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Zhang B.,China Agricultural University | Haitao L.,Kemin Industries Zhuhai Co. | Zhao D.,China Agricultural University | Guo Y.,China Agricultural University | Barri A.,Kemin Agrifoods North America
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A completely randomized design study with a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to evaluate the effects of three different fat sources (soybean oil, tallow, and poultry fat) with or without emulsifier supplementation on performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of fatty acids, and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) content in broiler chickens. Two hundred and fifty-two one-day-old male Arbor Acres broiler chickens were randomly divided into 6 different treatments: (T1) basal diet containing soybean oil without lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) supplementation, (T2) basal diet containing soybean oil with LPC supplementation, (T3) basal diet containing tallow without LPC supplementation, (T4) basal diet containing tallow with LPC supplementation, (T5) basal diet containing poultry fat without LPC supplementation, and (T6) basal diet containing poultry fat with LPC supplementation. Body weight gains from broiler chicks fed diets containing tallow were lower (P<0.05) than the body weight gains from chicks that were fed diets containing soybean oil or poultry fat in both the starter and grower periods. Birds fed diets containing tallow had the highest FCR (P<0.05), followed by the birds that were fed diets containing poultry fat, and soybean oil. The CTTAD of C16:0, C18:2, and C18:3n3 was greater (P<0.05) for broilers fed diets containing soybean oil than for those fed diets containing tallow or poultry fat in the starter period. The addition of LPC increased (P<0.05) body weight gain of broiler chickens in the starter period and the AME of the diets in the grower period, and tended to reduce FCR (P=0.072) in the starter period. LPC supplementation increased (P<0.05) the CTTAD of C16:0, C18:1n7 and C18:1n9 in the starter period, and of C18:2, and C18:3n3 in the grower period (P<0.05). There were no significant interactions between fat sources and the addition of LPC. These data indicated that LPC supplementation can improve body weight gain of broiler chickens in the starter period. This effect may be associated with an increase of CTTAD of FA due to LPC activity. © 2010. Source


Yu G.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Chen D.,Sichuan Agricultural University | Yu B.,Sichuan Agricultural University | He J.,Sichuan Agricultural University | And 6 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a coated protease on apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in weaned piglets. Eighteen barrows with initial body weight (BW) of 13.5. ±. 0.2. kg were randomly allotted to 3 diets (control, protease diet, and nitrogen-free diet) with 6 piglets per diet after fitting with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Control and protease diets were corn-soybean meal based diet supplemented with or without 200. mg/kg of coated protease. The nitrogen-free diet was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA. The experiment lasted for 7 days, and ileal digesta were collected on days 6 and 7. Results showed that the coefficients of AID and SID of CP and total AA were increased by protease supplementation (P <. 0.05). For indispensable AA, the coefficients of AID of Ile, Lys, Met and Thr, and the coefficients of SID of Ile, Lys, Met, Thr and Trp were increased by protease (P <. 0.05). For dispensable AA, both the coefficients of AID and SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Gly and Ser were increased by protease (P <. 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with coated protease increases coefficients of AID and SID of CP and most AAs in weaned piglets. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wang Y.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | Li Z.,Kemin Industries Zhuhai Co. | Li J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Niu J.,CAS South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2013

