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Ndwiga J.M.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Kikuvi G.,Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology | Omolo J.O.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation Kenya
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2016

Introduction: The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes the Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) strategy as the standard to increase adherence to Tuberculosis (TB) medication. However, cases of retreatment and Multi Drug Resistant continue to be reported in many parts of Kenya. This study sought to determine the factors influencing the completion of tuberculosis medication among TB patients in Embu County, Kenya. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of tuberculosis patients under DOT attending selected TB treatment clinics in Embu County, in Kenya. One hundred and forty TB patients interviewed within a period of 3 months. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and included Bivariate and Multivariate Analysis. The level of significance was p≤ 0.05. Results: The male and female participants were 61.4% and 38.6% respectively. The mean age of the respondents was 35±31.34-39.3 years. For the majority (52%) of the participants, the highest level of education was primary education. The unemployed participants formed the highest number of the respondent in the study (73%). The majorities (91.4%0) of the respondents were under the home-based DOT strategy (91.4%, 95% C.I: 85.5-95.5). Bivariate analysis using Chi-square showed that the level of education (p=0.003), patients feeling uncomfortable during supervision (p=0.01), and knowledge regarding the frequency of taking medication (p=0.004) were all significantly associated with knowledge regarding the importance of completion of medication. However, none of these factors was significant after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Most participants did not know the importance of completion of medication. TB programs should come up with better ways to educate TB patients on the importance of supervision and treatment completion during the treatment of TB. The education programs should focus on influencing the attitudes of patients and creating awareness about the importance of treatment completion. The TB programs should be designed towards eliminating the factors influencing the completion of TB medication. © Joshua Muriuki Ndwiga et al.

Mauch V.,KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation | Kirubi B.,Gertrudes Childrens Hospital | Kipruto H.,Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation Kenya | Kipruto H.,World Health Organization | And 3 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2011

Background: The poor face geographical, socio-cultural and health system barriers in accessing tuberculosis care. These may cause delays to timely diagnosis and treatment resulting in more advanced disease and continued transmission of TB. By addressing barriers and reasons for delay, costs incurred by TB patients can be effectively reduced. A Tool to Estimate Patients' Costs has been developed. It can assist TB control programs in assessing such barriers. This study presents the Tool and results of its pilot in Kenya. Methods. The Tool was adapted to the local setting, translated into Kiswahili and pretested. Nine public health facilities in two districts in Eastern Province were purposively sampled. Responses gathered from TB patients above 15 years of age with at least one month of treatment completed and signed informed consent were double entered and analyzed. Follow-up interviews with key informants on district and national level were conducted to assess the impact of the pilot and to explore potential interventions. Results: A total of 208 patients were interviewed in September 2008. TB patients in both districts have a substantial burden of direct (out of pocket; USD 55.8) and indirect (opportunity; USD 294.2) costs due to TB. Inability to work is a major cause of increased poverty. Results confirm a 'medical poverty trap' situation in the two districts: expenditures increased while incomes decreased. Subsequently, TB treatment services were decentralized to fifteen more facilities and other health programs were approached for nutritional support of TB patients and sputum sample transport. On the national level, a TB and poverty sub-committee was convened to develop a comprehensive pro-poor approach. Conclusions: The Tool to Estimate Patients' Costs proved to be a valuable instrument to assess the costs incurred by TB patients, socioeconomic situations, health-seeking behavior patterns, concurrent illnesses such as HIV, and social and gender-related impacts. The Tool helps to identify and tackle bottlenecks in access to TB care, especially for the poor. Reducing delays in diagnosis, decentralization of services, fully integrated TB/HIV care and expansion of health insurance coverage would alleviate patients' economic constraints due to TB. © 2011 Mauch et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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