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Kettering, OH, United States

Sansone R.A.,Wright State University | Sansone R.A.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Sansone L.A.,U.S. Air force
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2013

The relationship between obesity and alcohol/drug misuse has been examined through both site studies and large epidemiological studies. In reviewing 19 site studies that have examined alcohol misuse among the obese, in comparison with rates before 1990, rates since 1990 have doubled (6.2% to 14.3%). Of the 7 studies that have examined drug misuse among the obese, rates average 8.0%. Given the potential limitations of varying study populations, methodologies, and prevalence assessments, these rates closely reflect those in the general population, according to data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication study. As for the findings from 5 large epidemiological studies, 4 studies reported rates of substance misuse among the obese that were equal to or less than the general population, but one study reported higher rates (specifically in men). Overall, findings do not clearly support the contention that obese individuals are at a higher risk for substance misuse, although specific sub-populations of the obese may be (e.g., those with Cluster B personality disorders). If there is an association between some obese populations and substance abuse, this may be accounted for by overlapping neurohormonal correlates. However, some authorities contend that food and drugs compete for the same reward pathways in the brain, suggesting that obesity may actually be protective against substance misuse. © 2013 Matrix Medical Communications. All rights reserved. Source


Sansone R.A.,Wright State University | Sansone R.A.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Sansone L.A.,U.S. Air force
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Herpes zoster and an associated complication, postherpetic neuralgia, are both attributable to the varicella zoster virus. This virus, which lies dormant within the affected sensory ganglia after an initial infection, appears to be triggered in part by a decrease in immunity. According to available research, stress, stressful life events, and depressive symptoms are identified antecedents to outbreaks of herpes zoster. Likewise, the development of postherpetic neuralgia has been associated with the psychological antecedents of somatization, nonspecific personality psychopathology, hypochondriasis, and somatic symptoms. Also studied, the role of mood and anxiety symptoms as antecedents for postherpetic neuralgia remains controversial. In conjunction with other factors (e.g., age, nutritional status, comorbid medical diseases), stress and psychological symptoms may contribute to a lowering of immunity and thereby function as antecedents as well as consequents of both herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Few studies have examined explicit psychiatric diagnoses and their association with varicella zoster virus reactivation. © 2014, Matrix Medical Communications. All rights reserved. Source


Sansone R.A.,Wright State University | Sansone R.A.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Sansone L.A.,U.S. Air force
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. © 2014, Matrix Medical Communications. All rights reserved. Source


Sansone R.A.,Wright State University | Sansone R.A.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Sansone L.A.,Wright Patterson Afb Medical Center In Wpafb
Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Rumination is a form of perserverative cognition that focuses on negative content, generally past and present, and results in emotional distress. Initial studies of rumination emerged in the psychological literature, particularly with regard to studies examining specific facets of rumination (e.g., positive vs. negative rumination, brooding vs. self-reflection, relationships with catastrophic thinking, role of impaired disengagement, state vs. trait features) as well as the presence of rumination in various psychiatric syndromes (e.g., depression, alcohol misuse, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, bulimia nervosa). Rumination studies are now emerging in the somatic literature, particularly in relationship to pain. In these studies, rumination appears to be associated with symptom magnification as well as poorer clinical outcomes. While still a nascent field, the assessment and treatment of rumination in primary care settings is beginning to unfold. Source


Sansone R.A.,Wright State University | Sansone R.A.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Farukhi S.,Kettering Medical Center in Kettering | Wiederman M.W.,Columbia College in Columbia
Child Abuse and Neglect | Year: 2013

Previous studies indicate that individuals with borderline personality disorder come from families marked by high levels of psychopathology as well as dysfunctional parenting styles-themes that tend to engender negative attitudes toward parents. However, we are not aware of any studies that have examined perceptions of parenting quality and borderline personality symptoms in a clinical but non-psychiatric population-the purpose of the present study. Using a cross-sectional self-report survey methodology in a sample of internal medicine outpatients, we examined participants' perceptions of the quality of parental caretaking using a one-item assessment, and examined borderline personality symptomatology using two measures. Ratings of the quality of parental care were statistically significantly inversely correlated with scores on both measures of borderline personality symptomatology. After controlling for the number of caretakers during childhood, the observed statistical relationships remained statistically significant. In this primary care sample, participants with borderline personality symptomatology perceived parents more negatively than those without such symptomatology. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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