Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province

Hangzhou, China

Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province

Hangzhou, China
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Zhang Y.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province | Zhao Y.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

Floodwater of paddy field under swine manure amendments contains high levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a precursor of carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and DOC is an indicator of DOM concentration. The major objectives of this paddy field experiment were to evaluate the reactivity of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursors in floodwater and to measure the potential effects of organic fertilization via swine manure on THMs precursors' export from organic rice production. Four swine manure organic amendment rates (0 [Ctr], 714.1 [Low], 1428.2 [Middle], and 2142.3 [High] kg·hm-2) were applied over the rice growing seasons in 4-by 5-m plots constructed to facilitate the measurement of DOC, ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) and trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) in floodwater. There were linear correlations (p<0.001) between these measurements. The three indicators in floodwater increased with the increase of amendment rates. Within 7 days, exporting potential of DOC had decreased by 32.9% to 47.5% across the amendment rates. At least 1 week between swine manure amendment and a predicted rainfall event or irrigation event would be the best case scenario for managing organic matter to meet crop requirements and lowering risk of DBPs precursors' export, thus paddy soil behaved as sinks rather than sources of DOC exporting into surrounding waterways. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Liang X.Q.,Zhejiang University | Li L.,Zhejiang University | Chen Y.X.,Zhejiang University | Li H.,Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Soil Science Society of America Journal | Year: 2013

Because excessive P fertilizer application in rice (Oryza sativa L.) systems leads to P losses in ambient waters, P management strategies that satisfy crop P demand while minimizing P loss are essential to productive and environmentally benign rice production. The main objective of this paddy field experiment was to measure the effects of organic fertilization via swine (Sus scrofa) manure on dissolved P losses by lateral seepage from organic rice production. Four swine manure organic amendment rates (0 [Ctr], 26 [Low], 39 [Middle], and 52 [High] kg P ha-1) were applied over the course of three rice growing seasons in 4- by 5-m plots constructed to facilitate the measurement of total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and reactive phosphorus (DRP) via lateral seepage and surface runoff. The TDP and DRP concentrations in the lateral seepage water increased with increasing amendment rates. Lateral seepage was one of the important pathways of P losses from organic paddy fields. The seasonal averages of TDP fluxes by lateral seepage varied from 1.95 to 4.30 g P m-1 (bund scale) and 0.39 to 0.86 g P m-2 (plot scale) among the amendment rates (from low to high), accounting for 13.0 to 15.6% of the total P applied. In addition, floodwater level acted as the main driving force for the P lateral seepage losses from paddy fields, with a positive linear relationship (R2 = 0.50) between floodwater level and daily lateral flow during the flooded periods (P = 0.05). Based on these results, P lateral seepage losses from organic rice production system would be minimized by shallow floodwater management and low swine manure amendment. © Soil Science Society of America.


Liang X.Q.,Zhejiang University | Chen Y.X.,Zhejiang University | Nie Z.Y.,Zhejiang University | Ye Y.S.,Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

Resource-conserving irrigation and fertilizer management practices have been developed for rice systems which may help address water quality concerns by reducing N and P losses via surface runoff. Field experiments under three treatments, i.e., farmers' conventional practice (FCP), alternate wetting and drying (AWD), and AWD integrated with site-specific nutrient management (AWD + SSNM) were carried out during two rice seasons at two sites in the southwest Yangtze River delta region. Across site years, results indicated that under AWD irrigation (i.e., AWD and AWD + SSNM), water inputs were reduced by 13.4 ~ 27.5 % and surface runoff was reduced by 30.2 ~ 36.7 % compared to FCP. When AWD was implemented alone, total N and P loss masses via surface runoff were reduced by 23.3 ~ 30.4 % and 26.9 ~ 31.7 %, respectively, compared to FCP. However, nutrient concentrations of surface runoff did not decrease under AWD alone. Under AWD + SSNM, total N and P loss masses via surface runoff were reduced to a greater extent than AWD alone (39.4 ~ 47.6 % and 46.1 ~ 48.3 % compared to FCP, respectively), while fertilizer inputs and N surpluses significantly decreased and rice grain yields increased relative to FCP. Therefore, by more closely matching nutrient supply with crop demand and reducing both surface runoff and nutrient concentrations of surface runoff, our results demonstrate that integration of AWD and SSNM practices can mitigate N and P losses via surface runoff from rice fields while maintaining high yields. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Wang Y.,Zhejiang University | Hu J.,Zhejiang University | Lin W.,Zhejiang University | Wang N.,Zhejiang University | And 12 more authors.
Environment International | Year: 2016

