to native BKCa channel in VSMCs. Exposuring of HEK- hSloα cells to S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine increased the hSloα channel activities of whole-cell and single-channel, and then increased percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. However, blocking hSloα channels with 1 mM tetraethylammonia or 100 nM iberiotoxin significantly decreased the NO-induced apoptosis, whereas 30 μM NS1619, the specific agonist of BKCa, independently increased hSloα currents and induced apoptosis. These results indicated that activation of cloned BKCa channel was involved in NO-induced apoptosis of HEK293 cells. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Jiao B.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Zhang L.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Yu L.-Q.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | Lu Y.-M.,Key Laboratory of Aerospace Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica] | Year: 2013

The aim of this study was to compare in vivo and several in vitro cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) myocardial injury models, and choose a superior in vitro cardiac I-R model. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly grouped into in vivo, Langendorff, Langendorff + pacing, and working heart groups. Left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was ligated for 60 min and then reperfused for 120 min in in vivo and in vitro rat hearts. Cardiac function and myocardial infarct size were measured by using pressure transducer and TTC/Evans blue double staining, respectively. The results showed that heart rate was greater in in vivo model than those in the three in vitro models. Coronary flows were dropped after LAD ligation and could recover at early phase of releasing LAD ligation in I-R models of the isolated working heart, Langendorff and Langendorff with 300 beats/min of electrical stimulation. Left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) decreased during ischemia, and partially restored during reperfusion in the three in vitro models. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) increased during ischemia in the three in vitro models. LVEDP was significantly higher in the isolated working heart than those in Langendorff models during ischemia, whereafter decreased slowly during reperfusion. LVEDP elevated further in the initiation of reperfusion period and then decreased, but did not recover to normal levels during reperfusion in Langendorff and Langendorff + pacing groups. Left ventricular myocardial infarct size was (60.4 ± 5.4)% in in vivo I-R model, which was significantly higher than that in Langendorff model and the isolated working heart. Notably, there was no significant difference in myocardial infarct size between in vivo model and Langendorff model with electrical stimulation. These results suggest that Langendorff I-R model with 300 beats/min of electrical stimulation can simulate the in vivo I-R myocardial injury.

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