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Cincinnati, OH, United States

Lee M.-T.,Cincinnati | Ouyang B.,Cincinnati | Ho S.-M.,Cincinnati | Ho S.-M.,Center for Environmental Genetics | And 6 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and its isoforms have different putative functions and expression patterns in prostate cancer. Current studies on 5'-most exons, 0K and 0N, show that their respective promoters are actively involved in transcription. These data, however, do not explain why ERβ isoforms are differentially expressed in normal and cancerous tissues, since 0K and 0N transcripts are detectable in clinical specimens. Various combinations of 5' untranslated exons, termed exon 0Xs, associate with promoter 0K only and exon 0Xs accommodate upstream open reading frames (uORFs) reducing protein expression. Moreover, ERβ1, 2, and 5 are transcriptionally linked to promoter 0K; exon 0Xs are spliced only into ERβ2 and ERβ5 transcripts, suggesting that their expressions are regulated post-transcriptionally by exon 0Xs. This study reveals that expression of ERβ1 is regulated primarily at the transcriptional level, whereas that of ERβ2 and ERβ5 is controlled by the interplay between transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Lee M.-T.,Kettering Laboratory Complex | Leung Y.-K.,Kettering Laboratory Complex | Leung Y.-K.,University of Cincinnati | Chung I.,Kettering Laboratory Complex | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013

Background: The interactions between estrogen receptor β (ERβ1) and different coregulators are responsible for the distinct functions of ERβ1. Results: Tip60 enhances ERβ1 transactivation at the AP-1 site but inhibits it at ERE sites. Conclusion: Tip60 is either a coactivator or a corepressor for ERβ1 in a regulatory element-dependent manner. Significance: Tip60 is the first multifaceted coregulator of the transcriptional activity of ERβ1 that has been identified. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source

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