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Olweny C.,Makerere University | Olweny C.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Abayo G.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Dida M.M.,Maseno University | Okori P.,Makerere University
Sugar Tech | Year: 2016

An investigation was carried out to assess the combining ability and nature of gene action in respect of sugar yield and its attributing traits in 25 new hybrids of sweet sorghum developed by crossing five (5) high-sugar lines with five (5) low-sugar lines in a North Carolina II mating design and grown in alpha lattice with two replications during long rains season of 2014 in western Kenya. The variance among the lines in respect of their general combining ability was highly significant for brix and plant height at 90 days. Specific combining ability variance was relatively higher in magnitude for grain weight and plant height indicating predominance of non-additive gene action in the genetic control of these traits. GADAM, MALON and PAISANO among the females and IESV93046, IS2331 and NTJ 2 among males were identified as good general combiners indicating their ability in transmitting additive genes in the desirable direction to their progenies. The best hybrids for total biomass and total sugar content were GADAM × IESV93046, GADAM × IS2331 and MALON × IS2331, and after adequate testing in many locations across the target production environments these hybrids can be recommended for commercial exploitation for ethanol production. © 2016 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion

Olweny C.,Makerere University | Abayo G.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Dida M.,Maseno University | Okori P.,Makerere University
Sugar Tech | Year: 2013

Sweet sorghum has elicited the interest of breeders due to its capacity to provide renewable energy products, industrial commodities, food and animal feed. Whereas the technologies to process sugar products from sweet sorghum exits, the constraints for its large scale cultivation are the limited availability of genotypes suited to different agro-climatic conditions in Sub-Sahara Africa. Eighteen varieties obtained from ICRISAT, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Argentina and United States of America were used in this study to identify the stable genotypes, assess their potential across environments and examine their genetic relationships with respect to sugar and biomass. The field experiments were undertaken in four locations between April and September 2012. The interaction between genotype and location showed a significant influence in all the traits studied. Genotype ICSV 93046 and IS 2331 registered the highest mean in the traits studied across the four environments. © 2013 Society for Sugar Research & Promotion.

Nzioki H.S.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Jamoza J.E.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Olweny C.O.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation | Rono J.K.,Kenya Sugar Research Foundation
African Journal of Microbiology Research | Year: 2010

Sugarcane smut disease caused by the fungus Ustilago scitaminea significantly reduces the yield and quality of sugarcane. The disease was first reported in Kenya in 1958, in Nyanza and Coastal provinces and currently occurs in all major sugarcane growing areas of Kenya. Planting resistant varieties is the main smut control measure in Kenya. Planting smut resistant varieties was made compulsory in Kenya in 1963. However, varieties previously confirmed resistant are now susceptible. Reports indicate that some varieties are resistant to smut in one zone and susceptible in another. An attempt was thus made to identify physiologic races of sugarcane smut in Kenya. Sugarcane smut teliospores were collected from the major sugarcane growing zones of Western Kenya in South Nyanza, Nyando, Mumias, Busia, Nzoia and west Kenya. A set of 11 sugarcane cultivars which had previously shown differential response to smut in Kenya and elsewhere were each artificially inoculated with a mixture of smut spores from each zone by dipping in a suspension of smut spores that contained 5 × 10 6 teliospores per ml. Susceptibility of the cultivars to smut was measured by recording the number of smut whips that appeared within 6 to 7 months after planting. The reaction of the cultivars to smut from the various zones varied from resistance to susceptible. Three cultivars were seen in smut reaction in two tests. The results suggested existence of smut races in Kenya. ©2010 Academic Journals.

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