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Chen X.G.,Henan University of Science and Technology | Xu C.S.,Henan Normal University | Xu C.S.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

Colony stimulating factors (CSF) have been considered to modulate liver regeneration (LR) after partial hepatectomy (PH) at the tissue level. However, it remains unclear about precise mechanism of action of CSF in regeneration at the cellular level. Therefore, eight rat liver cell types were isolated by Percoll gradient centrifugation and magnetic beads. CSF-mediated signaling pathway genes were obtained by searching the related pathway databases and their expression profiles in 8 hepatic cell types were measured using rat Genome 230 2.0 Microarray. RT-PCR was performed to assess the reliability of chip results. The result showed a large difference in expression profiles of CSF-mediated signaling pathway genes between different cell types; most genes involved in CSF-mediated signaling pathways were mainly unregulated across liver cell samples. The implication of these genes in LR was analyzed by the bioinformatics and systems biology method. According to chip results and gene synergy, a significant enhancement of the CSF3-mediated Pi3k/Akt pathway at 30-36 h in hepatocytes and at 24 h in biliary epithelial cells post-PH could be associated with active proliferation in these two cell types; the striking decrease in Jak/Stat cascade activity in hepatic stellate cells at 2 and 12 h post- PH or even inactive in dendritric cells during the whole LR implied that proliferation of these two cell types is possibly regulated by other signaling pathways. These data suggest the potential relevance of CSF in liver regeneration at the cellular level. © FUNPEC-RP. Source


Chen X.G.,Henan University of Science and Technology | Xu C.S.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.S.,Henan Normal University | Liu Y.M.,Henan University of Science and Technology
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

It has been well established that ERK1/2 signaling, often subdivided into nine types of pathways, can regulate the hepatocyte proliferative response during liver regeneration. However, the effect of ERK1/2 signaling on the proliferation of other hepatic cell types remains unclear. We isolated and purified 8 liver cell types at 10 time points after 2/3 hepatectomy in adult rats. For each cell type, mRNA expression changes for ERK1/2 signaling-involved genes were monitored up to 168 h, using microarrays. Real-time PCR assays were performed for array data verification. The expression levels of these genes varied considerably between different cell types. Integrating microarray results with gene synergical analysis, at the priming phase, activation of integrin/Grb2/Ras pathway in hepatocytes apparently contributed to G0/G1 transition. Two other pathways, G-protein/EPAC/Rap1 and G-protein/PKA/Rap1, were stimulated in hepatic stellate cells, while RTK/PKC/Ras and RTK/Grb2/Ras were stimulated in Kupffer cells. At the progressive phase, the ERK1/2 pathway is involved in hepatocyte replication; three pathways, namely Ca2+/PKC/Ras, RTK/Grb2/Ras and G-protein/EPAC/Rap1, were found to play roles in biliary epithelial cell proliferation, while RTK/PKC/Ras and RTK/Grb2/Ras were involved in Kupffer cell proliferation, and G-protein/PKC/Ras in pit cell proliferation. At the terminal phase, the promotive effect of the ERK1/2 pathway on replication of hepatocytes, biliary epithelial cells, oval cells, hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells, and dendritic cells was considerably reduced, possibly due to their differentiation at the end of regeneration. G-protein/PKC/Ras, integrin/Grb2/Ras and G-protein/PKA/Rap1 pathways were active in sinusoidal endothelial cells, perhaps to aid in their proliferation. We conclude that ERK1/2 has a signaling role in the regulation of proliferation of 8 cell types during liver regeneration process. © FUNPEC-RP. Source


Chang C.,Xinjiang University | Chang C.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.,Henan Normal University
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2010

