Stevens Point, IA, United States
Stevens Point, IA, United States

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Lasrado J.A.,Kemin Foods | Trinker D.,Kemin Foods | Ceddia M.A.,The Scotts Miracle Gro Company | Herrlinger K.A.,Kemin Foods
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2015

A proprietary dry spearmint extract containing 15.4% rosmarinic acid was assessed in a 90-day study with Sprague-Dawley rats that were gavaged at 0, 422 (low), 844 (mid), or 1948 (high) mg dry spearmint extract/kg bw/day, (equivalent to 0, 65, 130, or 300. mg rosmarinic acid/kg bw/day, respectively). No treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects were observed in body weight, feed consumption, neurological parameters, hematology, clinical chemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology. However, there were statistically significant increases in the absolute and relative weight of the pituitary gland in mid- and high-dose males, absolute and relative weight of the thyroid gland in the high-dose groups of both sexes and in mid-dose males, and absolute and relative weight of the salivary glands in high-dose females compared to vehicle control group. These changes were considered non-adverse since no corresponding microscopic changes were seen. Based on these findings, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for the dry spearmint extract was 1948. mg extract/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested, in Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, the extract showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay using Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535, and TA1537) and did not induce chromosomal aberrations when tested with human peripheral blood lymphocytes. © 2015.


Lewis B.J.,Kemin Foods | Herrlinger K.A.,Kemin Foods | Craig T.A.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Mehring-Franklin C.E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry | Year: 2013

Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Katz A.,Winthrop University | Efros M.,Winthrop University | Kaminetsky J.,New York University | Herrlinger K.,Kemin Foods | And 2 more authors.
Therapeutic Advances in Urology | Year: 2014

Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a green and black tea extract blend [AssuriTEA Mens Health (AMH)] in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 46 men aged 3070 with an American Urologic Association symptom score (AUAss) of at least 8 and up to 24 were randomized to 500 mg AMH, 1000 mg AMH, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline (BL), week 6 and week 12 for AUAss, simple uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume (PVR), C-reactive protein (CRP), Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36), and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Results: A total of 40 subjects completed the study. AUAss decreased 34.5% from BL to week 12 in the 1000 mg AMH group (p = 0.008). At week 12, CRP increased in the 500 mg AMH (p = 0.003) and placebo (p = 0.012) groups from their BL levels but not in the 1000 mg group. Average urine flow (Qmean) increased in the 500 mg (p = 0.033) and 1000 mg AMH (p = 0.002) groups versus placebo. PVR decreased in the 1000 mg AMH group (p = 0.034) from BL at week 6. Treatment group effects were observed for the physical functioning and sexual desire domains of the SF-36 and IIEF (p = 0.051 and p = 0.005 respectively). AMH was well tolerated. Conclusions: Oral administration of AMH improved LUTS and quality of life in as little as 6 weeks. © The Author(s), 2014.


PubMed | University of Parma and Kemin Foods
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (


PubMed | University of Parma and Kemin Foods
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

The present paper reports a complete mass spectrometric characterization of both the phenolic and volatile fractions of a dried spearmint extract. Phenolic compounds were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 66 compounds were tentatively identified, being the widest phenolic characterisation of spearmint to date. The analysis suggests that the extract is composed of rosmarinic acid and its derivatives (230.5 13.5 mg/g) with smaller amounts of salvianolic acids, caffeoylquinic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, and flavanones. Head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique, that was applied to characterize the volatile fraction of spearmint, identified molecules belonging to different chemical classes, such as p-cymene, isopiperitone, and piperitone, dihydroedulan II, menthone, p-cymen-8-ol, and -linalool. This comprehensive phytochemical analysis can be useful to test the authenticity of this product rich in rosmarinic acid and other phenolics, and when assessing its biological properties. It may also be applied to other plant-derived food extracts and beverages containing a broad range of phytochemical compounds.


Herrlinger K.A.,Kemin Foods | Chirouzes D.M.,Kemin Foods | Ceddia M.A.,Kemin Foods
Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2015

Background: Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB), containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge. Design: Male participants (18-35 years of age) received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d) or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d) for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run) followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions) pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire), markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK]), and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) were also assessed. Results: PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012) and 96 h (p=0.003) post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029) versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039). As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol andCKlevels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039). Conclusion: These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise. © 2015 Kelli A. Herrlinger et al.


Emmick T.K.,Kemin Foods | Herrlinger K.A.,Kemin Foods
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition | Year: 2014

