Kemin Agri Foods North America Inc.

West Des Moines, IA, United States

Kemin Agri Foods North America Inc.

West Des Moines, IA, United States
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Vignale K.,University of Arkansas | Vignale K.,Kemin Agri Foods North America Inc. | Caldas J.V.,University of Arkansas | England J.A.,University of Arkansas | And 7 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2017

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of four different feeding regimens on breast muscle protein turnover in broiler breeder Cobb-500 parent stock (PS) pullets and breeder hens. The four feeding regimens based on BW curves utilized for the study were as follows: Everyday feeding (STD-ED) (Cobb Standard BW curve), skip-a-day feeding (STD-SKIP) (Cobb Standard BW curve), lighter BW (LBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% under), and heavier BW (HBW-SKIP) (BW curve 20% over). Each feeding regimen was provided to pullets from 4 wk to 21 wk of age. Protein turnover was determined in PS pullets/breeders at 6, 10, 12, 16, 21, 25, 31, 37, 46, and 66 wk of age. A completely randomized design was used with a 4 × 10 factorial arrangement (four feeding regimens, 10 ages), each pullet represented a replicate. Five pullets/breeders at each age were given an intravenous flooding-dose of 15N-Phe (15N phenylalanine 150 mM, 40 APE (atom percent excess)) at a dose of 10 mL/kg BW for the determination of fractional synthesis rate (FSR). After 10 min, birds were euthanized and the breast muscle (pectoralis major) excised for protein turnover and gene expression analysis. Excreta was collected from each pullet or breeder for 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) analysis. No feeding regimen affected protein turnover. There was an age effect for breast muscle FSR. The FSR in breast muscle of pullets significantly increased from 6 wk to 12 wk and then decreased significantly for 31 wkold breeders. FSR in breeder breast muscle increased significantly from 31 wk to 66 wk. There was an age effect for breast muscle fractional breakdown rate (FBR). FBR in breast muscle significantly increased from 21 wk to 25 wk and 31 wk (peak egg production), then significantly decreased at 66 wk. The expression of the genes related to protein degradation (Atrogin-1, MURF-1) in breast muscle was significantly higher at peak egg production. Protein turnover in skeletal muscle tissue is believed to be a source of nutrients for egg production. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

Spears J.W.,North Carolina State University | Whisnant C.S.,North Carolina State University | Huntington G.B.,North Carolina State University | Lloyd K.E.,North Carolina State University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2012

Thirty-six Angus and Angus×Simmental heifers, averaging 291kg, were used to determine the effects of dietary Cr, in the form of Cr propionate (Cr Prop), on glucose metabolism and serum insulin concentrations following glucose administration. Heifers were stratified by body weight (BW) within a breed and randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of 0, 3, 6, or 9mg of supplemental Cr/d from Cr Prop. Based on dry matter (DM) intakes, the daily doses of Cr were equivalent to 0.47, 0.94, and 1.42mg of supplemental Cr/kg of DM. Heifers were individually fed a corn silage-based diet at a level of 2% of BW. Each heifer was also fed 0.45kg of a ground corn supplement daily that served as a carrier for supplemental Cr. Glucose tolerance tests were performed on d 44 of the study. Glucose was infused via jugular catheters at a level of 0.45g/kg of BW 0.75 over a course of 1 to 2min. Blood samples were collected at -10, 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180min relative to glucose dosing for glucose and insulin determination. Area under the glucose response curve was lower (1,603 vs. 1,964mg/dL per minute) in heifers supplemented with Cr from 0 to 45min following glucose challenge. Serum insulin concentrations were lower in Cr-supplemented heifers than in controls following glucose infusion. The molar ratio of insulin to glucose was also lower in Cr-supplemented heifers relative to controls. Serum insulin and serum insulin to glucose ratios did not differ among heifers supplemented with 3, 6, or 9mg of Cr/d. Results indicate that Cr Prop supplementation increased tissue sensitivity to insulin in growing heifers. Based on insulin sensitivity, Cr requirements (as Cr Prop) of growing heifers can be met by supplementing with 3mg of Cr/d or 0.47mg of Cr/kg of DM. © 2012 American Dairy Science Association.

Lloyd K.E.,North Carolina State University | Fellner V.,North Carolina State University | McLeod S.J.,North Carolina State University | Fry R.S.,North Carolina State University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Dairy Science | Year: 2010

Eight primiparous and 8 multiparous Holstein cows were used to determine the effects of Cr supplementation, in the form of Cr propionate (Cr Prop), on milk and tissue Cr concentrations. Cows were randomly assigned by parity to one of 2 diets: 1) control diet or 2) 2. mg of supplemental Cr/kg of DM. The level of Cr Prop supplemented exceeded by 4-fold the concentration of 0.5. mg of Cr/kg permitted by the FDA. Experimental diets were fed from approximately 30 d prepartum until at least 91 d postpartum, resulting in a minimum of 121 d of exposure to supplemental Cr. The control prepartum and postpartum diets analyzed 0.48 and 0.38. mg of Cr/kg of DM, respectively. Milk samples were obtained from the a.m. milking on d 0 (colostrum), 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 77, and 90 and on the final day of the study for Cr analysis. Cows were harvested after lactating for a minimum of 91 d and samples of liver, kidney, semitendinosus muscle, and fat were obtained for Cr analysis. Chromium was measured using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Milk Cr concentration averaged 1.7 ng/mL and was affected by day of lactation but not by Cr or a Cr × day interaction. Supplementation of 2. mg of Cr/kg of DM increased kidney Cr by approximately 3-fold and liver Cr concentrations by approximately 2-fold. Chromium concentrations in muscle and fat were not affected by Cr supplementation. In summary, supplementation of Cr Prop at a level of 2. mg of Cr/kg of DM did not affect Cr concentration in milk, muscle, or fat, the major bovine products consumed by humans. © 2010 American Dairy Science Association.

PubMed | Kemin Agri Foods North America Inc., University of Arkansas and Cobb Vantress
Type: | Journal: Poultry science | Year: 2016

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( WS: ) of broiler breast muscle (Pectoralis major) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 23 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping. Scoring was either normal ( NORM: , no WS) or severe ( SEV: ). Also, the same day, 17 birds (16 infused, one control) were randomly selected and infused with a solution of 15N Phen 40% ( APE: ). Breast muscle tissue was taken for gene expression analysis of the following genes: MuRF1, atrogin-1, IGF-1, insulin receptor ( IR: ), fatty acid synthetase, and acetyl CoA carboxylase ( ACC: ). Each bird was humanely euthanized after 10 minutes of infusion and scored for WS (NORM or SEV). Samples of the breast muscle (Pectoralis major) were taken at different layers (3 samples per bird: ventral, medial, dorsal), along with a sample of excreta for 3-methylhistidine analysis. Out of the 16 breast samples taken, only 10 were selected for analysis based on the WS score (5 NORM and 5 SEV). No significant differences (P >0.05) were found in fractional synthesis rate ( FSR: ) between SEV WS, NORM and sample sites for breast meat. However, fractional breakdown rate ( FBR: ) was significantly higher in birds with SEV WS compared to NORM (8.2 and 4.28, respectively, P <0.0001). Birds with SEV WS showed significantly higher (P <0.05) relative expression of MuRF1 and slightly higher (P = 0.07) relative expression of atrogin-1 than the NORM birds. These birds also showed lower (P <0.05) relative expression of IGF-1 than NORM birds. Further studies are needed to better understand why birds with severe white striping are degrading more muscular protein and mobilizing more fat.

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