Kerala, India

Kerala Veterinary and Animal science University is a university established by the Government of Kerala in December 2010 to further education, research and extension services in the field of Veterinary and Animal science. The territorial jurisdiction of the university extends to the whole of the State of Kerala. Its headquarters is located at Pookode in Wayanad District in Kerala State. There are three constituent colleges to the university:College of Veterinary and Animal science at Mannuthy, College of Veterinary and Animal science at Pookot and College of Dairy Science and Technology at Mannuthy. Dr B Ashok, an alumnus of College of Veterinary and Animal science at Mannuthy, is the first Vice-Chancellor of the University.The foundation stone-laying ceremony of the administrative block of the university was held on 2 August 2010 by V.S. Achuthanandan, Chief Minister of Kerala. Wikipedia.


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PubMed | Indian National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University and Kerala Agricultural University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

A study was conducted to assess the impact of heat and nutritional stress simultaneously on the adaptive capability as indicated by behavioral and physiological responses, plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) level, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) HSP70 gene expression in goats. Twenty-four adult Osmanabadi bucks (average body weight (BW) 16.0kg) were used in the present study. The bucks were divided into four groups viz., C (n=6; control), HS (n=6; heat stress), NS (n=6; nutritional stress), and CS (n=6; combined stress). The study was conducted for a period of 45days. C and HS bucks had ad libitum access to their feed while NS and CS bucks were under restricted feed (30% intake of C bucks) to induce nutritional stress. The HS and CS bucks were exposed to solar radiation for 6h a day between 10:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. to induce heat stress. The data was analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The standing time differed significantly (P<0.01) between ad libitum fed groups (C and HS) and restricted feeding groups (NS and CS). The highest (P<0.01) lying time was recorded in the CS group while the lowest in the C and HS groups. The highest (P<0.01) drinking frequency was also recorded in the CS group. Water intake recorded was significantly (P<0.01) higher in both the HS and CS groups. The highest respiration rate (RR), pulse rate (PR), and rectal temperature (RT) during the afternoon were also recorded in the CS group. Further, skin temperature of the head, flank, and scrotum during the afternoon was also higher (P<0.01) in the CS group. In addition, both plasma HSP70 concentration and PBMC HSP70 messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript expression were also significantly (P<0.01) higher in the CS group. It can be concluded from this study that when two stressors occur simultaneously, they may have severe impact on adaptive capabilities of Osmanabadi bucks as compared to that would occur individually. Further, the study indicated that lying time, drinking frequency, RR, RT, plasma HSP70, and PBMC HSP70 gene expression may act as ideal biological markers for assessing the impact of CS on adaptive capabilities in bucks.


PubMed | Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Center for Research and National Institute of Technology Calicut
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research | Year: 2016

In recent years, employing radiation technology is gaining great interest in degradation of industrial effluents. In this work the possibility of using gamma irradiation to degrade Reactive Red 120 (C.I.292775) was explored. The effects of pH, dose of gamma irradiation and concentration of dye were examined and their interaction were also established based on their response. For the analysis and optimisation of variables, three factor three level Box-Wilson face centred central composite design (CCF) was used. Analysis of variance with R(2) = 0.9988, adjusted R(2) = 0.9981 and the adequate precision value of 122.303 indicates that the CCF model can be used. The coefficient of variation (0.54%) indicates the reliability of the model. The dose of gamma irradiation (kGy) and the concentration of dye (mg/L) showed significant effects on the degradation of RR 120, while a difference of 6 to 10% degradation was observed in extending the pH towards the acid or alkali range from pH 7.00. The maximum concentration of dye degraded was observed as 347.509 mg/L at initial pH: 7.0, dose of gamma irradiation: 5.94 kGy and initial concentration of dye: 500 mg/L. This predicted value was found to be in agreement with the experimental value on the optimised conditions.


