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Evans D.G.R.,Genesis Centre | Evans D.G.R.,Foundation Medicine | Barwell J.,Leicester Genetics Service | Eccles D.M.,Regional Genetics Service Coxford Road Southampton | And 11 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research

Introduction: It is frequent for news items to lead to a short lived temporary increase in interest in a particular health related service, however it is rare for this to have a long lasting effect. In 2013, in the UK in particular, there has been unprecedented publicity in hereditary breast cancer, with Angelina Jolie's decision to have genetic testing for the BRCA1 gene and subsequently undergo risk reducing mastectomy (RRM), and a pre-release of the NICE guidelines on familial breast cancer in January and their final release on 26th June. The release of NICE guidelines created a lot of publicity over the potential for use of chemoprevention using tamoxifen or raloxifene. However, the longest lasting news story was the release of details of film actress Angelina Jolie's genetic test and surgery.Methods: To assess the potential effects of the 'Angelina Jolie' effect, referral data specific to breast cancer family history was obtained from around the UK for the years 2012 and 2013. A consortium of over 30 breast cancer family history clinics that have contributed to two research studies on early breast surveillance were asked to participate as well as 10 genetics centres. Monthly referrals to each service were collated and increases from 2012 to 2013 assessed.Results: Data from 12 family history clinics and 9 regional genetics services showed a rise in referrals from May 2013 onwards. Referrals were nearly 2.5 fold in June and July 2013 from 1,981 (2012) to 4,847 (2013) and remained at around two-fold to October 2013. Demand for BRCA1/2 testing almost doubled and there were also many more enquiries for risk reducing mastectomy. Internal review shows that there was no increase in inappropriate referrals.Conclusions: The Angelina Jolie effect has been long lasting and global, and appears to have increased referrals to centres appropriately. © 2014 Evans et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Clements S.E.,Kings College London | Techanukul T.,Kings College London | Holden S.T.,Guys and St Thomas NHS Foundation Trust | Mellerio J.E.,Kings College London | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology

Background Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS) and Hay-Wells [also known as ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lippalate (AEC)] syndrome have been designated as distinct ectodermal dysplasia syndromes despite both disorders having overlapping clinical features and the same mutated gene, TP63. Objectives To search for TP63 mutations in two unrelated cases of RHS and two of AEC syndrome and to review the TP63 mutation database and clinical descriptions of affected individuals, the goal being to refine genotype-phenotype correlation and to determine the clinicalmolecular justification for RHS and AEC continuing to exist as separate entities. Methods Clinical examination of four affected cases and sequencing of genomic DNA using TP63-specific primers. Literature review of published clinical descriptions of RHS and AEC syndrome cases containing TP63 mutation data. Results Cases of RHS and AEC show considerable clinical overlap, particularly with regard to hypotrichosis and mid-face hypoplasia, and the clinical feature of ankyloblepharon in AEC is often subtle, transient and a poor distinguishing clinical sign. We identified two new and two recurrent heterozygous mutations in TP63: c.1456insA (p.Leu486fsX52), RHS; c.1537T>G (p.Phe513Val), RHS; c.1787delG (p.Gly596fsX68), AEC; and c.1682G>A (p.Gly561Asp), AEC. Including this study, 42 different mutations in TP63 in RHS and AEC have now been reported, three of which are exactly the same in both syndromes. Conclusions Our clinicopathological and molecular findings indicate that there is no justification for the continued use of eponyms in referring to these particular ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. We support the view that the terms 'Hay-Wells' and 'Rapp-Hodgkin' should be abandoned in favour of the all-inclusive diagnosis 'AEC syndrome', notwithstanding the inconsistency or often transient nature of the ankyloblepharon. © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

Sharma V.P.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Sharma V.P.,University of Oxford | Fenwick A.L.,Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine | Brockop M.S.,University of Southern California | And 25 more authors.
Nature Genetics

Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,200 (refs. 1,2). A specific genetic etiology can be identified in ∼21% of cases, including mutations of TWIST1, which encodes a class II basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, and causes Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, typically associated with coronal synostosis. Using exome sequencing, we identified 38 heterozygous TCF12 mutations in 347 samples from unrelated individuals with craniosynostosis. The mutations predominantly occurred in individuals with coronal synostosis and accounted for 32% and 10% of subjects with bilateral and unilateral pathology, respectively. TCF12 encodes one of three class I E proteins that heterodimerize with class II bHLH proteins such as TWIST1. We show that TCF12 and TWIST1 act synergistically in a transactivation assay and that mice doubly heterozygous for loss-of-function mutations in Tcf12 and Twist1 have severe coronal synostosis. Hence, the dosage of TCF12-TWIST1 heterodimers is critical for normal coronal suture development. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Grozeva D.,University of Cambridge | Carss K.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute | Spasic-Boskovic O.,University of Cambridge | Parker M.J.,Sheffield Clinical Genetics Service | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics

To identify further Mendelian causes of intellectual disability (ID), we screened a cohort of 996 individuals with ID for variants in 565 known or candidate genes by using a targeted next-generation sequencing approach. Seven loss-of-function (LoF) mutations - four nonsense (c.1195A>T [p.Lys399&z.ast;], c.1333C>T [p.Arg445&z.ast;], c.1866C>G [p.Tyr622&z.ast;], and c.3001C>T [p.Arg1001&z.ast;]) and three frameshift (c.2177-2178del [p.Thr726Asnfs&z.ast;39], c.3771dup [p.Ser1258Glufs&z.ast;65], and c.3856del [p.Ser1286Leufs&z.ast;84]) - were identified in SETD5, a gene predicted to encode a methyltransferase. All mutations were compatible with de novo dominant inheritance. The affected individuals had moderate to severe ID with additional variable features of brachycephaly; a prominent high forehead with synophrys or striking full and broad eyebrows; a long, thin, and tubular nose; long, narrow upslanting palpebral fissures; and large, fleshy low-set ears. Skeletal anomalies, including significant leg-length discrepancy, were a frequent finding in two individuals. Congenital heart defects, inguinal hernia, or hypospadias were also reported. Behavioral problems, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, hand flapping with ritualized behavior, and autism, were prominent features. SETD5 lies within the critical interval for 3p25 microdeletion syndrome. The individuals with SETD5 mutations showed phenotypic similarity to those previously reported with a deletion in 3p25, and thus loss of SETD5 might be sufficient to account for many of the clinical features observed in this condition. Our findings add to the growing evidence that mutations in genes encoding methyltransferases regulating histone modification are important causes of ID. This analysis provides sufficient evidence that rare de novo LoF mutations in SETD5 are a relatively frequent (0.7%) cause of ID. © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Source

Van Houdt J.K.J.,Catholic University of Leuven | Nowakowska B.A.,Catholic University of Leuven | Nowakowska B.A.,Institute of Mother and Child | Sousa S.B.,Institute of Child Health | And 49 more authors.
Nature Genetics

Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NBS) is characterized by sparse hair, distinctive facial morphology, distal-limb anomalies and intellectual disability. We sequenced the exomes of ten individuals with NBS and identified heterozygous variants in SMARCA2 in eight of them. Extended molecular screening identified nonsynonymous SMARCA2 mutations in 36 of 44 individuals with NBS; these mutations were confirmed to be de novo when parental samples were available. SMARCA2 encodes the core catalytic unit of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that is involved in the regulation of gene transcription. The mutations cluster within sequences that encode ultra-conserved motifs in the catalytic ATPase region of the protein. These alterations likely do not impair SWI/SNF complex assembly but may be associated with disrupted ATPase activity. The identification of SMARCA2 mutations in humans provides insight into the function of the Snf2 helicase family. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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