Loeb B.L.,9731 Pebble View Dr |
Thompson C.M.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Drago J.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Takahara H.,Japan Ozone Association |
Ozone: Science and Engineering | Year: 2012
One question often raised when ozone professionals gather is "How much ozone capacity is installed?" Although the use of ozone for industrial purposes is growing, the largest use for ozone resides in the use of treatment of municipal drinking and wastewater. It is very difficult to summarize ozone capacity for industrial applications as much data are kept confidential. A number of reports have been published over the years on installed ozone capacity. Ozone capacity estimation is a moving target as plants are built and others removed from service for a number of reasons. This paper summarizes, using data available, ozone capacity for drinking water and wastewater. Focus is on the United States, Canada, Europe and Japan. IOA members and member companies are encouraged to submit additional data to enable this summary to be as accurate and relevant as possible. © 2012 Copyright 2012 International Ozone Association.
Drago J.A.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2013
Sequestration of carbon dioxide in underground geologic formations is an emerging technology for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to reduce the magnitude and potential effects of climate change. The technology is a key component of an overall strategy referred to as carbon capture and storage for reducing carbon dioxide emission from industrial sources such as fossil fuel power plants and refineries. The primary commercial process involves capturing carbon dioxide from industrial sources, transporting it by pipeline to an injection site, and injecting it into a geologic formation for long-term storage. Geologic sequestration refers to the portion of this process in which carbon dioxide is injected into a geologic formation suitable for long-term containment.
Thompson C.M.,WYA |
Drago J.A.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants
Journal - American Water Works Association | Year: 2015
The current status of ozone uses at water treatment plants (WTPs) in North America is discussed. At present there are more than 280 WTPs with 15.3 bgd of combined treatment capacity and about 635,000 lb/d of ozone generation capacity in the United States, and at least 53 WTPs with a combined treatment capacity of at least 1.7 bgd and at least 75,000 lb/d of ozone generation capacity in Canada. In addition, the available information about ozone systems that are in a planning or design phase, or are already in construction, indicates that at least 1 bgd of WTP capacity and more than 20,000 lb/d of additional ozone system capacity are scheduled to be operational in the United States during 2020. Most ozone generators and associated power supply units can currently produce ozone at between 10-12 wt% using less electrical power per pound of ozone produced than was required in 1991. The transition from using compressed, dried air as the oxygen source to using high-purity oxygen as the oxygen supply to generate ozone has progressed at a significant rate.
Dunning R.W.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Fichthorn A.,Port of Tacoma
Ports 2016: Port Engineering - Papers from Sessions of the 14th Triennial International Conference | Year: 2016
The Port of Tacoma operates the 23-hectare (56-acre) Olympic Container Terminal, 5-hectare (12-acre) North Intermodal Yard, and 9-hectare (22-acre) South Intermodal Yard located in Tacoma, Washington. All three facilities are completely paved and subject to extremely heavy operational loads to accommodate loading, unloading, storage, and transfer of shipping containers to and from ship, rail, and trucks. Stormwater discharges from all three facilities are covered under the Washington State Department of Ecology Industrial Stormwater General Permit and each facility was required to install stormwater runoff treatment by the end of 2014, primarily due to zinc concentrations exceeding permit-defined pollutant benchmarks. Three different proprietary gravity-based treatment solutions were designed to meet each location's unique stormwater characteristics and operational needs while meeting Washington's stringent industrial stormwater treatment performance requirements. © 2016 ASCE.
