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West Des Moines, IA, United States

Vargas-Rodriguez C.F.,Kansas State University | Yuan K.,Kansas State University | Titgemeyer E.C.,Kansas State University | Mamedova L.K.,Kansas State University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Chromium (Cr) feeding in early lactation increased milk production in some studies, but responses to dietary Cr during peak lactation have not been evaluated. Furthermore, interactions of essential amino acids (AA) and Cr have not been explored. Our objective was to evaluate responses to CrPr (KemTRACE chromium propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) and rumen-protected Lys (LysiPEARL, Kemin Industries Inc.) and Met (MetiPEARL, Kemin Industries Inc.) and their interaction in peak-lactation cows. Forty-eight individually fed Holstein cows (21 primiparous, 27 multiparous, 38. ±. 15. d in milk) were stratified by calving date in 12 blocks and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within block. Treatments were control, CrPr (8. mg/d of Cr), RPLM (10. g/d of Lys and 5. g/d of Met, intestinally available), or CrPr plus RPLM. Treatments were premixed with ground corn and top-dressed at 200. g/d for 35. d. Diets consisted of corn silage, alfalfa hay, and concentrates, providing approximately 17% crude protein, 31% neutral detergent fiber, and 40% nonfiber carbohydrates. Dry matter intake (DMI) significantly increased with the inclusion of CrPr (22.2 vs. 20.8. ±. 0.67. kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield tended to increase. In addition, CrPr increased milk protein yield and tended to increase DMI in primiparous cows but not in multiparous cows. A CrPr. ×. week interaction was detected for milk lactose content, which was increased by CrPr during wk 1 only (4.99 vs. 4.88. ±. 0.036%). As a proportion of plasma AA, lysine increased and methionine tended to increase in response to RPLM, but the inclusion of RPLM decreased N efficiency (milk protein N:N intake). Digestible energy intake, gross energy digestibility, and energy balance were not affected by treatments. We observed no treatment effects on feed efficiency or changes in body weight or body condition score. In summary, feeding CrPr increased DMI and tended to increase ECM in cows fed for 5. wk near peak lactation, with primiparous cows showing greater responses in DMI and milk protein yield than multiparous cows. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


Yuan K.,Kansas State University | Vargas-Rodriguez C.F.,Kansas State University | Mamedova L.K.,Kansas State University | Muckey M.B.,Kansas State University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of chromium propionate (CrPr), rumen-protected lysine and methionine (RPLM), or both on metabolism, neutrophil function, and adipocyte size in lactating dairy cows (38. ±. 15. d in milk). Forty-eight individually fed Holstein cows (21 primiparous, 27 multiparous) were stratified by calving date in 12 blocks and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within block. Treatments were control, CrPr (8. mg/d of Cr, KemTRACE brand chromium propionate 0.04%, Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA), RPLM (10. g/d lysine and 5. g/d methionine intestinally available, from LysiPEARL and MetiPEARL, Kemin Industries Inc.), or CrPr plus RPLM. Treatments were fed for 35 d; blood plasma samples were collected on. d 21 and 35 of treatment, and blood neutrophils were isolated from 24 cows for analysis of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) transcript abundance in the basal state and after 12. h of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. Tailhead subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected on. d 35 for measurement of adipocyte size. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, and glucagon concentrations were unaffected by treatments, whereas plasma insulin concentration was increased by RPLM. Basal TNFα transcript abundance in neutrophils was not affected by treatment, but basal IL-1β transcript abundance was decreased by RPLM and tended to be increased by CrPr. After LPS activation, CrPr increased neutrophil TNFα transcript abundance. In addition, RPLM. ×. parity interactions were detected for both TNFα and IL-1β abundance after LPS activation, reflecting enhanced responses in primiparous cows and attenuated responses in multiparous cows supplemented with RPLM. Adipocyte size was not affected by treatment. Supplemental CrPr and RPLM had minimal effects on metabolism when fed for 35. d near peak lactation but may modulate innate immune function in lactating dairy cows. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


Snyder R.V.,Kemin Industries | Valdez F.,Kemin Industries
Professional Animal Scientist | Year: 2013

