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Witlox J.,Medical Center Alkmaar | De Jonghe J.F.M.,Medical Center Alkmaar | Kalisvaart K.J.,Kennemer Gasthuis
JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association | Year: 2010

Context: Delirium is a common and serious complication in elderly patients. Evidence suggests that delirium is associated with long-term poor outcome but delirium often occurs in individuals with more severe underlying disease. Objective: To assess the association between delirium in elderly patients and long-term poor outcome, defined as mortality, institutionalization, or dementia, while controlling for important confounders. Data Sources: Asystematic search of studies published between January 1981 and April 2010 was conducted using the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL. Study Selection: Observational studies of elderly patients with delirium as a study variable and data on mortality, institutionalization, or dementia after a minimum follow-up of 3 months, and published in the English or Dutch language. Titles, abstracts, and articles were reviewed independently by 2 of the authors. Of 2939 references in the original search, 51 relevant articles were identified. Data Extraction: Information on study design, characteristics of the study population, and outcome were extracted. Quality of studies was assessed based on elements of the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist for cohort studies. Data Synthesis: The primary analyses included only high-quality studies with statistical control for age, sex, comorbid illness or illness severity, and baseline dementia. Pooled-effect estimates were calculated with random-effects models. The primary analysis with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) showed that delirium is associated with an increased risk of death compared with controls after an average follow-up of 22.7 months (7 studies; 271/714 patients [38.0%] with delirium, 616/2243 controls [27.5%]; HR, 1.95 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.51-2.52]; I2, 44.0%). Moreover, patients who had experienced delirium were also at increased risk of institutionalization (7 studies; average follow-up, 14.6 months; 176/527 patients [33.4%] with delirium and 219/2052 controls [10.7%]; odds ratio [OR], 2.41 [95% CI, 1.77-3.29]; I2, 0%) and dementia (2 studies; average follow-up, 4.1 years; 35/56 patients [62.5%] with delirium and 15/185 controls [8.1%]; OR, 12.52 [95% CI, 1.86-84.21]; I2, 52.4%). The sensitivity, trim-and-fill, and secondary analyses with unadjusted high-quality risk estimates stratified according to the study characteristics confirmed the robustness of these results. Conclusion: This meta-analysis provides evidence that delirium in elderly patients is associated with poor outcome independent of important confounders, such as age, sex, comorbid illness or illness severity, and baseline dementia. ©2010 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Source

Bultink I.E.M.,VU University Amsterdam | Baden M.,Kennemer Gasthuis | Lems W.F.,VU University Amsterdam
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy | Year: 2013

Introduction: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is one of the most devastating side-effects of glucocorticoid (GC) use, as it is associated with an increased fracture risk. The importance of GIOP as a health problem is underlined by the frequent use of GC treatment in patients with various chronic diseases and by the high rates of osteoporosis found in these patient groups. Areas covered: Recent studies on bone metabolism and the influence of GCs have contributed to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of GIOP. Furthermore, new intervention trials have reported beneficial effects of antiresorptive and anabolic agents on GIOP. This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of osteoporosis and fractures in GC-treated patients and discusses current pharmacotherapy and possible future treatment options. Expert opinion: Several guidelines for the management of GIOP have been published, using different criteria for bone mineral density (BMD) thresholds and for GC dosages above which anti-osteoporotic therapy should be started. Although alendronate and risedronate are currently first choice, the anabolic agent teriparatide seems to be superior and might be considered as a potential first-line therapy for patients with low BMD on long-term GC treatment. Adherence to anti-osteoporotic drugs is limited, particularly in GIOP patients, due to several factors. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

The transanal total mesorectal excision (TME) for colorectal tumours is a new endoscopic approach in which the rectum is mobilized transanally from down-to-up using a flexible transanal single-access port. The advantage of this technique is that it could result in fewer conversions from laparoscopic to open procedures and consequently fewer complications and more radical resections. Standard endoscopic armamentarium is used for the transanal technique so that costs remain low. The length of the learning curve is expected to be comparable to other laparoscopic techniques, and is even shorter for an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. Additional research is needed to compare long-term oncological and clinical results of transanal TME to laparoscopic and open TME. Source

Heckenberg S.G.B.,Kennemer Gasthuis
Handbook of Clinical Neurology | Year: 2014

Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained, preceding any imaging studies. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, and an altered level of consciousness but signs may be scarce in children, in the elderly, and in meningococcal disease. Host genetic factors are major determinants of susceptibility to meningococcal and pneumococcal disease. Dexamethasone therapy has been implemented as adjunctive treatment of adults with pneumococcal meningitis. Adequate and prompt treatment of bacterial meningitis is critical to outcome. In this chapter we review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of bacterial meningitis. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

de Ronde W.,Kennemer Gasthuis | de Jong F.H.,Erasmus Medical Center
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology | Year: 2011

Aromatase inhibitors effectively delay epiphysial maturation in boys and improve testosterone levels in adult men Therefore, aromatase inhibitors may be used to increase adult height in boys with gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, idiopathic short stature and constitutional delay of puberty. Long-term efficacy and safety of the use of aromatase inhibitors has not yet been established in males, however, and their routine use is therefore not yet recommended. © 2011 de Ronde and de Jong; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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