Intensively-reared white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are subjected to various environmental stresses that can have severe effects on their physiology. For example, low salinity stress decreases the activity of antioxidant enzymes. How to reduce the adverse effects of multiple environmental stresses on shrimp has become a new challenge in aquaculture. Chlorogenic acid has been documented to effectively scavenge free radicals and improve antioxidant defenses in humans and animals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of chlorogenic acid on the antioxidant system of L. vannamei, and determine whether it protects the shrimp against low salinity stress. A total of 360 shrimps with an average initial body weight of about 6.7 g were divided randomly into four replicated (×3) treatments, and reared indoors in 500-L glass-fiber tanks containing 300 L of natural seawater. The shrimp were fed one of four diets, a control diet without chlorogenic acid, and three diets containing different levels (100, 200, 400 mg/ kg diet) of chlorogenic acid. Shrimps in each treatment were hand-fed one of the four diets to apparent satiation three times daily; uneaten food and feces were removed by siphoning. Prior to the beginning of the feeding trial, all shrimps were acclimatized for one week. Each tank was continuously oxygenated using an air pump, and 30% of the seawater was renewed daily. During the experimental period, water temperature, salinity, pH and other water quality parameters were kept stable. After being fed for 28 days, all shrimps were subjected to acute low salinity stress in which salinity was decreased rapidly from 32 to 10 for 72 h. The results indicated that at normal salinity (32), there were no significant differences in the survival, the total antioxidant status (T- AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities of the hemolymph of white shrimps that were fed diets with or without chlorogenic acid. However, the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and gene expression of GPx and CAT of shrimp hemolymph increased significantly (P < 0.05) when shrimps were, for 14 days, fed diets containing different concentrations of chlorogenic acid. After exposure to low-salinity seawater for 24 h, survival of shrimps fed diets supplemented with chlorogenic acid increased by 10% compared with the control treatment, although the difference between the control and treatments was not significant (P>0.05). Activities of T-AOC, SOD and GPx of shrimp hemolymph in all treatments increased significantly after 24 h of low salinity stress, which suggests that low salinity induced an antioxidant stress response in the shrimps. Moreover, GPx and CAT activities of hemolymph in shrimp fed diets supplemented with chlorogenic acid were significantly higher than those fed the control diet after 24 h of low salinity stress (P<0.05). Over a period of 72 h of exposure to low salinity, activities of T-AOC, GPx and CAT, along with gene expression of GPx and CAT of hemolymph in white shrimp fed dietary chlorogenic acid, were significantly higher than those measured in the control animals. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that chlorogenic acid can serve as an effective antioxidant to regulate the antioxidant defense system of white shrimp and improve resistance against low salinity stress. Source


Wang Y.,Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing | Li Z.,Kemin Industries Zhuhai Co. | Li J.,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences | Duan Y.-F.,Key Laboratory of Aquatic Product Processing | And 4 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2015

An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400mgkg-1 feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400mgkg-1 feed) significantly improved the resistance of L.vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P<0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L.vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200mgkg-1 and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Peng Q.Y.,Sun Yat Sen University | Peng Q.Y.,Kemin Industries Zhuhai Co. | Li J.D.,Liaoning University | Li Z.,Kemin Industries Zhuhai Co. | And 2 more authors.
Animal Feed Science and Technology | Year: 2016

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets containing oregano essential oil (OEO) on growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal morphology of broilers during a 42-day production period. A total of 448 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment and 16 birds per pen. The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) corn-soybean basal diet (control, CON), (2) CON + 8 mg/kg avilamycin (AVI), (3) CON + 300 mg/kg OEO preparation (OEO300), and (4) CON + 600 mg/kg OEO preparation (OEO600). The results showed that both OEO300 and OEO600 groups increased (P = 0.007) the final body weight compared to the CON group. On day 21, OEO600 increased average daily gain (ADG) and lowered feed conversion ratio (both P < 0.05) compared to the CON. On day 42, both OEO300 and OEO600 groups increased (P < 0.05) ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI) compared to the CON. Moreover, OEO600 increased (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI compared with AVI. Carcass parameters were similar among avilamycin and OEO preparation treatments. Avilamycin and OEO supplementation improved (P < 0.05) the dressing percentage and eviscerated rate compared with CON. The broilers fed with OEO600 had the highest (P = 0.003) breast muscle percentage, and the lowest (P = 0.008) abdominal fat percentage. All treatments had no effect on the villus height in the jejunum of broilers. However, OEO300 and OEO600 decreased (P = 0.000) the crypt depth and increased (P = 0.000) the villus height to crypt depth ratio compared with CON and AVI, which may contribute to the improvement of growth performance. In conclusion, OEO supplementation exhibited a significantly positive effect on the growth performance, carcass traits and intestinal health of broilers, indicating that OEO may be a promising alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source

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