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Muiruri S.K.,Ministry of Health | Mwangangi J.M.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Mwangangi J.M.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Carlson J.,Tulane University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Vector Borne Diseases | Year: 2013

Background & objectives: The use of insecticides to eliminate mosquito larvae from ground pools may disrupt natural predator-induced control of mosquito larvae. Detrimental effects on predators may be directly from toxicity or by eliminating prey organisms. Identifying the principal predators responsible for mosquito suppression is needed to select non-target indicator species for insecticide studies. In this study, we sought to determine trophic level interactions between predators and immature stages of Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquitoes under experimental conditions in the coastal region of Kenya. Methods: To identify effective predation pattern, a series of prey choice experiments was conducted. The relative abilities of five common species of aquatic insects found in the malaria-endemic coastal region of Kenya were assessed in a series of experiments. Experiments were conducted in semi-field conditions at Jaribuni, near the sites of insect collection. Results: In single predator experiments, notonectids consumed most of the mosquito larvae; hydrometrids consumed about half of the mosquito larvae in treatments. Veliids and gerrids had significant, but small effects on larval survivorship. Dytiscids did not have a significant effect on mosquito larvae survivorship. In a two-predator experiment, notonectids significantly decreased survivorship of dytiscids without a change in suppressive effects on mosquito larvae. Of the five common predators evaluated, notonectids were clearly the most voracious consumers of mosquito larvae. The predation pressure on mosquito larvae was not affected by the addition of additional prey items, consisting of small dytiscid beetles. The importance of this notonectid species in coastal Kenya suggests that it would be a valuable non-target indicator species for insecticide studies. Hydrometrids were also efficient at consuming mosquito larvae. Interpretation & conclusion: Of the five common predators from the Kenyan coast evaluated in this study, notonectids were the most voracious consumers of immature mosquitoes. Their predation pressure on mosquito larvae was not affected by the addition of additional prey items, consisting of small dytiscid beetles.


Ochomo E.,Maseno University | Ochomo E.,KEMRI CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration | Bayoh N.M.,KEMRI CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration | Kamau L.,Center for Biotechnology and Research Development | And 11 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2014

Background: Increasing pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors has been reported in western Kenya where long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the mainstays of vector control. To ensure the sustainability of insecticide-based malaria vector control, monitoring programs need to be implemented. This study was designed to investigate the extent and distribution of pyrethroid resistance in 4 Districts of western Kenya (Nyando, Rachuonyo, Bondo and Teso). All four Districts have received LLINs while Nyando and Rachuonyo Districts have had IRS campaigns for 3-5 years using pyrethroids. This study is part of a programme aimed at determining the impact of insecticide resistance on malaria epidemiology. Methods. Three day old adult mosquitoes from larval samples collected in the field, were used for bioassays using the WHO tube bioassay, and mortality recorded 24 hours post exposure. Resistance level was assigned based on the 2013 WHO guidelines where populations with <90% mortality were considered resistant. Once exposed, samples were identified to species using PCR. Results: An. arabiensis comprised at least 94% of all An. gambiae s.l. in Bondo, Rachuonyo and Nyando. Teso was a marked contrast case with 77% of all samples being An. gambiae s.s. Mortality to insecticides varied widely between clusters even in one District with mortality to deltamethrin ranging from 45-100%, while to permethrin the range was 30-100%. Mortality to deltamethrin in Teso District was < 90% in 4 of 6 clusters tested in An arabiensis and <90% in An. gambiae s.s in 5 of 6 clusters tested. To permethrin, mortality ranged between 5.9-95%, with <90% mortality in 9 of 13 and 8 of 13 in An. arabiensis and An. gambiae s.s. respectively. Cluster specific mortality of An. arabiensis between permethin and deltamethrin were not correlated (Z = 2.9505, P = 0.2483). Conclusion: High levels of pyrethroid resistance were observed in western Kenya. This resistance does not seem to be associated with either species or location. Insecticide resistance can vary within small geographical areas and such heterogeneity may make it possible to evaluate the impact of resistance on malaria and mosquito parameters within similar eco-epidemiological zones. © 2014 Ochomo et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, University College London, University of Ghana, University of Nairobi and 6 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of child neurology | Year: 2016

Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders has increased over recent years, however, little is known about the identification and management of autism spectrum disorder in Africa. This report summarizes a workshop on autism spectrum disorder in Africa under the auspices of the International Child Neurology Association and the African Child Neurology Association through guided presentations and working group reports, focusing on identification, diagnosis, management, and community support. A total of 47 delegates participated from 14 African countries. Although there was a huge variability in services across the countries represented, numbers of specialists assessing and managing autism spectrum disorder was small relative to populations served. Strategies were proposed to improve identification, diagnosis, management and support delivery for individuals with autism spectrum disorder across Africa in these culturally diverse, low-resource settings. Emphasis on raising public awareness through community engagement and improving access to information and training in autism spectrum disorder. Special considerations for the cultural, linguistic, and socioeconomic factors within Africa are discussed.