Background The sports nutrition industry is seeing growth in consumers who are embarking on high intensity daily workout routines to regain and maintain physical fitness. This type of demanding training results in exercise-induced muscle damage setting off a cascade of increased oxidative stress and inflammation which in turn leads to reduced strength and increased delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) for days post-training. Consumption of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory molecules is crucial to counteract these negative side effects. A proprietary polyphenolic blend of catechins and theaflavins (PPCT) was formulated and evaluated in a randomized, doubleblind, placebo controlled human trial to determine the effect on exercise performance recovery following eccentric exercise. Methods Male participants (age 18-35 years) volunteered and were randomized to receive either a placebo or PPCT (2,000 mg) daily for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, subjects performed a 40 minute downhill treadmill run (65% of VO2max) with 3 sets of isokinetic leg extension measurements taken at baseline (pre-exercise), 24, 48 and 96 hours post-exercise. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), muscle damage via creatine kinase (CK), oxidative stress via ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and a stress hormone (cortisol) were also examined at these timepoints. Consent to publish the results was obtained from all participants. Results The treatment group regained strength as measured by peak torque to 98% and 101% of pre-exercise levels at 48 and 96 hours post-exercise, respectively. In comparison the placebo group's peak torque levels remained at 92 % and 93% of pre-exercise levels at the same time points post-exercise. These improvements were significant compared to placebo at both time points (p < 0.05). Additionally, participants in the PPCT group reported decreased whole body and hamstring DOMS compared to placebo at 48 hours (p = 0.029 for both). These enhancements in strength and DOMS were also supported by improvements in serum markers of oxidative stress, muscle damage and inflammation. Chronic consumption of PPCT improved serum antioxidant status (p = 0.039) as measured by FRAP. As expected, serum cortisol increased in all groups compared to pre-exercise levels; however by 96 hours, serum cortisol levels had returned to pre-exercise levels in the PPCT group while the placebo remained 20% above pre-exercise levels (p < 0.05). Creatine kinase (CK) increased in both groups peaking at 24 hours post-exercise. CK levels returned to pre-exercise values at 96 hours in the PPCT groups while levels in the placebo group remained significantly elevated 50% over pre-exercise levels (p < 0.05) at the same time point. These reductions in cortisol and CPK levels occur simultaneous to the recovery in pre-exercise strength observed at 96 hours. Conclusions Daily supplementation with PPCT was shown to reduce DOMS and promote recovery of muscle strength by reducing the oxidative stress and markers of muscle damage that occurs post-exercise. © 2014 Emmick and Herrlinger; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


A nutritional intervention composition for reducing post-prandial blood glucose levels in humans, including between about 0.1 mg and about 10 mg of a proteinase inhibitor that is administered prior to the meal. The composition is effective for treating or ameliorating the effects of hyperglycemia and Type II diabetes. The composition also is effective in combating obesity. The proteinase inhibitor is preferably isolated from plant material, such as potatoes, soy, and beans. Potato proteinase inhibitor II and soybean Bowman-Birk inhibitor are included in the group of effective proteinase inhibitors.


PubMed | Kemin Foods
Type: | Journal: Food & nutrition research | Year: 2015

Exercise can initiate a cascade of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related events leading to delayed onset muscle soreness. Polyphenols possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.The current study examined the effects of a proprietary polyphenolic blend (PB), containing catechins and theaflavins, on exercise performance and recovery following an eccentric exercise challenge.Male participants (18-35 years of age) received placebo or PB at a low dose (PB-L, 1,000 mg/d) or high dose (PB-H, 2,000 mg/d) for 13 weeks. During the 13th week of supplementation, participants completed an eccentric exercise (40 min downhill treadmill run) followed by a strength assessment (peak torque on isokinetic leg extensions) pre-exercise, and 24, 48, and 96 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness (subjective questionnaire), markers of muscle stress (cortisol and creatine phosphokinase [CK]), and antioxidant capacity (ferric reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]) were also assessed.PB-H attenuated the decrease in peak torque observed in the placebo group from pre-exercise to 48 h (p=0.012) and 96 h (p=0.003) post-exercise. At 48 h post-exercise, PB-H reduced whole body and hamstring soreness (p=0.029) versus placebo. Chronic consumption of PB improved serum FRAP (p=0.039). As expected, serum cortisol and CK increased from pre- to post-exercise in all groups; however, by 96 h, cortisol and CK levels returned to pre-exercise levels following PB supplementation. At 96 h, the change in cortisol from pre- to post-exercise was significantly greater in placebo versus PB-H (p=0.039).These findings show that chronic consumption of PB improved antioxidant status, reduced markers of muscle stress, and promoted strength recovery post-exercise.


PubMed | Kemin Foods
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of nutritional biochemistry | Year: 2013

Extracts from leaves, peels or flowers of Passiflora are noted for their medicinal effects. Passiflora edulis peel extract (PFPE) has been proposed to lower blood pressure (BP); however, only indirect measurement techniques have been employed. To more accurately measure the effect of PFPE on hemodynamic parameters and determine the minimal effective dose, hemodynamic parameters were directly measured in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) implanted with radiotelemeters. PFPE was given orally at 0, 2.5, 50 or 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) to determine the minimal effective dose. Once this dose was determined, the potential active components, edulilic acid (EA), anthocyanin fraction (AF) or -aminobutyric acid (GABA), were tested to determine which may contribute to the reductions in BP. The 50 mg PFPE/kg BW dose was the lowest dose that significantly reduced all hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. When the potential actives were provided at equivalent doses to those found in 50 mg PFPE/kg BW, the EA and AF significantly reduced all measured hemodynamic parameters from baseline when compared to control. GABA did not significantly affect any hemodynamic parameters compared to control and significantly increased heart rate. These direct measurements indicate that PFPE can decrease hemodynamic parameters in SHR and indicate that EA and AF are active compounds that contribute to the antihypertensive effects of PFPE supplementation. While these results are encouraging, detailed mechanistic studies are needed to determine the putative value of PFPE for blood pressure control in humans.

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