Chandran A.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Grover S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Batish V.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Journal of Tropical Agriculture | Year: 2014

Lactobacillus plantarum is a flexible and versatile microorganism that inhabits a wide variety of environmental niches, including the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum have proven ability to survive gastric transit and can colonize the intestinal tract of humans and other mammals. The ability of these microorganisms to grow in harsh environment prevailing in is linked to their ability to resist acidic conditions in the stomach of healthy humans. Changes in pH in the environment have been reported to influence the expression of many genes and atp operon is chiefly involved in the acid tolerance of probiotic lactobacilli in the gut. The atp genes are included in the category of housekeeping genes. However, the regulation of this pH-inducible phenotype has not been clearly established at the molecular level. In this study the influence of low pH on inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum 91 was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Logarithmic phase cultures were exposed to pH 2.5, 2.0 and 1.5 for various time intervals and cultured for monitoring survivability. The cultures were able to survive at pH 1.5 to an appreciable level even after 1-3 h. In vivo study was carried out by feeding L.plantarum cultures to mice followed by isolation of bacterial RNA from stomach at different time intervals. The isolated RNA was reverse transcribed and the resultant cDNAs were subjected to RT-qPCR and the products were resolved by electrophoresis. The atpD gene was significantly up-regulated to 1.48, 2.04 and 3.05 folds after 15, 30 and 60 min. transit in the stomach of mice. This result clearly demonstrates that atpD gene expression is essential for survival of probiotic bacteria under acidic environment prevailing in the stomach. © 2014, Kerala Agricultural University. All rights reserved.


PubMed | National Dairy Research Institute, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University and Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Type: Review | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016

The animal husbandry and livestock sectors play a major role in the rural economy, especially for the small and marginal farmers. India has the largest livestock population in the world and ranks first in the milk production. Mastitis is the most common and expensive infectious disease in dairy cattle. The global economic losses per year due to mastitis amounts to USD 35 billion and for Indian dairy industry 6000 crores per year. Early detection of mastitis is very important to reduce the economic loss to the dairy farmers and dairy industry. Automated methods for early and reliable detection of mastitis are currently in focus under precision dairying. Skin surface temperature is an important indicator for the diagnosis of cows illnesses and for the estimation of their physiological status. Infrared thermography (IRT) is a simple, effective, on-site, and noninvasive method that detects surface heat, which is emitted as infrared radiation and generates pictorial images without causing radiation exposure. In human and bovine medicine, IRT is used as a diagnostic tool for assessment of normal and physiological status.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, National Dairy Research Institute and Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016

Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters. This review summarizes the effectiveness of RPC on animal production, health, and reproduction.


Panicker V.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | George S.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

A putative cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide of 34 amino acid residues was deduced from buffalo myeloid gene sequences and named as Buffalo myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (BuMAP-34). Structure–function relationship of the custom synthesized peptide was evaluated in vitro. Highly cationic, amphipathic peptide showed a net charge of +6 and predicted hydrophobic ratio of 38 %. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an evolutionary relationship with Bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (BMAP-34) of cattle, myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (MAP-34) of Goat and Sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (SMAP-34). Peptide showed potent antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on various strains of bacteria, and fungus ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 µM except for P. multocida multocida (HS), which was >100 µM. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the peptide treated E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans indicated cell lysis. Peptide also showed its ability to bind with anionic components of the cells which was confirmed by DNA binding assay. Haemolytic activity assay revealed absence of haemolysis in human RBCs at 12.5 µM and in sheep RBCs even at 100 µM concentration of the peptide. The present study suggests that the cathelicidin, BuMAP-34 has strong antimicrobial activity and could be developed as a promising broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Panicker V.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | George S.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antibiotics, which mostly act without specific receptors. Identification of AMPs is important in the current scenario of emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria. In the present study, in an attempt to identify new AMPs, myeloid cathelicidin cDNAs were synthesized from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bone marrow and were amplified using specific primers. Sequence analysis of cloned cDNAs revealed three novel myeloid cathelicidins. They were named based on the number of active amino acids in the C-terminal region of their predicted peptide sequences as BuMAP-28 (having an additional Gly at position 22nd), BuMAP-29 (having an additional IIe at position 27) and BuMAP-34, compared to BMAP-27, BMAP-28 and BMAP-34 of cattle. The BuMAPs showed 93%, 95% and 87% homology respectively with that of its cattle counterpart. Predicted number of amino acids of the cDNAs was 159, 155 and 157 residues, with cationic C-terminal sequences of 28, 29 and 34, respectively, which correspond to putative antimicrobial domains. Several amino acid substitutions were observed in all the three cathelicidins. The conformation of the peptides was predicted to be alpha helical, having total net positive charge and hydrophobicity, similar to that of BMAPs in cattle. Comparative analysis of the predicted peptides suggested potential antimicrobial activity and the sequence variations detected might enable the peptides to act as effective broad spectrum antimicrobial agents.


