Kenyon College is a private liberal arts college in Gambier, Ohio, founded in 1824. It is the oldest private college in Ohio.The campus is noted for its Collegiate Gothic architecture and rural setting. Kenyon College is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. Newsweek selected Kenyon College as one of twenty-five "New Ivies" on the basis of admissions statistics as well as interviews with administrators, students, faculty and alumni. The acceptance rate for the Class of 2018 was 24.6%.Kenyon was established in parallel with the Bexley Hall seminary by Episcopalian Bishop Philander Chase. Though its theological program gradually waned in importance , the college continues to maintain an affiliation to the Episcopal Church. The college today prefers to emphasize its liberal arts tradition over its religious background. Wikipedia.
Hardy B.L.,Kenyon College |
Moncel M.-H.,French Natural History Museum
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Neanderthals are most often portrayed as big game hunters who derived the vast majority of their diet from large terrestrial herbivores while birds, fish and plants are seen as relatively unimportant or beyond the capabilities of Neanderthals. Although evidence for exploitation of other resources (small mammals, birds, fish, shellfish, and plants) has been found at certain Neanderthal sites, these are typically dismissed as unusual exceptions. The general view suggests that Neanderthal diet may broaden with time, but that this only occurs sometime after 50,000 years ago. We present evidence, in the form of lithic residue and use-wear analyses, for an example of a broad-based subsistence for Neanderthals at the site of Payre, Ardèche, France (beginning of MIS 5/end of MIS 6 to beginning of MIS 7/end of MIS 8; approximately 125-250,000 years ago). In addition to large terrestrial herbivores, Neanderthals at Payre also exploited starchy plants, birds, and fish. These results demonstrate a varied subsistence already in place with early Neanderthals and suggest that our ideas of Neanderthal subsistence are biased by our dependence on the zooarchaeological record and a deep-seated intellectual emphasis on big game hunting. © 2011 Hardy, Moncel.
Hardy B.L.,Kenyon College
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2010
Contrary to their cold-adapted image, Neanderthals inhabited Pleistocene Europe during a time of great climatic fluctuation with temperatures ranging from as warm as present-day during the last interglacial to as cold as those of the last glacial maximum. Cold-adapted Neanderthals are similarly most often associated with the exploitation of large mammals who are themselves cold-adapted (mammoth, bison, reindeer, etc.). Cold, high-latitude environments are typically seen as lacking in plants generally and in plant foods in particular. Plant foods are therefore usually ignored and Neanderthals are increasingly being viewed as top carnivores who derived the vast majority of their diet from meat. Support for this hypothesis comes largely from stable isotope analysis which tracks only the protein portion of the diet. Diets high in lean meat largely fulfill micronutrient needs but can pose a problem at the macronutrient level. Lean meat can compose no more than 35% of dietary energy before a protein ceiling is reached. Exceeding the protein ceiling can have detrimental physiological effects on the individual. Neanderthals would have needed energy from alternative sources, particularly when animals are fat-depleted and lean meat intake is high. Underground storage organs (USOs) of plants offer one such source, concentrating carbohydrates and energy. USOs could also provide an important seasonal energy source since they are at their maximum energy storage in late fall/winter. Although Paleolithic sites are increasingly yielding plant remains, their presence is rare and they are often given only passing mention in Neanderthal dietary reconstructions. The complexity and number of potential wild plant foods, however, defies easy discussion. Native European wild edible plants with starchy USOs would have been potentially available throughout the Neanderthal range, even during the coldest periods of the Late Pleistocene. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: S-STEM:SCHLR SCI TECH ENG&MATH | Award Amount: 999.20K | Year: 2016
Kenyon College will award scholarships to low income, academically talented students, supporting them with high-impact practices (HIPs) to increase their persistence and graduation. Scholars will be engaged over four years, exposing them to HIPs early in their undergraduate careers, since the majority of students nationwide who leave STEM fields do so during their first two years. Activities begin with a summer learning community, and continue with structured and unstructured service learning projects, faculty-student mentoring, and internships and research opportunities.
Four annual cohorts of 12 low-income, high-achieving students with interests across the STEM disciplines will receive scholarships. The project will test and evaluate the impact of STEM-focused HIPs beneficial to first-year students, aiming to increase persistence of these STEM students, especially those from groups with traditionally lower STEM degree completion rates. The research component of the project will also identify HIPs most likely to result in students pursuing STEM careers. An external expert will provide formative and summative evaluation of program impact, as well as future sustainability. Kenyon will contribute findings of best practices to the field, and will make special effort to share research emerging from its testing of HIPs and other programs in the liberal arts, for which there is little STEM-specific data.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS | Award Amount: 175.00K | Year: 2016
There has been a considerable interest in a novel material called Topological Insulators (TIs) where seemingly two distinct properties of materials, namely conducting and insulating phases, are interwoven into a single material. While these materials provide a platform to address a myriad of theoretical problems in physics, because of their unique properties TIs can be exploited to produce interesting devices as well. The main focus of the project is to investigate the unique properties of TIs, paying close attention to uncovering the interplay between their surface and bulk states. Specifically, one of the main objectives is to establish a fundamental understanding of how to separate the contributions from surface and bulk states to the overall conductivity of the material. Additionally, magnetically doped TI samples are analyzed to interrogate the interplay between magnetism and various properties TIs. This project primarily uses an optical investigation technique known as spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine the contributions from the surface and the bulk states of TI samples. Additionally, temperature dependent experiments are conducted in order to uncover the intricate details that govern the physics of TIs. The work is performed exclusively by undergraduate students in a liberal arts setting. These students receive training in materials characterization, optics, and cryogenics, preparing them for graduate studies or careers in science and technology. To further educational goals, this project incorporates several high-impact experimental activities into existing courses in the physics curriculum. Furthermore, several outreach activities for high school students are conducted in order to foster a wider interest in the sciences.
