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Kutikhin A.G.,Kemerovo State Medical Academy
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) constitute a family of receptors directly recognizing a wide spectrum of exogenous and endogenous ligands playing the key role in realization of innate and adaptive immune response, and participating in the processes of cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and repair. Polymorphisms in TLR genes may shift balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, modulating the risk of infection, chronic inflammation and cancer. The short list of TLR polymorphisms perspective for oncogenomic investigations can include rs10008492, rs4833103, rs5743815, rs11466657, rs7696175 (TLR1-TLR6-TLR10 gene cluster); rs3804100, rs4696480, -196 - -174 del (Delta22), GT-microsatellite polymorphism (TLR2); 829A/C (TLR3); rs5743836, rs352140 (TLR9). The extended list can additionally include rs4833095 rs5743551, rs5743618 (TLR1); rs5743704, rs62323857, rs1219178642 (TLR2); rs5743305, rs3775291, rs121434431, rs5743316 (TLR3); rs5744168 (TLR5); rs179008 (TLR7); rs3764880, rs2407992 (TLR8); rs352139, rs187084, rs41308230, rs5743844 (TLR9); rs4129009 (TLR10). General reasons for discrepancies between studies are insufficiency of sample size, age/gender/BMI/ethnic/racial differences, differences in prevalence of infectious agent in case and control groups, differences in immune response caused by specific ligand, differences in stratification, methods of diagnostics of cancer or chronic inflammatory conditions, genotyping methods, and chance. Future well-designed studies on large samples should shed light on the significance of TLR polymorphisms for cancer prevention. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.


Minina V.I.,Kemerovo State Medical Academy
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2016

Lung cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer. The aim of this study was to validate chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of lung cancer patients living in a region with high air pollution and increased background radon levels as a biomarker of cancer risk. A total of 417 lung cancer patients and 468 control participants were analysed using a chromosome aberration assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes. The results showed that chromatid-type aberrations (2.26±1.58 vs. 1.60±1.58) and chromosome-type aberrations (CSAs) (0.96±1.36 vs. 0.42±0.70) in lung cancer patients were increased significantly in comparison with the controls. The most significant two-fold increase was detected for CSAs (nonsmoking patients: 0.84±1.54 vs. 0.41±0.73%, smoking patients: 0.99±1.31 vs. 0.44±0.67%). The frequency of dicentric and ring chromosomes, double minutes and rogue cells was significantly higher (P=0.002, 0.00002, 0.01, 0.0007) in the lung cancer patients. As both analysed groups lived in the same environment, our results show that increased radon levels were not the only source for the detected genome damage. Using binomial logistic regression, the estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for the main confounders (smoking, occupational exposure, age) were 1.31 (1.20–1.40) for chromatid-type aberrations, 1.28 (1.17–1.33), and 1.68 (1.49–1.88) for CSAs. It may be suggested that lung cancer patients show a significant increase in genome damage that may be caused by an interplay between exposure and individual low capacity of DNA repair, leading to genome instability. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Yuzhalin A.E.,Kemerovo State University | Kutikhin A.G.,Kemerovo State Medical Academy
Free Radical Research | Year: 2012

Antioxidant defence enzymes are essential protectors of living organisms against oxidative stress. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification and decomposition of harmful chemical compounds called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are, first and foremost, a source of intracellular oxidative stress. ROS directly promote the oxidative damage of genes resulting in aberrant regulation of many vital cell processes. As a consequence, the presence of ROS can lead to genomic instability, deregulation of transcription, induction of mitogenic signal transduction pathways and replication errors, all of which may increase the risk of cancer development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant defence genes may significantly modify the functional activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for particular cancer types. In the future, these risk alleles may be utilized as genomic markers of cancer predisposition to allow for early prevention measures among carriers of these alleles. The review is devoted to common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene families and their impact on carcinogenesis. The predictive significance of several polymorphisms was determined, and these polymorphisms were recommended for further in-depth research. © 2012 Informa UK, Ltd.


Kutikhin A.G.,Kemerovo State Medical Academy
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is one of the key immune system effectors playing the main role in recognition of viruses and bacteria. Dysregulation of the TLR4 signaling owing to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may alter the ligand binding and balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, thereby modulating the risk of chronic inflammation and cancer. TLR4 polymorphisms may be associated with at least nine types of cancer. The most intensively investigating TLR4 polymorphisms are Asp299Gly (rs4986790) and Thr399Ile (rs4986791). It seems to be that Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile are related to increased risk of precancerous gastric lesions, and, possibly, gastric cancer. Thr399Ile also may be connected with gallbladder cancer, and both of these polymorphisms apparently have no impact on risk of prostate cancer. However, the data about many SNPs and their associations with different types of cancer are conflicting, and further large, well-designed, comprehensive studies in various populations are necessary for solution of this problem. The short list of TLR4 SNPs for further investigation may include TLR4_896A/G (Asp299Gly, rs4986790), TLR4_1196C/T (Thr399Ile, rs4986791), Thr135Ala, TLR4_1859 G/A (rs11536858), TLR4_2032T/C (rs10116253), TLR4_2437A/G (rs1927914), TLR4_2856T/C (rs10759932), TLR4_3725 G/C (rs11536889), TLR4_7764 G/A (rs1927911), TLR4_11350G/C, TLR4_11912 G/T (rs2149356), TLR4_16649G/C (rs7873784), and TLR4_17050T/C (rs11536891). © 2011 IBRO.


Kutikhin A.G.,Kemerovo State Medical Academy
Human Immunology | Year: 2011

NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 are members of Nod-like receptor family. They are located in cytosol, bind bacterial and viral ligands and play a key role in realization of innate and adaptive immune response, apoptosis, autophagy, and reactive oxygen species generation. Polymorphisms in NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 genes may shift balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, modulating the risk of infection, chronic inflammation and cancer. NOD1/CARD4 and NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphisms may be associated with altered risk of gastric, colorectal, breast, ovarian, prostate, testicular, lung, laryngeal, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, pancreatic, small bowel, kidney, urinary bladder cancer, skin cancer, nonthyroid endocrine tumors, lymphoma and leukemia. The short list of such polymorphisms perspective for oncogenomic investigations may include rs2006847, rs2066845, rs2066844, rs2066842, ND(1)+32656, rs2075820 whereas rs104895493, rs104895476, rs104895475, rs104895474, rs104895473, rs104895472, rs104895462, rs104895461, rs104895460, rs104895438, rs5743291, rs5743260, rs2076756, rs2066843, Pro371Thr, Ala794Pro, Gln908His, rs72551113, rs72551107, rs6958571, rs2907749, rs2907748, rs2075822, rs2075819, rs2075818 may be added to the extended list. Reasons of discrepancies between different studies include confounding host genetic, bacterial, or environmental factors modulating penetrance of variant allele and affecting risk of condition increasing cancer risk, different bacterial impact in aetiology of such conditions, differences in sample size, clinicopathological characteristics, diagnostics, stratification, genotyping methods, and chance. © 2011 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics.

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