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Zhao Y.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Hou Q.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Hou Q.,Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry
Acta Meteorologica Sinica | Year: 2010

The acid rain observation network of China Meteorological Administration was established in 1989 with 22 stations. From 1993 to 2005, more than 80 stations were included and maintained in the network. In 2006-2007, the number of stations in the network went up to 294. In consideration of the data continuity, data used in this paper are the 14-yr observations of the 80 stations from 1993 to 2006. Based on the 14-yr observation of acid rain, analysis shows that the acid rain in China dominates in the vast regions south of the Yangtze River. Limited presence of acid rain is observed in the northern part of China. The 14-yr acid rain data reveal an expanding tendency for acid rain area, with the north of China being a growing zone, and the South China remaining virtually unchanged. The most severely polluted zone of acid rain gradually moves from Southwest China to Central China and the middle part of South China. With regard to the acid intensity of rain, the period of 1993-1998 bears the highest acid intensity; the period of 1999-2002 shows a bit weakening intensity; and in the period of 2003-2006, the acid intensity of rain increases again, basically up to the average acidity of the period of 1993-1998 by the end of 2006. In addition, rain acidity in the north of China increases markedly. As to the causes of the acid rain situation in China, this paper examined the sulfur dioxide emissions as well as the rainwater chemicals monitoring data. Source

Hou Q.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Hou Q.,Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry | An X.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | An X.,Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

Using GIS software and based on exposure-response functions, this paper estimated the health-related economic losses that China suffered in 2009 due to the presence of particulate matter (PM10). The results show that China suffered a health-related economic loss due to PM10 of US$ 106.5billion, or 2.1% of China's GDP, for the year 2009. Some urban areas, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Changsha, reported large health-related economic losses due to PM10, with a value of US$ 1.5million per square kilometre or greater. Some parts of Beijing, Ji'nan, and Chongqing reported health-related economic losses due to PM10 as being greater than 4% of the 2009 GDP. © 2012. Source

An X.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | An X.,Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry | Hou Q.,Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences | Hou Q.,Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Epidemiological studies have found that atmospheric particulate matter, especially PM10 (inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) is one of the pollutants that are harmful to human health. In recent years, particulate matter pollution in China is becoming increasingly serious and PM10 has become the primary pollutant in Beijing and other cities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out studies and a health damage assessment of PM10. In human health damage assessment, measuring human exposure level to PM10 is required and crucial to provide accurate exposure data for the exposure-response relationship, and also for the accurate quantitative assessment of human exposure.The spatial distribution of particle concentration in China is variable because of spatial differences in the local economic level and the geographical environment. Along with the accelerating urbanisation in China, city population density is high, and the population distribution is variable between and within cities, thus resulting in different population numbers exposed to different concentration ranges. Therefore, an accurate assessment of China's level of exposure to particulate matter is a priority and the basis for assessing the damage to public health caused by particle pollution.Using high accuracy population and PM10 monitoring data, this study analysed the human exposure to PM10 in different regions and typical cities of China. The results show that for most areas of China, the population-weighted PM10 exposure concentration is slightly higher than the annual mean concentration, meaning that more of the population is exposed to high concentrations, and most of the population is exposed to levels that meet the second national standard (between 40 and 100 μg m-3), occupying about 83.7% of population and 76.3% of area in China. The population exposure to PM10 is higher in two types of typical regions and cities: areas with dense human populations such as Jingjinji, Beijing and Tianjin, and areas with more sand dust and factories such as Northwest and Chongqing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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