Because of strong spin-orbit coupling and time reversal invariant symmetry, a new class of materials, called topological insulators (TIs), are embedded with unique characteristics; it has an energy gap in the bulk but has metallic surface states that are robust against disorder-scattering. Although there has been a concerted effort made towards understanding the physics of TIs in the past few years, there are several key aspects that are still unknown; a) the interplay between the bulk and the surface states in dictating the conductivity of TIs, b) the impact of impurity bands on TIs, c) interplay between topologically protected states and magnetism, and d) the significance of electron-phonon coupling on topologically protected surface states. Insights gained about any of these aspects will enable a deeper understanding of the fundamental physics of TIs, which is the ultimate goal of the project. Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the complex conductivity in a wide spectra range (i.e., between 30 meV to 6.2 eV), which enables one to decipher the contributions from free carriers and band electrons to conductivity. Temperature dependent measurements are conducted to probe the electron-phonon coupling in TIs, which plays a vital role in influencing the surface states. Since TIs are plagued by defects, which unfortunately mask the exciting and intriguing surface phenomena, the details of defect-states are obtained by evaluating the higher-order transitions (i.e., critical points). The magnetically-doped TIs are probed to determine the origin of their magnetism and to study the breaking of time-reversal symmetry. Finally, the spin texture of TIs are probed via their circular dichroism, obtained by Mueller-Matrix based spectroscopic ellipsometry. This project incorporates several activities to enhance educational goals in the sciences. As the work is performed exclusively by undergraduate students in a liberal arts setting, they receive training in materials characterization, optics, and cryogenics, preparing them for graduate studies or careers in STEM-based fields. In addition, this project injects several high-impact experimental activities into existing courses in the physics curriculum. Also, several outreach activities for high school students are conducted in order to foster a wider interest in the sciences.
Agency: NSF | Branch: Standard Grant | Program: | Phase: Physiolg Mechansms&Biomechancs | Award Amount: 64.00K | Year: 2016
This research explores the mechanisms that mosquitoes use to regulate their salt and water balance under the challenging conditions they face during their lifecycles. Most mosquito larvae live in freshwater and must absorb salt to counteract the tendency for salt to diffuse out of their bodies. In contrast, adult female mosquitoes must expel large amounts of salt after they engorge on a salty blood meal. The specific focus of this project is on three mosquito proteins that help carry salts such as sodium, potassium, and chloride into or out of the body. One of these proteins is closely related to proteins in humans and other vertebrate animals that are important to salt and water balance. Thus, studying the mosquito version of this protein may uncover fundamental properties of salt-transporting proteins that are shared between vertebrates and insects. The other two proteins are only found in mosquitoes and other insects, and have not been characterized in any animal. Gaining a better understanding of these novel insect proteins may be especially useful in developing strategies to control mosquitoes and other insect pests, since it may be possible to target them without affecting vertebrate proteins. This research project will develop new tools for researchers to assess where these proteins are located in the mosquito body, what salts they carry, and what chemicals can interfere with their function. Additionally, three undergraduate students and one graduate student will receive closely mentored research experiences.
Mosquitoes must secrete and absorb ions differently depending on their life stage, sex, and environment. Three proteins from the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti have sequence similarity to vertebrate Na+-dependent cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs), which participate in both ion absorption and secretion. This work will produce critical reagents and refine procedures that are necessary to begin linking the molecular properties of the mosquito CCCs to their transport functions and whole-animal physiological roles. The first objective is to develop isoform-specific antibodies that recognize and differentiate among each of the three mosquito CCCs. The selectivity of the antibodies will be evaluated by comparing their reactivity among different mosquito tissues and developmental stages, mosquitoes in which expression of a specific CCC has been silenced by RNA interference, and in Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNAs encoding a particular CCC. The second objective is to confirm functional heterologous expression of each mosquito CCC in Xenopus oocytes. Functional expression of the CCCs will be evaluated using standard radioisotope uptake assays and newly developed non-radioactive methods. Findings from the proposed work may also be useful in identifying novel molecular targets to aid in the development of new insecticides for the control of insect disease vectors and agricultural pests. Three undergraduate students and one graduate student will receive mentored research training and the principal investigators will initiate community outreach programs.