Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation
Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation
You Z.-l.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
Xia Q.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
Liang F.-r.,Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine |
Tang Y.-j.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2010
Aim of study: To determine the effect of jujuboside A (JuA) in modulating the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor subunits gene expression of hippocampal neurons at different terms in vitro. Materials and methods: Hippocampal neurons of rat were cultured in vitro, treated with JuA or diazepam (DZP). Then GABAA receptor mRNAs were evaluated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results: JuA at the low dose of 41 μM (about 0.05 g/l) induced significant increase of GABAA receptor α1, α5, β2 subunit mRNAs in both 24 and 72 h treatments. JuA at the high dose of 82 μM (about 0.1 g/l) significantly increased GABAA receptor α1, α5 subunit mRNA levels and decreased β2 subunit mRNA level at 24 h treatment, and decreased GABAA receptor subunit α1, β2 mRNAs expression at 72 h treatment. DZP of 10 μM significantly increased expression of GABAA receptor subunit α1, α5 and decreased expression of β2 at 24 h treatment, and decreased α1, α5, β2 subunits gene expression at 72 h treatment. Conclusion: Differences in alterations in GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs expression following JuA and DZP treatments could help to explain the differences in the pharmacological action of the two drugs. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu B.,CAS Institute of Automation |
Li J.,Beijing Normal University |
Yu C.,Capital Medical University |
Li Y.,CAS Institute of Automation |
And 6 more authors.
NeuroImage | Year: 2010
Twin studies have indicated a common genetic origin for intelligence and for variations in brain morphology. Our previous diffusion tensor imaging studies found an association between intelligence and white matter integrity of specific brain regions or tracts. However, specific genetic determinants of the white matter integrity of these brain regions and tracts are still unclear. In this study, we assess whether and how catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphisms affect brain white matter integrity. We genotyped twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the COMT gene and performed haplotype analyses on data from 79 healthy subjects. Our subjects had the same three major COMT haplotypes (termed the HPS, APS and LPS haplotypes) as previous studies have reported as regulating significantly different levels of enzymatic activity and dopamine. We used the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values from four regions and five tracts of interest to assess the effect of COMT polymorphisms, including the well-studied val158met SNP and the three main haplotypes that we had identified, on intelligence-related white matter integrity. We identified an association between the mean FA values of two regions in the bilateral prefrontal lobes and the COMT haplotypes, rather than between them and val158met. The haplotype-FA value associations modulated nonlinearly and fit an inverted U-model. Our findings suggest that COMT haplotypes can nonlinearly modulate the intelligence-related white matter integrity of the prefrontal lobes by more significantly influencing prefrontal dopamine variations than does val158met. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kendrick K.M.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
Dore B.,University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia 19104Pennsylvania |
Becker B.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2017
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n=23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n=20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm. Relative to nonusing controls, marijuana users demonstrated increased neural activity in a bilateral frontal network comprising precentral, middle cingulate, and supplementary motor regions during reappraisal of negative affect (P<0.05, FWE) and impaired emotion regulation success on the behavioral level (P<0.05). Amygdala-focused analyses further revealed impaired amygdala downregulation in the context of decreased amygdala-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex functional connectivity (P<0.05, FWE) during reappraisal in marijuana users relative to controls. Together, the present findings could reflect an unsuccessful attempt of compensatory recruitment of additional neural resources in the context of disrupted amygdala-prefrontal interaction during volitional emotion regulation in marijuana users. As such, impaired volitional regulation of negative affect might represent a consequence of, or risk factor for, regular marijuana use. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang Z.,Nanjing University |
Lu G.,Nanjing University |
Zhong Y.,Nanjing University |
Tan Q.,Nanjing University |
And 5 more authors.
Brain Research | Year: 2010
Increasing evidence from behavioral and neuroimaging studies suggests that mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is possibly associated with the default-mode brain function. However, the alteration of coherent neural activities in such a default-mode network (DMN) in mTLE has yet to be investigated. The present study analyzed the resting-state functional MRI data from two groups of mTLE patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis using independent component analysis. In comparison with healthy controls, decreased functional connectivity in the dorsal mesial prefrontal cortex, mesial temporal lobe and inferior temporal cortex was observed in these two patient groups. Moreover, the right but not left mTLE patients showed bilaterally decreased functional connectivity in the mesial temporal lobe and increased functional connectivity in the posterior cingulate cortex. The decreased functional connectivity of the mesial temporal lobe was related to the epilepsy duration, suggesting that the posterior cingulate cortex may play a compensatory role for the altered DMN in the right mTLE. These findings indicate that the DMN is widely affected even if a single network node is impaired. An extensive regional overlap between the DMN and the previously described epileptic network suggests that the widespread functional impairments in mTLE may attribute to an aberrant DMN. The distinct patterns of the DMN between the left and right mTLE support a view that there are different pathological mechanisms underlying these two types of epilepsies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li L.,University of California at Berkeley |
Li L.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
Gratton C.,University of California at Berkeley |
Yao D.,Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation |
Knight R.T.,University of California at Berkeley
Brain Research | Year: 2010
We investigated the contribution of frontal and parietal cortices to bottom-up and top-down visual attention using electrophysiological measures in humans. Stimuli consisted of triangles, each with a different color and orientation. Subjects were presented with a sample triangle which served as the target for that trial. An array was subsequently presented with the target and three additional distractor stimuli, which were constructed to induce either automatic "pop-out" (50%) or effortful "search" (50%) behavior. For pop-out, both the color and orientation of the distractors differed from the target, which attracted attention automatically. For search, only the orientation of the distractors differed from the target, so effortful attention was required. Pop-out target detection generated a P300 event-related potential (ERP) with a peak amplitude over parietal sites whereas the search condition generated a fronto-centrally distributed P300. Reaction times and associated P300 latency in frontal areas were shorter for pop-out targets than for search targets. We used time-frequency analysis to compare pop-out and search conditions, within a 200-650 ms time-window and a 4-55 Hz frequency band. There was a double dissociation, with significantly increased power from 4 to 24 Hz in parietal areas for pop-out targets and increased power from 4 to 24 Hz in frontal regions for search targets. Taken together the ERP and time-frequency results provide evidence that the control of bottom-up and top-down attention depend on differential contributions from parietal and frontal cortices. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.