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Li M.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Li M.,Jiangsu Province Biomass Energy and Materials Laboratory | Li M.,Beijing Institute of Technology | Li M.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | And 25 more authors.
Materials and Design | Year: 2017

A tung oil derived epoxidized dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester (epoxidized-C21-DAE), was synthesized through transesterification, a Diels-Alder reaction, and epoxidation. The chemical structure of the epoxidized-C21-DAE was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The thermal and migration stabilities and the mechanical properties of PVC samples were investigated using discoloration, tensile, exudation, volatility, and extraction tests as well as thermal gravity analysis (TGA), TGA–FTIR analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The petroleum-based plasticizer, dioctyl terephthalate (DOTP), and the biobased plasticizer, epoxidized fatty acid methyl ester (EFAME), were chosen as controls and their properties compared with epoxidized-C21-DAE. The application of epoxidized C21-DAE as a biobased, primary plasticizer for poly(vinyl chloride) significantly improved PVC thermal stability over that of DOTP and EFAME. The mechanical properties of this type of PVC were superior to those of DOTP. In addition, the migration and volatility stabilities of epoxidized-C21-DAE were much better than EFAME. Epoxidized-C21-DAE could, therefore, be fully substituted for commercial DOTP or EFAME. Tung oil derived epoxidized-C21-DAE has good potential as a primary PVC plasticizer. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Gao H.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Gao H.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Gao H.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Gao H.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 10 more authors.
Tetrahedron | Year: 2013

A series of triarylamines based on dehydroabietic acid methyl ester moieties (6a-h) were synthesized for possible application as hole transporting materials for organic electroluminescent devices. The target compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Their optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties were investigated using UV-vis, PL spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. CV measurements show that the compounds present suitable HOMO values (in a range of -4.63 to -5.11 eV) for hole injection, which is confirmed by theoretical calculations. All compounds were thermally stable. Organic light-emitting diode devices having 6f, 6g, and 6h as a hole transporting layer showed better performance of maximum brightness, turn-on voltage, and maximum luminous efficiency than a comparable device NPB. These compounds could be excellent candidates for applications in OLED devices. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Yang X.-J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Yang X.-J.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Yang X.-J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Yang X.-J.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 13 more authors.
Environment, Energy and Sustainable Development - Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering, ICFEEE 2013 | Year: 2014

Two different novel oil-based Vinyl Ester Resin (VER) monomers derived from Soybean Oil (SO) and Dimer Fatty Acids (DFA) were prepared via ring-opening polymerization and esterification modification. Moreover, their copolymers with different weight ratios were prepared by a thermal polymerization to develop novel bio-based materials, and then their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were also investigated. The analysis results of FTIR demonstrated that these two novel VER monomers have been successfully synthesized. Mechanical tests showed that these prepared copolymers' flexural strength could reach 20.55 MPa. Micro-morphological investigation displayed glossy and smooth flexural fractured surfaces with brittle characteristics. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) results demonstrated that the copolymers had excellent thermal stability, as all copolymers showed high main thermal initial decomposition temperature above 380°C. These copolymers can be used as ecofriendly materials for biomedical and other applications to replace the currently used petroleum-based polymers. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.


Yang X.J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Yang X.J.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Yang X.J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Yang X.J.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 14 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Myrcene-based vinyl ester resin (VER) monomer was prepared via simple Diels-Alder reaction and ring-opening esterification. The molecular structure and UV curing behaviors of prepared VER monomer were characterized using FTIR analysis method. Moreover, the mechanical properties, thermal stability and hardness of its UV cured product were also investigated. FTIR analysis results demonstrated that the target myrcene-based VER monomer has been successfully synthesized. UV curing behaviors analysis showed that prepared myrcene-based VER monomer could reach ultimate cured level within 50 s. Physical properties study showed that the UV cured product has certain tensile, flexural, impact resistance properties and high hardness. TGA indicated the UV cured product had excellent thermal stability, as it showed high thermal initial decomposition temperature at 359.6°C. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Li S.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Li S.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Li S.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 21 more authors.
Journal of Polymers and the Environment | Year: 2013

