Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 2.92M | Year: 2014
The world around us is full of modern technology designed to make our lives safer, more comfortable and more efficient. Such technology is made possible by materials and devices that are able to interact with their surrounding environment either by sensing or acting upon it. Examples of such devices include motion detectors, fuel injectors, engine sensors and medical diagnostic tools. These interactive devices contain functional materials that can pose health hazards, are obtained from parts of the world where supply cannot be guaranteed or are relatively scarce. If access to these functional materials is restricted, many of these advances will no longer be available resulting in a reduction in living standards and decreased UK economic growth. There already exist a number of replacement materials that can provide the same functions without the same levels of concerns around safety, security of supply and sustainability. However, these replacement materials need to be manufactured using different processes compared to existing materials. This project explores new manufacturing technologies that could be used to create interactive devices that contains less harmful and sustainable materials with a secure supply. This project will focus on two types of material - thermoelectric and piezoelectric - where the replacement materials share a set of common challenges: they need to be processed at elevated temperatures; they contain elements that evaporate at high temperatures (making high temperature processing and processing of small elements difficult); they are mechanically fragile making it difficult to shape the materials by cutting, grinding or polishing; they are chemically stable making it difficult to shape them by etching; and many are air and moisture sensitive. The proposed research will address these challenges through three parallel research streams that proactively engage with industry. The first stream is composed of six manufacturing capability projects designed to develop the core manufacturing capabilities and know-how to support the programme. The second is a series of short term feasibility studies, conducted in collaboration with industry, to explore novel manufacturing concepts and evaluate their potential opportunities. Finally, the third stream will deliver focussed industrially orientated projects designed to develop specific manufacturing techniques for in an industrial manufacturing environment. The six manufacturing capability projects will address: 1) The production of functional material powders, using wet and dry controlled atmosphere techniques, needed as feedstock in the manufacture of bulk and printed functional materials. 2) How to produce functional materials while maintaining the required chemistry and microstructure to ensure high performance. Spark Plasma Sintering will be used to directly heat the materials and accelerate fusion of the individual powder particles using an electric current. 3) Printing of functional material inks to build up active devices without the need to assemble individual components. Combing industrially relevant printing processes, such as screen printing, with controlled rapid temperature treatments will create novel print manufacturing techniques capable of handling the substitute materials. 4) How to join and coat these new functional materials so that they can be assembled into a device or protected from harsh environments when in use. 5) The fitness of substituted material to be compatible with existing shaping and treatment stages found later in the manufacturing chain. 6) The need to ensure that the substitute materials do not pose an equal or greater risk within the manufacturing and product life cycle environment. Here lessons learned from comparable material systems will be used to help predict potential risks and exposures.
Agency: GTR | Branch: EPSRC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 3.72M | Year: 2014
The conditions in which materials are required to operate are becoming ever more challenging. Operating temperatures and pressures are increasing in all areas of manufacture, energy generation, transport and environmental clean-up. Often the high temperatures are combined with severe chemical environments and exposure to high energy and, in the nuclear industry, to ionising radiation. The production and processing of next-generation materials capable of operating in these conditions will be non-trivial, especially at the scale required in many of these applications. In some cases, totally new compositions, processing and joining strategies will have to be developed. The need for long-term reliability in many components means that defects introduced during processing will need to be kept to an absolute minimum or defect-tolerant systems developed, e.g. via fibre reinforcement. Modelling techniques that link different length and time scales to define the materials chemistry, microstructure and processing strategy are key to speeding up the development of these next-generation materials. Further, they will not function in isolation but as part of a system. It is the behaviour of the latter that is crucial, so that interactions between different materials, the joining processes, the behaviour of the different parts under extreme conditions and how they can be made to work together, must be understood. Our vision is to develop the required understanding of how the processing, microstructures and properties of materials systems operating in extreme environments interact to the point where materials with the required performance can be designed and then manufactured. Aligned with the Materials Genome Initiative in the USA, we will integrate hierarchical and predictive modelling capability in fields where experiments are extremely difficult and expensive. The team have significant experience of working in this area. Composites based on exotic materials such as zirconium diborides and silicon carbide have been developed for use as leading edges for hypersonic vehicles over a 3 year, DSTL funded collaboration between the 3 universities associated with this proposal. World-leading achievements include densifying them in <10 mins using a relatively new technique known as spark plasma sintering (SPS); measuring their thermal and mechanical properties at up to 2000oC; assessing their oxidation performance at extremely high heat fluxes and producing fibre-reinforced systems that can withstand exceptionally high heating rates, e.g. 1000oC s-1, and temperatures of nearly 3000oC for several minutes. The research planned for this Programme Grant is designed to both spin off this knowledge into materials processing for nuclear fusion and fission, aerospace and other applications where radiation, oxidation and erosion resistance at very high temperatures are essential and to gain a deep understanding of the processing-microstructure-property relations of these materials and how they interact with each other by undertaking one of the most thorough assessments ever, allowing new and revolutionary compositions, microstructures and composite systems to be designed, manufactured and tested. A wide range of potential crystal chemistries will be considered to enable identification of operational mechanisms across a range of materials systems and to achieve paradigm changing developments. The Programme Grant would enable us to put in place the expertise required to produce a chain of knowledge from prediction and synthesis through to processing, characterisation and application that will enable the UK to be world leading in materials for harsh environments.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-05-13