Understanding the chemical nature of trace-metal elements in an aqueous solution is pivotal to interpreting absorption and nutritional studies in production animals. To characterize copper(II)-ion solution chemistry, a series of aqueous titrations with strong base were performed on 1:1- and 1:2-molar-ratio mixtures of copper(II) nitrate and 5 weak organic acids commonly found in commercial trace-metal products. Three amino acids, glycine, lysine, and methionine, and 2 weak organic acids, propionic and 2-hydroxy-4-(methyl-thio)-butyric, were included. Based on the volume of NaOH and the pH measured after each addition, descriptions of the chemical forms of the copper(II) ions in solutions of varying acidities were developed. The forms fell into 4 groupings: free copper(II) ions and organic-acid molecules; mixtures of copper(II) ions, organic-acid molecules, and copper-organic acid complexes; mixtures of organic-acid complexes and hydroxyl complexes; and copper(II) precipitates. As the various copper and ligand solution combinations changed from an acid (stomach conditions) to a basic (intestine conditions) environment, there was either the formation of insoluble metal ion precipitates that indicated a loss of the soluble metal ions available for absorption, or there was the formation of stable and soluble copper(II) complexes that prevented precipitation but also reduced the free metal ion available for absorption. © 2013 American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists.


Yasui T.,Cornell University | McArt J.A.A.,Cornell University | Ryan C.M.,Cornell University | Gilbert R.O.,Cornell University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2014

Multiparous Holstein cows (n. =. 61) were used to determine the effects of chromium propionate (Cr-Pro) supplementation during the periparturient period and early lactation on metabolism, performance, and the incidence of cytological endometritis (CE). After a 1-wk preliminary period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 treatments from 21 d before expected calving through 63 d postpartum: (1) control (n. =. 31) and (2) Cr-Pro (n. =. 30) administered by daily topdress at a rate of 8. mg/d of Cr. A tendency was detected for increased dry matter intake (DMI) during the prepartum period for cows fed Cr-Pro. Moreover, cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have lower plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids during the prepartum period. However, effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on postpartum DMI and milk yield were not significant. Cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have higher urea N concentrations in milk. An interaction of treatment and day existed during the postpartum period, such that cows fed Cr-Pro had lower plasma glucose concentrations within the first day postpartum compared with controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was not affected by treatment during the postpartum period. Blood neutrophil glycogen concentrations were not affected by treatment when sampled at either 7 d postpartum or on one day between 40 and 60 d (48 d. ±. 0.44 standard error) postpartum. Evaluation of endometrial cytology by low volume lavage at 7 d postpartum (first lavage) and on one day between 40 and 60 d (second lavage) postpartum revealed that cows fed Cr-Pro tended to have a higher percentage of neutrophils at first lavage and decreased incidence of CE as assessed at second lavage. In conclusion, supplementation with Cr-Pro resulted in trends for increased DMI and lower plasma nonesterified fatty acids prepartum. Postpartum production and energy metabolism were not affected by treatment; however, Cr-Pro supplementation tended to affect the postpartum influx of neutrophils into the uterus and decreased the incidence of CE, suggesting positive effects of Cr-Pro supplementation on uterine health. © 2014 American Dairy Science Association.


Levy A.W.,Kemin Industries | Kessler J.W.,Kemin Industries | Fuller L.,University of Georgia | Williams S.,University of Georgia | And 3 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2015

The objective of this research was to determine the optimal level of an encapsulated butyric acid (ButiPEARL) based on the performance of male Cobb broilers reared to 42 d of age and to investigate its effects on intestinal morphology. Experiment 1 (EXP 1) consisted of 4 treatments with 12 replicate pens that contained 45 broilers, and Experiment 2 (EXP 2) consisted of 6 treatments with 8 replicate pens that contained 50 broilers. Birds were weighed by pen on d 0, 21, 35, and 42. In EXP 1, the treatments were as follows: 1) control (C); 2) C + 100 g ButiPEARL/ton; 3) C + 200 g ButiPEARL/ton; and 4) C + 300 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 2, the treatments were identical to EXP 1, with 2 additional treatments: 5) C + 400 g ButiPEARL/ton and 6) C + 500 g ButiPEARL/ton. In EXP 1, two 42-d-old broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal and jejunal tissue collection. Only the samples from the broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments were analyzed for histology in EXP 1. For EXP 2, on d 21 and 35, two broilers per pen were randomly selected for duodenal, jejunal, and ileal tissue collection. For EXP 1 and 2, BW gain increased linearly with increasing butyric acid levels (P < 0.027 and P < 0.001, respectively). For EXP 1 and 2, feed conversion linearly improved with increasing butyric acid from 0 to 42 d (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In EXP 1, there were no differences in any intestinal morphology at 42 d between broilers fed the C or 300 g ButiPEARL treatments. In EXP 2, there were no differences in villus height at 21 or 35 d of age with any level of butyric acid. Based on the results of this research related to BW gain and feed conversion, the recommended optimum dosage level for ButiPEARL in broilers reared to 42 d of age is up to 500 g/ton. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

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