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Wellington, New Zealand

King A.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Middleton D.,Kestrel Group | Brown C.,Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology | Johnston D.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Johal S.,Massey University
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2014

Earthquakes generate loss only when assets are near enough to be significantly shaken. When communities are highly insured, much of that loss transfers to the insurer. Many events in the 2010-2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence were sufficiently shallow and close to (or under) Christchurch to subject the city to very intense shaking (V: 1.7 g; H: 2.2 g). Shaking damage was extensive, exacerbated by the city's setting wherein the eastern suburbs were built on low-lying flatlands (formerly swamp) where liquefaction was widespread, and the southern suburbs, on the flanks of the now-dormant Lyttelton/Akaroa volcano, experienced boulder roll and landslide effects. There were 17 events in the sequence that resulted in insurance claims. The interval between damaging events was insufficient to enable the widespread damage to be assessed or repaired. Furthermore, the combination of tectonic subsidence and liquefaction ejectile lowered the land surface, creating unacceptable flood risk. This paper provides a snapshot of the most complicated insurance settlement program experienced anywhere. © 2014, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Galloway B.,Holmes Consulting Group | Hare J.,Holmes Consulting Group | Brunsdon D.,Kestrel Group | Wood P.,Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management | And 2 more authors.
Earthquake Spectra | Year: 2014

The New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering (NZSEE) building safety evaluation process was implemented in several earthquakes that occurred as part of the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. This provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of the current processes across a range of issues. In addition to the established rapid assessments, guidelines have been developed for the detailed engineering evaluation of damaged buildings. Lessons have been drawn from these experiences relating to the effectiveness of placards and the rapid visual assessment of damage, requirements for a full spectrum of assessment processes, and training needs. Improvements to the current building safety evaluation processes are proposed and further considerations for reoccupation of damaged buildings are outlined. While this paper is based on the authors' experiences in New Zealand, the findings are expected to have wider applications. © 2014, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

Hare H.J.,Holmes Consulting Group | Brunsdon D.R.,Kestrel Group | Stannard M.C.,Ministry of Building | Jury R.D.,BECA | And 4 more authors.
NCEE 2014 - 10th U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering: Frontiers of Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2014

The Canterbury earthquake sequence caused high levels of damage to buildings, due in part to the close proximity of the earthquakes to central Christchurch and to widespread liquefaction. Most buildings performed generally to expectations, but the issues with liquefaction under residential suburbs and the significant levels of damage to the remaining commercial buildings posed many challenges to building owners and assessors. The development of guidelines (by the Engineering Advisory Group working on behalf of the Ministry of Building, Innovation and Employment) for assessment of damaged buildings was conducted in two separate parts. The first stream of work, commencing in October 2010, involved the development of guidelines for assessment of residential structures, beginning with those founded on liquefiable ground. The second stream, commencing in April 2011, involved the development of guidelines for assessment of earthquake damaged commercial buildings. During the development of the guidelines, the Engineering Advisory Group has encountered a number of significant issues. This paper describes a number of such issues and some of the learnings that may be drawn from them. Many of these learnings are of broader relevance for other regions that have similar building types and geological conditions.

Bothara J.,Beca Carter Hollings and Ferner Ltd | Beetham D.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Brunsdon D.,Kestrel Group | Brown R.,CAL Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

The Mw 7.5 Padang earthquake struck at 17:16 local time on 30th September 2009 with an epicentre offshore about 60 km west-northwest of Padang, capital of West Sumatra Province. More than 1,100 people were killed, and over 2,900 injured. The earthquake caused significant damage to public buildings and offices as well as to about 140,000 houses. It affected 250,000 families through the total or partial loss of their homes and livelihoods. More than half the earthquake fatalities occurred when several villages inland from Pariaman were buried by landslides. However, the damage and destruction of building structures was a major cause behind human and property losses. In addition to landslides, the earthquake triggered extensive liquefaction and lateral spreading in the region. A ten-member team from New Zealand visited the area under the auspices of NZAid and New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering to undertake building safety evaluations. The team spent most of their time in Padang city and other nearby earthquake-affected areas. This paper presents their observations and explores causes behind the damage and destruction of buildings by the moderate to strong earthquake shaking.

Brunsdon D.,Kestrel Group | Bothara J.,Beca Carter Hollings and Ferner Ltd | Beetham D.,Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences | Brown R.,CAL Engineering | And 5 more authors.
Bulletin of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering | Year: 2010

A ten-member team of engineers was deployed by NZAID and the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering to assist Indonesian local and provincial agencies with rapid structural assessments of earthquake-affected buildings in and around Padang. This was the first time that a team of New Zealand engineers had been operationally deployed outside the Pacific region following a major earthquake. An accompanying paper describes the earthquake and its impacts, and the general observations of the team. This paper outlines the experiences of a team of 10 New Zealand structural engineers deployed on a volunteer basis for two weeks to undertake the deployment process, the arrangements that the team operated under in Padang, the tasks undertaken and the outputs and outcomes achieved. The lessons for building safety evaluation processes in New Zealand are also presented, along with the resulting enhancements to arrangements.

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