Migrant workers who work and live in polluted environment are a special vulnerable group in the accelerating pace of urbanization and industrialization in China. In the electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, for example, migrant workers' exposure to pollutants, such as PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), is the result of an informal e-waste recycling process. A village in an electronic waste recycling area where migrant workers gather was surveyed. The migrant workers' daily routines were simulated according to the three-space transition: work place-on the road-home. Indoor air and dust in the migrant workers' houses and workplaces and the ambient air on the roads were sampled. The PCB levels of the air and dust in the places corresponding to the migrant workers are higher than those for local residents. The migrant workers have health risks from PCBs that are 3.8 times greater than those of local residents. This is not only caused by the exposure at work but also by their activity patterns and the environmental conditions of their dwellings. These results revealed the reason for the health risk difference between the migrant workers and local residents, and it also indicated that lifestyle and economic status are important factors that are often ignored compared to occupational exposure. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Ye Y.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province | Zhou K.,Zhejiang Province Environmental Monitoring Station | And 5 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

A field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of alternate wetting and drying (AWD) irrigation and controlled-release fertilizers (controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer and polymer-coated urea: BBF and PCU) application on the nitrogen (N) dynamics in percolation water at 30 cm soil depth in paddy fields in Taihu Lake region. Results showed that TN, NH4 +-N and NO2 --N concentrations of the percolation water in all treatments peaked within the first 10 days after fertilization, and decreased gradually afterwards. NH4 +-N (0.22~15.15 mg·L-1) was the main form of N in percolation water which accounted for 70.1% of TN, whereas NO3 --N (0.10~0.95 mg·L-1) and NO2 --N (0~0.24 mg·L-1) had lower proportions of 13. 0% and 1. 3%, respectively. Compared with continuous flooding (CF) irrigation, AWD irrigation did not significantly affect percolation water N concentrations, but decreased the amount of percolation water by 14.2% and the leaching loss of TN by 9.4%. N fertilization remarkably increased TN, NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, and NO2 --N concentrations as well as the proportions of NH4 +-N to TN and NO2 --N to TN in percolation water. On average, BBF and PCU decreased the TN concentrations by 10.2% and 43.3% and TN leaching losses by 26.1% and 39.5%, respectively, in comparison with conventional urea. Therefore, the combination of AWD irrigation and PCU application can be helpful to decrease the leaching loss of N, and promote the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution. ©, 2014, Science Press. All right reserved.


Ye Y.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province | Li L.,Zhejiang University | And 2 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

A 2-year field plot experiment was conducted to study the effects of two water regimes (continuous flooding irrigation, CF; and alternate wetting and drying irrigation, AWD) and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea, UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer, BBF; and polymer-coated urea, PCU) on the dynamics of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved phosphorus (DP) and particulate phosphorus (PP) concentrations as well as runoff and leaching losses of P in paddy fields in Taihu Lake basin in 2010 and 2011. Results showed that TP and DP concentrations in surface water exhibited a similar trend with both peaking within the first day after fertilization and decreasing sharply afterward. TP and DP concentrations in percolation water also displayed a similar trend with both peaking within the first 7 days after fertilization and then decreasing gradually. PP was the main form of P in surface water, whereas DP was the main form of P in percolation water. The AWD irrigation decreased TP and DP concentrations but DP/TP in surface and percolation water remained unchanged. Meanwhile, AWD decreased the runoff and leaching losses of P by 24.7%~57.4% and 21.0%~25.3%, respectively, in comparison with CF. N fertilization increased P concentrations in surface and percolation water and resulted in more TP loss via runoff and leaching. Compared with UREA, BBF increased P concentrations in surface and percolation water as well as TP loss via runoff and leaching, whereas PCU decreased these parameters. Collectively, the combination of AWD irrigation and PCU application can be helpful in reducing P loss from paddy fields and promoting the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Guo R.,Zhejiang University | Guo R.,Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety of Zhejiang Province | Yang J.,Zhejiang University | Liang X.,Zhejiang University | And 7 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2013

Eutrophication in waters was closely related to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loads. The main objective of this research was to investigate the relationship among suspended (or benthic) chlorophyll-a and N (or P) in Tiaoxi River. 90 water samples were collected from both main channel and tributaries in the river. Results showed that the river seriously suffered from total N pollution. Suspended chlorophyll-a had a good correlation with both N and P, while benthic chlorophyll-a was only correlated with N. According to the criterion of suspended chlorophyll-a (≤5 μg·L-1) and benthic chlorophyll-a (≤100 mg·m-2), total N threshold was set as 1.3 mg·L-1 for the tributaries which was significantly greater than the main channel (0.9 mg·L-1), while it was close (0.05 mg·L-1) for P. N and P threshold of the main channel and tributaries will help to improve the overall water quality of Tiaoxi River, and be indicative for non-point source pollution control in other similar rivers.

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