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Liu H.,Northeast Normal University | Liu H.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | Jie D.,Northeast Normal University | Jie D.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | And 7 more authors.
Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology | Year: 2016

Phytoliths as a climate proxy are one of the most important and effective tools for reconstruction of paleoenvironment. In this paper, twelve Gramineae species of the subfamilies Panicoideae, Pooideae and Arundinoideae from the Changbai Mountains were selected, and 3698 phytoliths were counted. We measured six parameters of dumbell, elongate, lanceolate, crenate, saddle and silicified stomata. The seven shape factors of different types of phytoliths were deduced by the six parameters measured above and analyzed by nonparametric testing and discriminant analysis. The nonparametric testing indicated that the average value of the shape factor SF4 among the three subfamilies was obviously different. Discriminant analysis for the three subfamilies, also revealed that the discriminant accuracy was high (89.81%). Total discriminant accuracy using shape factors of dumbell phytoliths of Panicoideae was 73.12%. Discriminant accuracies using shape factors of elongate, lanceolate and crenate phytoliths of Pooideae were respectively 60.87, 59.21 and 87.07%. The discriminant accuracies using shape factors of saddle phytoliths and silicified stomata of Arundinoideae were 59.06 and 71.77%. At the same time, the shape factors of phytoliths from Setaria viridis and Leymus chinensis were used to test whether the discriminant functions established at the subfamily level were effective or not. Results showed discriminant functions precisely classify them, thus verified discriminant functions were useful. In conclusion, using the seven shape factors of phytoliths not only may improve the accuracy of classifying Gramineae, but also provides basis reference data for better understanding the presence and function of Gramineae plants at archaeological sites. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Li N.,Northeast Normal University | Li N.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | Jie D.,Northeast Normal University | Jie D.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | And 8 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2014

Research on response of phytolith assembles in Phragmites communis to two treatments is a new idea for studying global change. As P.communis is an important dominant species in the Songnen Grassland and widely distributed in sampling area and produce abundant phytoliths. P.communis was selected as the material and target to find a link between the phytolith variety and elevated CO2 concentration. An OTC (open top chamber) was used to elevate the concentration of CO2, and the phytoliths in P.communis were investigated to identify the effects. The phytolith record reveals the elevation of CO2 concentration can change the ratio of different types and size of phytoliths significantly. The number of silicified stomata and Saddle decreased while hair cell increased after elevated CO2 treatment. Moreover, after the measurement using a particle-size analyzer and under a microscope, phytoliths grow smaller after elevated CO2 treatment. Research on relationship between phytolith and CO2 concentration renews the traditional understanding. This study introduces a different way to study the influence of global change, and the use of common reed could provide basic data for other studies to make regional contrast with the same species. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Li B.,Northeast Normal University | Li B.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | Feng Y.,Northeast Normal University | Feng Y.,Key Laboratory for Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration | And 6 more authors.
Chinese Geographical Science | Year: 2015

Deposited in plant cells and their intercellular space, phytoliths, a special form of silica, could be used to determine information on plant structure and physiology especially their size and content. With the hypothesis that phytolith in plant would change under variable climate and environment, the dominant plant species in Songnen grassland, guinea grass (Leymus chinensis), was treated by an open-top chamber (OTC) to elevate CO2 concentration, infrared heaters, and artificial nitrogen (N) addition for three years from 2006–2008. Phytoliths were extracted by wet-ashing method and analyzed by variance analysis and so on. We found that the responses to elevated CO2 are complicated, and warming is positive while N addition is negative to the deposition of phytoliths in L. chinensis leaves. Especially, warming could reduce the negative impact of N addition on phytolith in L. chinensis. The short cell’s taxonomic in graminea is significant because of no disappearance with simulated environmental changes. The phytolith originated in the long cell and plant intercellular space are more sensitive to elevated CO2 concentration, warming, and N addition, and could become some new indicators for environmental changes. In conclusion, different phytolith types have various responses to simulated warming, N addition and elevated CO2 concentration. © 2015, Science Press, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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