Nonoh J.O.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology |
Herrmann R.,DuPont Company |
Presnail J.K.,DuPont Company |
Schepers E.,DuPont Company |
And 4 more authors.
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010
Microorganisms and their natural products are potentially important for the biological control of crop diseases without detrimental effects to the environment. In this study, acetonitrile-methanol extracts of 361 actinobacterial isolates obtained from Aberdares, Arabuko Sokoke, Lake Bogoria, Mt Kenya, Kakamega, Ruma, Shimba Hills and Imenti forest national parks in Kenya were screened for antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium spp and Colletotrichum kahawae, which are important crop pathogens. Twenty-three isolates showed antagonistic activity to one or all of the test fungi. Five isolates that were antagonistic against all test fungi were investigated further and were also found to have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Morphological and physiological studies show that the isolates belong to streptomycetes. Phylogenetic analysis of amplified actinobacterial 16S rRNA gene confirmed that all the five antagonistic isolates formed close phylogenetic clusters with known members of Streptomyces species with a (97 - 100%) sequence identity. The results suggest that protected areas may be ideal habitats for isolation of antagonistic actinobacterial species which may have the potential for beneficial application in biological control of fungal pathogens. However, further investigation by characterization of the antifungal and antibacterial compounds produced will be necessary. © 2010 Academic Journals.
Kanga E.M.,Kenya Wildlife Service KWS |
Kanga E.M.,University of Groningen |
Ogutu J.O.,University of Hohenheim |
Ogutu J.O.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Land Use Science | Year: 2012
Rising human population and the associated demand for more land, water and other natural resources are intensifying conflicts between people and wildlife worldwide. We investigated the nature, intensity, seasonality, spatial and temporal patterns in human-hippo conflict incidences reported from wildlife stations Kenya-wide over a 12-year period spanning 1997-2008. Overall, 4493 human-hippo conflict incidences were recorded, representing a mean rate of 4.46 ± 0.29 incidences per month. The conflict incidences increased by 1285% from 1997 to 2008, resulting in 937 peak incidences reported in 2008. Number of conflict incidences differed among conservation regions, with incidences increasing during severe droughts and over time. Crop damage was the most commonly reported type of conflict. Wildlife managers attended to 90% of all reported conflict incidences. Hippo mortality increased linearly with increasing conflict incidences, portending a precarious future for hippos outside protected areas of Kenya. This dramatic rise in human-hippo conflicts is a consequence of fundamental land use changes around wetland habitats. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Perez-Jorge S.,Global Vision International Kenya GVI |
Perez-Jorge S.,CSIC - Mediterranean Institute for Advanced Studies |
Pereira T.,Global Vision International Kenya GVI |
Corne C.,Global Vision International Kenya GVI |
And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Along the East African coast, marine top predators are facing an increasing number of anthropogenic threats which requires the implementation of effective and urgent conservation measures to protect essential habitats. Understanding the role that habitat features play on the marine top predator' distribution and abundance is a crucial step to evaluate the suitability of an existing Marine Protected Area (MPA), originally designated for the protection of coral reefs. We developed species distribution models (SDM) on the IUCN data deficient Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) in southern Kenya. We followed a comprehensive ecological modelling approach to study the environmental factors influencing the occurrence and abundance of dolphins while developing SDMs. Through the combination of ensemble prediction maps, we defined recurrent, occasional and unfavourable habitats for the species. Our results showed the influence of dynamic and static predictors on the dolphins' spatial ecology: dolphins may select shallow areas (5-30 m), close to the reefs (< 500 m) and oceanic fronts (< 10 km) and adjacent to the 100m isobath (< 5 km).We also predicted a significantly higher occurrence and abundance of dolphins within the MPA. Recurrent and occasional habitats were identified on large percentages on the existing MPA (47% and 57% using presence-absence and abundance models respectively). However, the MPA does not adequately encompass all occasional and recurrent areas and within this context, we propose to extend the MPA to incorporate all of them which are likely key habitats for the highly mobile species. The results from this study provide two key conservation and management tools: (i) an integrative habitat modelling approach to predict key marine habitats, and (ii) the first study evaluating the effectiveness of an existing MPA for marine mammals in the Western Indian Ocean. Copyright: © 2015 Pérez-Jorge et al.