Pramod S.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Usha A.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Thirupathy Venkatachalapathy R.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) based genotyping test was developed to assess a C/T polymorphism in the regulatory region of erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) gene of pigs. Homozygous CC animals were absent in all the genetic groups studied, whereas the locus appeared fixed with T alleles in indigenous animals. The association of allelic variants with traits like litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter weight at birth (LWB) and litter weight at weaning (LWW) were explored in Indian Large White Yorkshire (LWY), Duroc, Indigenous Ankamali and F1 crosses between LWY boars and Ankamali sows (CB). All the populations under study had very high frequency of T alleles, with desi group being fixed with T allele. Genotypes of EPOR gene were not associated with any of the litter traits. The allele frequencies remained under HWE except in desi group. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Pruthviraj D.R.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Usha A.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Venkatachalapathy R.T.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Porcine beta-defensin-1 (PBD-1) gene plays an important role in the innate immunity of pigs. The peptide encoded by this gene is an antimicrobial peptide that has direct activity against a wide range of microbes. This peptide is involved in the co-creation of an antimicrobial barrier in the oral cavity of pigs. The objective of the present study was to detect polymorphisms, if any, in exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene in Large White Yorkshire (LWY) and native Ankamali pigs of Kerala, India. Blood samples were collected from 100 pigs and genomic DNA was isolated using phenol chloroform method. The quantity of DNA was assessed in a spectrophotometer and quality by gel electrophoresis. Exon-1 and exon-2 regions of PBD-1 gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the products were subjected to single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Subsequent silver staining of the polyacrylamide gels revealed three unique SSCP banding patterns in each of the two exons. The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the PCR products. A novel SNP was found in the 5'-UTR region of exon-1 and a SNP was detected in the mature peptide coding region of exon-2. In exon-1, the pooled population frequencies of GG, GT, and TT genotypes were 0.67, 0.30, and 0.03, respectively. GG genotype was predominant in both the breeds whereas TT genotype was not detected in LWY breed. Similarly, in exon-2, the pooled population frequencies of AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 0.50, 0.27, and 0.23, respectively. AA genotype was predominant in LWY pigs whereas GG genotype was predominant in native pigs. These results suggest that there exists a considerable genetic variation at PBD-1 locus and further association studies may help in development of a PCR based genotyping test to select pigs with better immunity. Copyright © 2016 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute and Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Type: | Journal: Research in veterinary science | Year: 2017

Caprine amniotic fluid (cAF) and bone marrow cells (cBM) were isolated, expanded and phenotypically characterized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) specific cell surface markers. Both cell types were compared for multilineage differentiation potential by flow cytometry using specific antibodies against lineage specific markers. Furthermore, in vitro expanded cAF-MSCs showed higher expression of trophic factors viz. VEGF and TGF-1 as compared to cBM-MSCs. Full-skin thickness excisional wounds created on either side of the dorsal midline (thoracolumbar) of New Zealand White rabbits were randomly assigned to subcutaneous injection of either fetal origin cAF-MSCs (n=4) or adult cBM-MSCs (n=4) or sterile PBS (control, n=4). The rate of wound closure was found faster (p<0.05) in cAF-MSCs treated wounds as compared with cBM-MSCs and PBS treated wounds especially on 21st day post-skin excision. Histomorphological examination of the healing tissue showed that wound healing was improved (p<0.05) by greater epithelialization, neovascularization and collagen development in cAF-MSCs as compared to cBM-MSCs and PBS treated wounds.

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