Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd

Kollam, India

Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd

Kollam, India
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Gireesh V.S.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Vinod V.P.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Krishnan Nair S.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Ninan G.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd
International Journal of Mineral Processing | Year: 2015

The iron content present in the ilmenite is removed by leaching the ore with hydrochloric acid. The enriched TiO2 mineral thus obtained is called synthetic rutile (SR) or beneficiated ilmenite (BI). The quality of the synthetic rutile (in terms of TiO2 content) mainly depends on the condition of leaching process. The present study envisages the effect of acid concentration, temperature, and agitation speed on the leaching of the ore. The kinetics of the leaching reaction follows the first order at normal and stimulated leaching conditions. The highest rate constant value of 5.18 × 10- 3 min- 1 was observed for leaching the ilmenite with 30% hydrochloric acid under 700 rpm and at 70 °C. The enthalpy of the reaction (ΔH) was calculated as 24.157 kJ/mol and the entropy of the reaction (ΔS) was calculated as 26.25 J/mol/K. The positive value of ΔH indicates the endothermic nature of reaction. The value of ΔG at different temperature was found to be negative indicating the feasibility of the process and the spontaneous nature of the reaction. The addition of gypsum enhances the leaching process. The rate constant increases with the increase in the gypsum concentration in leaching process. The rate constant increased to 6.15 × 10- 3 min- 1 by introducing 100 mg of gypsum in the leaching process carried out with 30% hydrochloric acid at 70 °C and 500 rpm. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Gireesh V.S.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Vinod V.P.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Krishnan Nair S.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd | Ninan G.,Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd
Oriental Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2014

This paper describes a method for recovering niobium and zirconium from the cyclone solid residues arising from chlorination of titaniferrous ores. The residue contains beneficiated ilmenite (Bl) fines, calcined petroleum coke (CPC) and metal chlorides of niobium, aluminium, zirconium, iron, manganese, vanadium etc. The Bl fines and CPC present in the residue were removed by soaking the residue with water and by separating the insoluble fraction contain Bl and CPC by filtration. The filtrate containing the soluble metal chlorides was acidified with hydrochloric acid followed by agitation and heating in the presence of sulphate ions (sulphuric acid) to precipitate niobium and zirconium as their oxo sulphate which is filtered, dried and calcined to convert niobium and zirconium oxides. The optimum amount of sulphuric acid was found to be 3 % and the optimum pH and temperature for precipitation of niobium and zirconium is 0.5 and 90 °C respectively.

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