Lievens M.,Glaxosmithkline | Aponte J.J.,University of Barcelona | Williamson J.,KEMRI CDC Research and Public Health Collaboration | Mmbando B.,National Institute for Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2011

Background: There has been much debate about the appropriate statistical methodology for the evaluation of malaria field studies and the challenges in interpreting data arising from these trials. Methods. The present paper describes, for a pivotal phase III efficacy of the RTS, S/AS01 malaria vaccine, the methods of the statistical analysis and the rationale for their selection. The methods used to estimate efficacy of the primary course of vaccination, and of a booster dose, in preventing clinical episodes of uncomplicated and severe malaria, and to determine the duration of protection, are described. The interpretation of various measures of efficacy in terms of the potential public health impact of the vaccine is discussed. Conclusions: The methodology selected to analyse the clinical trial must be scientifically sound, acceptable to regulatory authorities and meaningful to those responsible for malaria control and public health policy. Trial registration. © 2011 Lievens et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Etyang A.O.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Etyang A.O.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Smeeth L.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Cruickshank J.K.,King's College London | And 2 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2016

Rationale: Several studies have demonstrated links between infectious diseases and cardiovascular conditions. Malaria and hypertension are widespread in many low- and middle-income countries, but the possible link between them has not been considered. Objective: In this article, we outline the basis for a possible link between malaria and hypertension and discuss how the hypothesis could be confirmed or refuted. Methods and Results: We reviewed published literature on factors associated with hypertension and checked whether any of these were also associated with malaria. We then considered various study designs that could be used to test the hypothesis. Malaria causes low birth weight, malnutrition, and inflammation, all of which are associated with hypertension in high-income countries. The hypothetical link between malaria and hypertension can be tested through the use of ecological, cohort, or Mendelian randomization studies, each of which poses specific challenges. Conclusions: Confirmation of the existence of a causative link with malaria would be a paradigm shift in efforts to prevent and control hypertension and would stimulate wider research on the links between infectious and noncommunicable disease. © 2016 The Authors.


Mwangangi J.M.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | Mwangangi J.M.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Muturi E.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Muriu S.M.,Kenya Medical Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: The scaling up of malaria vector control efforts in Africa has resulted in changing the malaria vectorial systems across different ecological settings. In view of the ongoing trends in vector population dynamics, abundance, species composition and parasite infectiousness, there is a need to understand vector distribution and their contribution to malaria transmission to facilitate future planning of control strategies. We studied indoor and outdoor malaria transmission dynamics and vector population variability of Anopheles mosquitoes in Taveta district along the Kenyan Coast. Methods. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected indoors and outdoors in 4 ecologically different villages using CDC light traps (both indoor and outdoor) and aspiration method (day resting indoors; DRI) methods. Mosquitoes were examined for infection with P. falciparum sporozoites and blood feeding preferences using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The An. gambiae and An. funestus complexes were identified by PCR technique to determine the sibling species composition. Results: A total of 4,004 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected consisting of 34.9%% (n = 1,397) An. gambiae s.1., 28.1% (n = 1,124) An. funestus s.l., 33.5% (n = 1,340) An. coustani and 3.6% (n = 143) An. pharoensis. A total of 14,654 culicine mosquitoes were collected, mainly Cx. quinquefasciatus. Of the total Anopheles collected, 3,729 were tested for P. falciparum sporozoite infection. The sporozoite transmission was found to be occurring both indoors and outdoors. The overall sporozoite infectivity was 0.68% (n = 2,486) indoors and 1.29% (n = 1,243) outdoors. Indoor and outdoor sporozoite infectivity and the vectorial systems varied across the 4 ecological villages. Entomological inoculation rates for the 4 villages indicate that there was site-to-site variation. In the 4 villages, Mwarusa had the highest EIRs with An. arabiensis, An. funestus and An. coustani contributing to 23.91, 11.96 and 23.91 infectious bites per person per year ib/p/year respectively. In Kiwalwa and Njoro outdoor EIR was significantly higher than indoors. Conclusions: This study shows that malaria transmission is occurring both indoors and outdoors. The main vectors are An. arabiensis, An. funestus and An. coustani indoors while An. coustani is playing a major role in outdoor transmission. Effective malaria control programmes, should therefore include tools that target both indoor and outdoor transmission. © 2013 Mwangangi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Ngongo P.B.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | Priddy F.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | Park H.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | Becker J.,International AIDS Vaccine Initiative | And 13 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2012

