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Rajalekshmi M.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Sugumar C.,Kemin Animal Nutrition and Health | Chirakkal H.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd.
Poultry Science

The study investigated the effect of supplementation of chromium propionate at different dosage levels (100 to 3,200 μg/kg of elemental chromium in feed) on the performance, carcass characteristics, and immune response of broiler birds. The study was conducted on male broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for a period of 42 d as per the completely randomized design. Seven hundred 1-d-old birds were randomly segregated into 7 treatment groups, each with 10 replicates, and each replicate having 10 birds. Weight gain, feed intake, carcass characteristics, immune response, and the serum biochemical parameters of birds were studied during the supplementation period. There was no significant response to chromium supplementation on weight gain, feed intake, FCR, and lymphoid organ weights for the overall study period of 42 d. With increased chromium dosage, the breast meat yield improved linearly (P = 0.045). Antibody response to Newcastle disease vaccination improved quadratically (P = 0.001) with increased dose of chromium in the diet. Improved cell-mediated immune response was indicated by the increase (quadratic, P = 0.00) in lymphocyte proliferation ratio with increased dose of chromium supplementation. Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio decreased (quadratic, P = 0.004) with chromium propionate dosage, suggestive of reduced stress levels. Chromium propionate supplementation also reduced serum glucose levels (quadratic, P = 0.008) and improved (quadratic, P = 0.016) the total protein levels. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Umesh B.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Rajendran R.M.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Manoharan M.T.,SRM University
Poultry Science

An improved method for the chromatographic separation and determination of chromium (III) and (VI) [Cr(III) and Cr(VI)] in mineral mixtures and feed samples has been developed. The method uses precolumn derivatization using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APD) followed by reversedphase liquid chromatography to separate the chromium ions. Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species are chelated with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate prior to separation by mixing with acetonitrile and 0.5 mmol acetate buffer (pH 4.5). Optimum chromatographic separations were obtained with a polymer-based reversed-phase column (Kinetex, 5 μ, 250 × 4.5 mm, Phenomenex, Torrance, CA) and a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water (7:3). Both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) ion concentrations were directly determined from the corresponding areas in the chromatogram. The effect of analytical parameters, including pH, concentration of ligand, incubation temperature, and mobile phase, was optimized for both chromium complexes. The range of the procedure was found to be linear for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) concentrations between 0.125 and 4 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9926) and 0.1 and 3.0 μg/mL (r2 = 0.9983), respectively. Precision was evaluated by replicate analysis in which the percentage relative standard deviation values for chromium complex were found to be below 4.0. The recoveries obtained (85-115%) for both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) complexes indicated the accuracy of the developed method. The degradation products, as well as the excipients, were well resolved from the chromium complex peak in the chromatogram. Finally, the new method proved to be suitable for routine analysis of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species in raw materials, mineral mixtures, and feed samples. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

Jayaraman S.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Thangavel G.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Kurian H.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | Mani R.,Kemin Industries South Asia Pvt. Ltd. | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science

Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an enterotoxemic disease caused by Clostridium perfringens that results in significant economic losses, averaging damage of $0.05 per bird. The present study investigated the influence of a dietary supplement, Bacillus subtilis PB6, on performance, intestinal health, and gut integrity against C. perfringens-induced NE in broiler birds. Bacillus subtilis PB6 (ATCC-PTA 6737) is a natural strain isolated from healthy chicken gut that has been shown in in vitro to produce antimicrobial substances with broad activity against various strains of Campylobacter and Clostridium species. The animal study was conducted on broiler chickens (Cobb 400) for the period of 35 d using a completely randomized design. The experimental design included 3 treatments groups. Each treatment group contained 6 Rep.licates, 3 male and 3 female, with 12 birds in each Rep.licate. The 3 treatment groups were an uninfected control, an infected control, and an infected group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 at 500 g/t of feed, containing 5 × 1011 cfu/kg. Necrotic enteritis was induced in the broiler birds via oral inoculation of 30,000 oocysts of mixed strains of Eimeria species on d 14 followed by C. perfringens (108 cfu/mL) on d 19 through 21 of trial. The birds were analyzed for BW gain, mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), intestinal lesion score, intestinal C. perfringens counts, and villus histomorphometry. The infected control group showed markedly thickened mucosa, hemorrhages, intestinal lesions, and ballooning of intestine. The supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 reduced the FCR (P < 0.05) and intestinal C. perfringens counts significantly (P < 0.05) compared with the infected control group. It was also observed that B. subtilis PB6 improved villi length by 10.88 and 30.46% (P < 0.05) compared with uninfected and infected control groups, respectively. The group supplemented with B. subtilis PB6 significantly (P < 0.05) increased the villi length to crypt depth ratio by 49.11% compared with the infected group. In conclusion, the supplementation of B. subtilis PB6 not only controlled C. perfringens-induced NE, but also improved intestinal health in the broiler birds.© 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc. Source

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