Fuentes B.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Fichthorn A.,Port of Tacoma
Ports 2016: Port Planning and Development - Papers from Sessions of the 14th Triennial International Conference | Year: 2016
Kennedy/Jenks consultants assisted Port of Tacoma with design of a stormwater treatment system for runoff from its 25-acre West Hylebos Pier log yard. Stormwater runoff at the site is covered under the under ecology's Industrial stormwater general permit (ISGP). Kennedy/Jenks performed an all known, available, and reasonable methods of prevention, control, and treatment (AKART) evaluation to identify appropriate stormwater treatment while considering site constraints. Based on the AKART evaluation, pretreatment filtration followed by biofiltration was selected for piloting and eventually design. The biofiltration system was constructed and brought online December 2013 and was immediately successful in meeting ISGP benchmark levels for five out of six of the applicable parameters. Kennedy/Jenks continued to assist the port and by the third quarter 2014, the system was effectively treating all six ISGP parameters to well below benchmarks. Since then, the system has consistently met treatment goals with minimal operational and maintenance costs. © ASCE.
Hope B.K.,11 SW Sixth Avenue |
Stone D.,Oregon State University |
Fuji T.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Gensemer R.W.,4601 Denver Technology Center Blvd |
Jenkins J.,Oregon State University
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2010
In 2007, the State of Oregon enacted legislation aimed at identifying persistent pollutants that could pose a threat to waters of the State and then reducing their discharge by means of a comprehensive pollution prevention program. This legislation defined a persistent pollutant as one that is toxic and persistent or bioaccumulative; a broad definition that required evaluation of an extensive number and variety of chemicals. The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, in consultation with a science workgroup, implemented a 12-step process for identifying and prioritizing persistent pollutants consistent with this definition. This process is characterized by (a) maximum overall transparency in its conduct, including extensive public involvement, (b) 3 levels of objective and predefined criteria for categorization of a chemical as a persistent pollutant, (c) full disclosure of values and sources for all physicochemical data used for comparison with these criteria, and (d) clear acknowledgement when a chemical was identified as a persistent pollutant for reasons other than these criteria alone. This process was used to identify those chemicals relevant as persistent pollutants and to then prioritize them in terms of their relative ability to adversely impact waters of the state, with special emphasis on impacts to aquatic receptors. An initial list of 2130 chemicals was compiled from existing lists. Criteria for toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulative potential were defined and then used with 2 different chemical property evaluation models (PBT Profiler and EPISuite) to produce a final list of 118 chemicals. The final list includes several legacy pollutants but also contains numerous current-use pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, approximately half of which appear only once or not at all on lists compiled by others. Although it drew from the experience of others, assembling this list proved to be an exemplar of science in the service of policy. © 2010 SETAC.
Ryder R.A.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants
American Water Works Association Annual Conference and Exposition 2011, ACE 2011 | Year: 2011
There are many instances where ground water wells have relatively low pH and high carbon dioxide concentrations. Some cause Lead and Copper Rule copper action levels over the limit, some aesthetic blue water staining or metallic tastes, others cause copper pipe pitting, while others copper concentrations in wastewaters that even after wastewater treatment cause exceedance of the very low copper concentrations of many new waste discharge permits. Aeration stripping of CO2 is often utilized; but usually requires a break of hydraulic head and often double pumping. Space limitations and energy costs can be significant. Chemical prices and particularly caustic soda and soda ash have tripled in recent years. An evaluation of alternative aeration stripping by packed towers, tray aerators, low profile diffused air, piped eductors and spray nozzles are presented for 100,500 and 1,000 gpm wells. Evaluations include capital costs, size foot prints, energy and O&M costs. Chemical alternatives of caustic soda, soda ash, sodium phosphate, blended ortho-polyphosphate and zinc orthophosphate are also evaluated. Examples of four different small water utilities and of more than twenty wells are included in the analyses.
