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Chen D.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Kang H.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Sun X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (NST=0.751> GST=0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's FS indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia. © 2012 Chen et al.

Sun X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Sun X.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Rosanoff A.,Center for Magnesium Education and Research | Liu C.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 2 more authors.
Crop and Pasture Science | Year: 2015

Potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are three macro-elements essential for plants and animals. The ratios K:Mg or K:(Ca+Mg) are viewed as indices of physiological status in livestock animals. In plants, Ca, Mg and K concentrations can vary with climate in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, with a widespread tree species (Chinese cork oak, Quercus variabilis Blume) and an acorn predator (the weevil Curculio davidi Fairmaire), we investigate how K, Ca and Mg vary in soils, plant tissues (leaves and acorns) and a consumer (herbivore insects) with climatic variables induced by latitude (LAT) across the temperate-subtropical areas of eastern China. Concentrations of K, Ca and Mg in soils, leaves, acorns and weevil larvae showed different degrees of variation across the study area, but only Mg concentration increased significantly with rising LAT across all four trophic levels, albeit with varying slopes. With rising mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP), soil Ca significantly decreased, as did leaf and acorn K concentrations, whereas all four tropic levels showed significant decreases in Mg content with both MAT and MAP (P<0.05-0.001). Leaf and acorn Ca:Mg showed significant relationships with LAT and MAT (P<0.05-0.01). The K:(Mg+Ca) ratio in soils and weevil larvae increased linearly with MAP (P<0.05), and acorn K:(Mg+Ca) ratio varied in a concave manner (P<0.001). Our results suggest that variations of Ca, Mg and K in plant tissues and weevil larva across a study area of 20° LAT range were largely driven by climatic factors, and that Mg concentration changes in all four trophic levels with climate (and LAT) largely drive changes in soil, plant and consumer ratios between Mg, Ca and/or K. These results provide information on possible effects of climate change on nutrient dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. © CSIRO 2015.

Zhang X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhang X.,Key Laboratory for Urban Agriculture South | Yin S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Yin S.,Key Laboratory for Urban Agriculture South | And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Rice is one of the major crops of southern China and Southeast Asia. Rice paddies are one of the largest agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) sources in this region because of the application of large quantities of nitrogen (N) fertilizers to the plants. In particular, the production of methane (CH4) is a concern. Investigating a reasonable amount of fertilizers to apply to plants is essential to maintaining high yields while reducing GHG emissions. In this study, three levels of fertilizer application [high (300kgN/ha), moderate (210kgN/ha), and low (150kgN/ha)] were designed to examine the effects of variation in N fertilizer application rate on carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the paddy fields in Chongming Island, Shanghai, China. The high level (300kgN/ha) represented the typical practice adopted by the local farmers in the area. Maximum amounts of CH4 and N2O fluxes were observed upon high-level fertilizer application in the plots. Cumulative N2O emissions of 23.09, 40.10, and 71.08mgN2O/m2 were observed over the growing season in 2011 under the low-, moderate-, and high-level applications plots, respectively. The field data also indicated that soil temperatures at 5 and 10cm soil depths significantly affected soil respiration; the relationship between Rs and soil temperature in this study could be described by an exponential model. Our study showed that reducing the high rate of fertilizer application is a feasible way of attenuating the global-warming potential while maintaining the optimum yield for the studied paddy fields. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

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