Standards of care provided to volunteers in HIV prevention research in developing countries are evolving. Inconsistency in standards, particularly within a research network highlights the need to balance volunteers' health and wellness with the efficient conduct of research. Ten research centers (RC's) in East and Southern Africa affiliated with the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) were studied using a mixed methods approach to understand variations, similarities and gaps in services provided, recipients of services, referral systems, and barriers to referral uptake. These data were then used to develop expected standards across the 10 RCs. Findings indicated that RCs consistently provided HIV risk reduction and family planning (FP) counseling, male condoms, management of sexually transmitted infections, CD-4 counts, and general medical care to volunteers and non-research volunteers. Services that were less consistently provided on-site included: female condoms, adult male circumcision (AMC), antiretroviral therapy (ART) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in case of rape. The FP options provided on-site varied, with few providing implants, intrauterine devices, tubal ligation, and vasectomy. Most RCs had established referral systems for ART, AMC, PEP, and FP, but few had referral points for psychosocial services. Few RCs had comprehensive guidelines on referrals other than those related to adverse events. Findings indicate that the greatest challenges for referral uptake were transportation and health care costs, poor quality and inconsistency of services at some referral points. Few RCs covered the cost of referrals for non-study related adverse events. A collaborative process between IAVI and the RCs was undertaken to reach consensus on expected standards of care. A set of required and recommended services to be provided on-site or by referral was developed. In developing such standards, we tried to balance scientific priorities, equity, contextual realities, community expectations, and cost-effectiveness. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Bonnal R.J.P.,CNR Institute of Molecular Genetics | Aerts J.,Future Health | Githinji G.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Goto N.,Osaka University | And 13 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2012

Summary: Biogem provides a software development environment for the Ruby programming language, which encourages community-based software development for bioinformatics while lowering the barrier to entry and encouraging best practices. Biogem, with its targeted modular and decentralized approach, software generator, tools and tight web integration, is an improved general model for scaling up collaborative open source software development in bioinformatics. © The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.


Garcia-Knight M.A.,University of Oxford | Garcia-Knight M.A.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Nduati E.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | Hassan A.S.,KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF-α responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted. © 2015 Garcia-Knightet al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | University of Oxford, Comprehensive Care and KEMRI Wellcome Trust Research Program
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Implementation of successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV strategies has resulted in an increased population of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants. HEU infants have higher rates of morbidity and mortality than HIV-unexposed (HU) infants. Numerous factors may contribute to poor health in HEU infants including immunological alterations. The present study assessed T-cell phenotype and function in HEU infants with a focus on memory Th1 responses to vaccination. We compared cross-sectionally selected parameters at 3 and 12 months of age in HIV-exposed (n = 42) and HU (n = 28) Kenyan infants. We measured ex vivo activated and bulk memory CD4 and CD8 T-cells and regulatory T-cells by flow cytometry. In addition, we measured the magnitude, quality and memory phenotype of antigen-specific T-cell responses to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and Tetanus Toxoid vaccine antigens, and the magnitude and quality of the T cell response following polyclonal stimulation with staphylococcal enterotoxin B. Finally, the influence of maternal disease markers on the immunological parameters measured was assessed in HEU infants. Few perturbations were detected in ex vivo T-cell subsets, though amongst HEU infants maternal HIV viral load positively correlated with CD8 T cell immune activation at 12 months. Conversely, we observed age-dependent differences in the magnitude and polyfunctionality of IL-2 and TNF- responses to vaccine antigens particularly in Th1 cells. These changes mirrored those seen following polyclonal stimulation, where at 3 months, cytokine responses were higher in HEU infants compared to HU infants, and at 12 months, HEU infant cytokine responses were consistently lower than those seen in HU infants. Finally, reduced effector memory Th1 responses to vaccine antigens were observed in HEU infants at 3 and 12 months and higher central memory Th1 responses to M. tuberculosis antigens were observed at 3 months only. Long-term monitoring of vaccine efficacy and T-cell immunity in this vulnerable population is warranted.

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