Ganesh R.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Smeraldi J.,University of California at Irvine |
Hosseini T.,University of California at Irvine |
Khatib L.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010
Bench scale studies were performed to evaluate removal and toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) and copper ions in activated sludge biomass. The data indicated that, under the test conditions, copper nanoparticles were removed more effectively (∼95%) than copper ions (30-70%) from the wastewater. Mechanisms of CuNP removal were further investigated by equilibrating CuNP and copper ion in activated sludge filtrate (0.45 μm). The predominant mechanisms of copper removal appear to be aggregation and settling (CuNP) or precipitation (copper ion) rather than biosorption. Most probable number (MPN) test data indicated that addition of 10 mg/L of copper ion was toxic to both coliform and ammonia oxidizing bacteria in the wastewater while no inhibitory effects were observed with the addition of the same amount of copper nanoparticles. Respirometry data indicated a 55% decrease in respiration rate when 10 mg/L ionic copper was added. However, no significant decrease in respiration rate was observed in the presence of copper nanoparticles. The toxicity of copper to activated sludge microorganisms appears to be a function of the concentration and characteristics of copper remaining in solution/suspension. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Smeraldi J.,University of California at Irvine |
Ganesh R.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants |
Safarik J.,Fountain |
Rosso D.,University of California at Irvine
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2012
The dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique can detect the concentration and size distribution of nanoscale particles in aqueous solutions by analyzing photon interactions. This study evaluated the applicability of using photon count rate data from DLS analyses for measuring levels of biogenic and manufactured nanoscale particles in wastewater. Statistical evaluations were performed using secondary wastewater effluent and a Malvern Zetasizer. Dynamic light scattering analyses were performed equally by two analysts over a period of two days using five dilutions and twelve replicates for each dilution. Linearity evaluation using the sixty sample analysis yielded a regression coefficient R 2 = 0.959. The accuracy analysis for various dilutions indicated a recovery of 100 ± 6%. Precision analyses indicated low variance coefficients for the impact of analysts, days, and within sample error. The variation by analysts was apparent only in the most diluted sample (intermediate precision ∼12%), where the photon count rate was close to the instrument detection limit. The variation for different days was apparent in the two most concentrated samples, which indicated that wastewater samples must be analyzed for nanoscale particle measurement within the same day of collection. Upon addition of 10 mg l -1 of nanosilica to wastewater effluent samples, the measured photon count rates were within 5% of the estimated values. The results indicated that photon count rate data can effectively complement various techniques currently available to detect nanoscale particles in wastewaters. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Frenkel V.S.,Kennedy Jenks Consultants
World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010: Challenges of Change - Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2010 | Year: 2010
Both brackish water desalination and seawater desalination processes are well established and in common use around the globe to create new water supply sources. The farther the location of the source water from the ocean or seashore, the lower the salinity (TDS) of the water and the lower the osmotic pressure that needs to be overcome when desalinated water is produced. This is one of the major reasons that brackish desalination is often considered less costly than seawater desalination. A number of project considerations, however, indicate that seawater desalination can be beneficial and more cost-effective than brackish water desalination. To make a fair comparison, we need to properly compare all major aspects of both types of projects to define the best and most appropriate desalination technology. While brackish water has less feed water TDS, it is more challenging to dispose of the produced concentrate. Also, although brackish water desalination needs less energy to overcome osmotic pressure, it usually requires more energy to draw the water from the well than it takes to pump seawater from the open ocean intake. Another factor is that the temperature of the brackish well water may be lower than the temperature of ocean water, giving seawater desalination an advantage in energy demand. In comparing brackish to seawater desalination, these major aspects should be evaluated: (1) Locations of seawater and brackish water plants, relative to the major consumers of the desalinated water, (2) Transportation (pumping and disposal) costs of the feed water and produced water, (3) Potential colocation of a seawater plant with a large industrial user (e.g., power plant) of the seawater for cooling or other purposes, (4) Produced quality of brackish water and seawater desalination in terms of major minerals and emerging contaminants, (5) Sustainability of the water source: capacity and depth of the brackish water wells, as well as the type of soil. (6) Technical and economic aspects of produced concentrate disposal, (7) Permitting process costs for brackish and seawater desalination, and (8) The economics of both brackish and seawater desalination treatment processes: capital costs, operational and maintenance (O&M) costs, lifetime water cost, and total water cost (TWC). This paper discusses the major evaluation criteria and considerations involved in properly comparing the economic and technical aspects of brackish and seawater desalination to determine the more favorable desalination technology for a given desalination project. © 2010 ASCE.