The invention relates to a tool head for a rotary tool. The tool head extends along, and rotates about, a rotational axis in a rotational direction during operation. The tool head is designed for replaceable fastening on a carrier shank of the rotary tool and comprises on the back thereof a coupling surface comprising a first serration having a plurality of ribs running parallel to one another and grooves running parallel to one another. The first serration comprises at least two part-serrations oriented toward one another in the rotational direction at an angle. Each part-serration having a plurality of ribs and grooves running parallel, for centering the tool head relative to the carrier shank. The invention furthermore relates to a rotary tool having such a tool head.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-04-23
A cutting tool includes a generally cylindrical tool body disposed about a central longitudinal axis, the tool body having first and second extending sides with respective first and second bores that pass therethrough, wherein a first longitudinal axis of the first bore and a second longitudinal axis of the second bore are configured to be non-parallel to a horizontal axis of the tool body that is perpendicular to the central longitudinal axis of the tool body. The cutting tool also includes a replaceable cutting insert configured to be removably attached to the tool body and first and second attachment elements configured for receipt in the first and second bores, respectively, and adapted to engage the cutting insert and secure the cutting insert to the tool body.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-07-15
In one aspect, cutting inserts are described herein comprising a notched architecture for facile and accurate securement to a tool holder. A cutting insert described herein comprises a top surface, a bottom surface and side surfaces extending between the top and bottom surfaces, the cutting insert having a first axis bisecting a nose of the cutting insert and a notch in the top surface, the notch arranged normal to the first axis.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-03-30
The invention relates to a method for producing a coated cutting tool in which a coating with at least one oxide layer is applied to a base layer by means of a PVD method. The method includes voltage-pulsed sputtering of at least one cathode metal selected from the group of aluminum, scandium, yttrium, silicon, zinc, titanium, zirconium, hafnium, chromium, niobium, and tantalum, as well as mixtures and alloys thereof in the presence of a reactive gas; and the depositing of at least one oxide layer formed by converting the reactive gas with the sputtered cathode metal onto the base body. The cathode metal includes at least aluminum. Dinitrogen oxide is used as the reactive gas. The at least one oxide layer is in the form of an oxide, mixed oxide, or oxide mixture of the at least one cathode metal.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-03-27
A cutting insert includes a body having an upper face, a lower face, a plurality of planar flank faces, bidirectional acute cutting corners and bidirectional obtuse cutting corners joining two adjacent flank faces. A land has a varying width. An annular island includes a plurality of bulged extensions, relatively longer and narrower chip breaking points proximate the acute cutting corners, and relatively shorter and wider chip breaking points proximate the obtuse cutting corners. A chip breaking ramp surface flanks each of the relatively longer and narrower chip breaking points and each of the relatively shorter and wider chip breaking points. The chip breaking ramp surfaces form a series of non-collinear lines that are at a non-zero angle with respect to the cutting edge.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-03-27
A tool holder includes a body having a forward end with a clamp seating surface, and a clamp mounted on the clamp seating surface with an integrated insert-receiving pocket for receiving a cutting insert. The insert-receiving pocket is formed by a pair of side walls formed at an angle with respect to each other, depending on the shape of the cutting insert. A slot is formed in side walls to allow the clamp to act as a cantilevered member when a clamp screw is received in an insert screw, thereby causing the clamp to press against the cutting insert to securely hold the cutting insert in the insert-receiving pocket of the clamp.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-03-26
A reducer sleeve includes a reducer sleeve body that has an axial forward end and an axial rearward end, as well as a flange at the axial forward end thereof. The flange contains a first nozzle. The reducer sleeve body contains a first trough extending from the axial rearward end to the axial forward end. The first trough is in communication with the first nozzle whereby coolant is able to enter the first trough and flow along the first trough and into the first nozzle wherein the coolant is ejected by the first nozzle.
Kennametal | Date: 2015-04-15
An aqueous emulsion for use in aqueous milling of hard material powder components in an aqueous slurry. The aqueous emulsion includes an oxidation inhibitor in an amount between about 0.3 weight percent and about 1.2 weight percent of the hard material powder components in the aqueous slurry. The aqueous emulsion also includes a paraffin wax in an amount between about 0.25 weight percent and about 0.75 weight percent of the hard material powder components in the aqueous slurry for vacuum dried powder and in an amount about up to 2.75 weight percent of the hard material powder components in the aqueous slurry for spray dried powder. The aqueous emulsion also includes myristic acid in an amount between about 0.10 weight percent and about 0.50 weight percent of the hard material powder components in the aqueous slurry. The balance of the aqueous emulsion is water.