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Kerala, India

Kerala Veterinary and Animal science University is a university established by the Government of Kerala in December 2010 to further education, research and extension services in the field of Veterinary and Animal science. The territorial jurisdiction of the university extends to the whole of the State of Kerala. Its headquarters is located at Pookode in Wayanad District in Kerala State. There are three constituent colleges to the university:College of Veterinary and Animal science at Mannuthy, College of Veterinary and Animal science at Pookot and College of Dairy Science and Technology at Mannuthy. Dr B Ashok, an alumnus of College of Veterinary and Animal science at Mannuthy, is the first Vice-Chancellor of the University.The foundation stone-laying ceremony of the administrative block of the university was held on 2 August 2010 by V.S. Achuthanandan, Chief Minister of Kerala. Wikipedia.

Jacob A.B.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Singh P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Verma A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition | Year: 2015

Summary: A study was conducted to assess the growth performance and nutrient utilization of cross-bred calves serially infected with Fasciola gigantica and/or supplemented with deoiled mahua seed cake (DMSC) during pre-patent period of infection. Twenty healthy cross-bred (Holstein Friesian × Haryana) male calves aged 6-7 months with an initial average live weight of 79.6 ± 2.71 kg were divided into four treatment groups (CON, CON-INF, DMC and DMC-INF) of five animals each following randomized block design. DMSC was included in the concentrate mixture of DMC and DMC-INF groups at 100 g/kg level. Animals of groups CON-INF and DMC-INF were given an infection of 200 metacercariae (mc) of F. gigantica as serial infection dose of 50 mc twice weekly over a period of 2 weeks. A metabolism trial at 40-49 days post-infection and growth trial of 145 days duration were conducted. The average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CON-INF group as compared to others. The ADG and FCR were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in DMC-INF as compared to CON-INF. The intake and digestibility of nutrients were not affected by serial infection with F. gigantica during pre-patent period. However, significantly (p < 0.001) higher urinary excretion and significantly (p < 0.001) lower nitrogen balance were observed in CON-INF group as compared to other three groups. The nitrogen balance was significantly (p < 0.001) improved in DMC-INF group as compared to CON-INF group. From the results, it may be deduced that the supplementation of deoiled mahua seed cake at 100 g/kg level in the concentrate mixture has improved the growth performance and nitrogen utilization in cross-bred calves infected with F. gigantica. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Girija D.,Kerala Agricultural University | Deepa K.,Kerala Agricultural University | Xavier F.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Antony I.,Kerala Agricultural University | Shidhi P.R.,Kerala Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Cow dung is being used from ancient times in agriculture as it has a significant role in plant growth promotion and plant protection. It is also being used in various religious practices as a purifier. Since only a small fraction of the total microbial diversity can be recovered by culturable methods, a culture independent 16S rDNA approach was taken up for more detailed analysis of cow dung microbiota. Total community DNA was extracted from fresh dung of Brown-Swiss breed and bacterial 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, sequenced and deposited in GenBank. Bacteria belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes (38.3%), Firmicutes (29.8%), Proteobacteria (21.3%) and Verrucomicrobia (2%) were identified. Bacteroidetes clones included the genera Bacteroides, Alistipes and Paludibacter; while Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Anaerovorax and Bacillus were predominant in Firmicutes. α- and γ-proteobacterial genera included Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Rheinheimera, Stenotrophomonas and Rhodobacter. The Verrucomicrobial clone showed high similarity to Akkermansia. Unculturable bacteria constituted 83.3% in the phylum Bacteroidetes and 87.5% in Firmicutes. All clones under phylum Proteobacteria were culturable bacteria. Eight per cent of the clone library represented previously uncharacterized and unidentified bacteria.

Panicker V.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | George S.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
International Journal of Peptide Research and Therapeutics | Year: 2016

A putative cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide of 34 amino acid residues was deduced from buffalo myeloid gene sequences and named as Buffalo myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (BuMAP-34). Structure–function relationship of the custom synthesized peptide was evaluated in vitro. Highly cationic, amphipathic peptide showed a net charge of +6 and predicted hydrophobic ratio of 38 %. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an evolutionary relationship with Bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (BMAP-34) of cattle, myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (MAP-34) of Goat and Sheep myeloid antimicrobial peptide-34 (SMAP-34). Peptide showed potent antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of microorganisms including Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on various strains of bacteria, and fungus ranged from 1.1 to 1.5 µM except for P. multocida multocida (HS), which was >100 µM. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the peptide treated E. coli, S. aureus and C. albicans indicated cell lysis. Peptide also showed its ability to bind with anionic components of the cells which was confirmed by DNA binding assay. Haemolytic activity assay revealed absence of haemolysis in human RBCs at 12.5 µM and in sheep RBCs even at 100 µM concentration of the peptide. The present study suggests that the cathelicidin, BuMAP-34 has strong antimicrobial activity and could be developed as a promising broad spectrum antimicrobial agent. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Saseendranath M.R.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Indian Journal of Animal Research | Year: 2015

Skin scabs and scrapings from 82 dermatitis cases in dairy cattle were subjected to detailed bacteriological, mycological, parasitological and molecular studies. Microscopical examination of Giemsa or Gram’s stained smears of scab material from the lesions revealed characteristic gram positive septate branching filaments with typical tram track appearance suggestive of Dermatophilus congolensis in 72 samples (91.5%). Culture of scab materials in sheep blood agar under anaerobic condition yielded typical beta haemolytic colonies of D. congolensis in 75 samples, which were further confirmed by colony morphology, staining characters and biochemical reactions. Molecular confirmation of the isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction with primers based on 16S rRNA which yielded specific band of 500bp. The pathogenicity of the isolates was also proved by experimental inoculation into rabbits. © 2015, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

Panicker V.P.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | George S.,Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2013

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antibiotics, which mostly act without specific receptors. Identification of AMPs is important in the current scenario of emerging multi-drug resistant bacteria. In the present study, in an attempt to identify new AMPs, myeloid cathelicidin cDNAs were synthesized from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bone marrow and were amplified using specific primers. Sequence analysis of cloned cDNAs revealed three novel myeloid cathelicidins. They were named based on the number of active amino acids in the C-terminal region of their predicted peptide sequences as BuMAP-28 (having an additional Gly at position 22nd), BuMAP-29 (having an additional IIe at position 27) and BuMAP-34, compared to BMAP-27, BMAP-28 and BMAP-34 of cattle. The BuMAPs showed 93%, 95% and 87% homology respectively with that of its cattle counterpart. Predicted number of amino acids of the cDNAs was 159, 155 and 157 residues, with cationic C-terminal sequences of 28, 29 and 34, respectively, which correspond to putative antimicrobial domains. Several amino acid substitutions were observed in all the three cathelicidins. The conformation of the peptides was predicted to be alpha helical, having total net positive charge and hydrophobicity, similar to that of BMAPs in cattle. Comparative analysis of the predicted peptides suggested potential antimicrobial activity and the sequence variations detected might enable the peptides to act as effective broad spectrum antimicrobial agents.

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