Two dissimilar renewable resource-based thermoplastic acorn nutlet (TPAN) materials were prepared via twin-screw extrusion with the aid of glycerol or monoethanolamine as plasticizers, and then two TPAN/polycaprolactone (PCL) composites with different plasticized systems were prepared. Mechanical test showed that glycerol-based composites had excellent tensile properties, and at a PCL content of 50 wt%, their tensile strength and elongation at break reached 14.4 MPa and 1,361 %, respectively. The micro-morphologic investigation of liquid-nitrogen brittle fracture surface indicated certain interface adhesion between glycerol-based thermoplastic acorn nutlet (GTPAN) and PCL. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the weight ratios of TPAN in composites significantly affected the crystallinity, glass transition temperature (Tg), melting temperature (Tm) and thermal stability of composites. Soil burial degradation analysis displayed that all composites had excellent biodegradability. These results demonstrated that GTPAN/PCL composites had superior mechanical and biodegradable properties, enough to partially replace the conventional thermoplastic plastics. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Li S.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Li S.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Li S.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Li S.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 24 more authors.
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2016

Composites of acorn starch (AS) and poly(1actic acid) (PLA) modified with dimer fatty acid (DFA) or dimer fatty acid polyamide (DFAPA) were produced by a hot-melt extrusion method. The effects of DFA and DFAPA contents on the mechanical, hydrophobic, thermal properties and melt fluidity of the composites were studied under an invariable AS-to-PLA mass ratio of 40/60. SEM and DMA research results show that the compatibility of AS/PLA composites are determined by the dosage of DFA or DFAPA. The hydrophobicity and melt fluidity of composites are improved with the addition of DFA and DFAPA. The glass transition temperatures of the composites are all reduced remarkably by additives DFA and DFAPA. However, DFA and DFAPA exert different effects on the mechanical properties of AS/PLA composites. In the DFAPA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength first increase and then decrease with the increase of DFAPA dosage; the mechanical strength is maximized when the dosage of DFAPA is 2 wt% of total weight. In the DFA-modified system, the tensile and flexural strength decrease with the increase of DFA dosage. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Tang X.D.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Tang X.D.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Tang X.D.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Tang X.D.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 22 more authors.
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

A Diol with endocyclic structure that is 1-methyl-4-isopropyl-bicyclo [2,2,2]-2,3-two hydroxymethyl-5-Octene(MIBHO), deriving from terpene, was synthesized using the aid of lithium aluminium hydride(LAH) as reductant in THF media at 65 °C. The optimum synthesis conditions were confirmed by analysing the factors on reacting temperature, reacting time, different solvents and reductants. The molecular structure of the novel compound has been characterized by FT-IR, GC-MS and 1H-NMR analysis. The data reveal that LAH could effectively reduce terpene maleic anhydride to corresponding alcohol, and the conversion rate of raw material could reach 84%. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Xu J.,Institute of Chemical Industry of Forestry Products | Xu J.,Key Laboratory of Biomass Energy and Material | Xu J.,National Engineering Laboratory for Biomass Chemical Utilization | Xu J.,Key and Laboratory on Forest Chemical Engineering | And 8 more authors.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2016

The increasing demand for transportation fuels, coupled with the depletion of petroleum resources and growing environmental concerns necessitates the development of efficient conversion technologies for the production of biofuels. Thermochemical approaches hold great promise for converting biomass into liquid fuels in one step using heat and catalysis. Several thermochemical processes are employed in the production of liquid biofuels depending on the target product properties: 1) direct thermal conversion; 2) catalytic cracking; 3) hydrodeoxygenation of plant oils and animal fats. Since enormous quantities of liquid fuels are consumed by transport vehicles, converting biomass into drop-in liquid fuels may reduce the dependence of the fuel market on petroleum-based fuel products. In this review, we summarize recent progress in technologies for large-scale direct thermochemical production of drop-in biofuels. We focus on the technical aspects critical to commercialization of the technologies for production of drop-in fuels from triglycerides, including cracking catalysts, catalytic cracking mechanisms, catalytic reactors, and biofuel properties. We also discuss future prospects for direct thermochemical conversion in biorefineries for the production of high grade biofuels. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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