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Salon D.,Columbia University | Aligula E.M.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

We use a unique travel survey data set from Nairobi, Kenya to explain why, where and how people in Nairobi travel and the implications of this behavior pattern. We provide both an in-depth exploration and analysis of the travel patterns and preferences of Nairobi residents and a discussion of the implications of these results for transport policy in this city.The data show that the lack of suitable transport infrastructure exacerbates travel challenges for residents across all income groups. A substantial portion of the local population cannot regularly afford any form of motorized transportation. They thus are forced to locate in slums near sources of employment, and the widespread lack of pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure increases the risk that they face when traveling. The middle income group who cannot afford private cars is almost completely dependent on the informal public transport system, which provides good geographic service coverage at the expense of service quality. Approximately 15% of Nairobi's households own cars. Our analysis shows that without policies that make non-motorized transport safer and public transport service better, car ownership and use will increase sharply as the city's residents become wealthier, further congesting already-overloaded roadways. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Bryan E.,International Food Policy Research Institute | Akpalu W.,New York University | Yesuf M.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis | Ringler C.,International Food Policy Research Institute
Climate and Development | Year: 2010

Developing countries, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), remain marginalized in global carbon markets despite significant mitigation opportunities in agriculture and forestry. The economic potential for mitigation through agriculture in the African region is estimated at 17 per cent of the total global mitigation potential for the sector. Similarly, Africa's forestry potential is 23 per cent of the global total for the sector. To unleash the huge potential for mitigation in SSA, carbon markets should be expanded to include projects related to agriculture, forestry and other land uses (AFOLU). Given the important synergies between agricultural mitigation and adaptation, and the difficulties in reaching out to smallholder farmers and herders, as well as the increasing poverty and hunger in the region, this article suggests that not only should carbon markets be expanded to include more AFOLU project types, but carbon markets should also increase benefits directed at smallholder farmers. Domestic policies in SSA should also be reformed to increase the profitability of environmentally sustainable practices that generate income for small producers and create investment flows for rural communities. This review paper provides an overview of global carbon markets, focusing on opportunities for carbon trading in agriculture in SSA. Major constraints to the participation of SSA in global carbon markets are discussed, and options for integrating the region into global carbon markets are proposed. © 2010 Earthscan. Source


Mutua J.,U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission | Ngui D.,Kenyatta University | Osiolo H.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis | Aligula E.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis | Gachanja J.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis
Energy Policy | Year: 2012

This paper analyzes consumer satisfaction in the energy sector in Kenya to assess the quality and level of service delivery. By use of the European Consumer Satisfaction Index (ECSI), the paper estimates consumer satisfaction in biomass, petroleum, electricity and renewable energy subsectors. The findings are that consumer satisfaction is highest in the renewable energy sub sector at 74.7% followed by petroleum at 62.8%. The electricity sub sector has the lowest consumer satisfaction of 53.06%. Further, it is found that the image of renewable energy providers is also the highest at 72.5% followed by that of petroleum companies at 63.1%. In the electricity sub sector, perceived value scored the highest at 64.2%. The paper concludes that image of a service provider, loyalty of consumers, consumer expectations, perceived value, perceived quality and the way complains are handled are very important factors that determine consumer satisfaction levels. It is recommended that for monitoring and evaluation purposes in the performance of the energy sector, the Energy RegulatoryCommission(ERC) could use the consumer satisfaction index level to evaluate whether the regulatory policies and their implementation are bearing fruit where a high index would be associated with good performance and vice versa. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Ngui D.,Kenyatta University | Ngui D.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis | Mutua J.,U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission | Osiolo H.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis | Aligula E.,Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis
Energy Policy | Year: 2011

This paper estimates price and fuel expenditure elasticities of demand by applying the linear Approximate Almost Ideal Demand system (LA-AIDS) to 3665 households sampled across Kenya in 2009. The results indicate that motor spirit premium (MSP), automotive gas oil (AGO) and lubricants are price elastic while fuel wood, kerosene, charcoal, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and electricity are price inelastic. Kerosene is income elastic while fuel wood, charcoal, LPG, electricity, MSP and AGO are income inelastic. The results also reveal fuel stack behaviour, that is, multiple fuel use among the households. Main policy implications of the results include increasing the penetration of alternative fuels as well as provision of more fiscal incentives to increase usage of cleaner fuels. This not withstanding however, the household income should be increased beyond a certain point for the household to completely shift and use a new fuel. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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