To explore gene expression of aromatic amino acid family metabolism and their metabolic pathways of eight liver cell types in rat liver regeneration, eight kinds of rat regenerating liver cells were isolated by using the combination of percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic bead methods. Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression changes of genes associated with aromatic amino acid family metabolism. The transcriptome atlas showed that the metabolic pathway of phenylalanine was mainly catalyzed into tyrosine in hepatic stellate cells in the initiation stage, tyrosine was oxidized into dopa and norepinephrine in biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells, and norepinephrine was finally catalyzed into adrenaline in biliary epithelia cells and pit cells in the progress stage. Thyroid hormone of tyrosine catabolites was synthesized from tyrosine in almost all cells in different stage of LR, among which genes of T3 biosynthesis were increased in HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. Tryptophan was decarboxylated to 5-hydroxytryptamine in dendritic cells in the progress stage. Based on the results as above, we concluded that phenylalanine is the major source of tyrosine, proliferation of biliary epithelia cells and dendritic cells maybe promote by tyrosine catabolites-dopa and norepinephrine, biliary epithelia cells and pit cells maybe promote by adrenaline. T3 maybe play a major role on proliferation of HCs, BECs, SECs and DCs in the progress stage. The proliferation of dendritic cells maybe promote by tryptophan catabolites-5-hydroxytryptamine. © 2010. Source


Chang C.,Xinjiang University | Chang C.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.,Henan Normal University
Cell Biology International | Year: 2010

To explore glutamine family amino acid metabolism of eight liver cell types in rat liver regeneration, eight kinds of rat regenerating liver cells were isolated by using the combination of Percoll density gradient centrifugation and immunomagnetic bead methods, then Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array was used to detect the expression profiles of the genes associated with metabolism of glutamine family amino acid in rat liver regeneration and finally how these genes involved in activities of eight regenerating liver cell types were analysed by the methods of bioinformatics and systems biology. The results showed that in the priming stage of liver regeneration, hepatic stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells transformed proline and glutamine into glutamate; hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and dendritic cells catabolized glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate or succinate; hepatic stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelial cells catalysed glutamate into glutamyl-tRNA for protein synthesis; urea cycle, which degraded from arginine, was enhanced in biliary epithelia cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells and dendritic cells; synthesis of polyamines from arginine was enhanced in biliary epithelia cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and dendritic cells; the content of NO was increased in sinusoidal endothelial cells and dendritic cells; degradation of proline was enhanced in hepatocytes and biliary epithelia cells. In the progress stage, biliary epithelia cells converted glutamine into GMP and glucosamine 6-phosphate; oval cells converted glutamine into glucosamine 6-phosphate; hepatic stellate cells converted glutamine into NAD; the content of NO, which degraded from arginine, was increased in biliary epithelia cells, oval cells, pit cells and dendritic cells. In the termination stage, oval cells converted proline into glutamate; glutamate degradation, which degraded from arginine, was enhanced in hepatocytes and dendritic cells; the content of NO was increased in oval cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, pit cells and dendritic cells. The synthesis of creatine phosphate was enhanced in hepatocytes, biliary epithelia cells, pit cells and dendritic cells in both progress and termination stages. In summary, glutamine family amino acid metabolism has some differences in liver regeneration in different liver cells. © The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2010 Portland Press Limited. Source


Wang G.-P.,Henan Normal University | Wang G.-P.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation | Xu C.-S.,Henan Normal University | Xu C.-S.,Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation
Molecular Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Liver regeneration (LR) is a process during which the liver recovers its mass and function after damage due to various causes such as partial hepatectomy (PH). It involves a sequence of well-orchestrated changes in physiological and biochemical activities, especially in the gene expression profile in a variety of liver cells. In order to produce reliable gene expression of target genes in eight kinds of rat hepatic cells during LR, the determination of internal control housekeeping genes (HKGs) is required. Eight kinds of hepatic cells were first isolated from liver tissue with high purity and activity. Then quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was applied to detect expression changes of six commonly used HKGs (18SrRNA, B2M, ACTB, UBC, GAPDH, and HK1) in eight types of hepatic cells isolated from regenerating liver at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 72, 120, and 168 h after PH. The amplification of the HKGs was statistically analyzed by using geNorm algorithm. Using this method, 18SrRNA-UBC, ACTB-HK1, ACTB-GADPH, B2M-ACTB, 18SrRNA-UBC, B2M-UBC, B2M-ACTB, and B2M-UBC were found to be the two most stable reference genes for rat regenerating hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells, biliary epithelial cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells, pit cells, dendritic cells, and oval cells, respectively, regardless of the stages of LR. In conclusion, this study has laid a good foundation for investigating gene expression of target genes in different types of hepatic cells during LR. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

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