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Rogers J.,Kelly Services | Carolin T.,Booz Allen Hamilton | Vaught J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Compton C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
Journal of the National Cancer Institute - Monographs

Investments in medical research and development enable the scientific progress that influences our society's body of knowledge about disease, the quality of health care, and our quality of life. Critical components of these investments include the technological and human capital factors rooted in human specimen biobanking, which can be considered foundational to driving post genomic scientific and medical research. Their importance to cancer research, information-based medicine, and quality of health care are becoming increasingly recognized by pharmaceutical companies, non profit foundations, academic researchers, and government research agencies. However, the failure to standardize tissue collection, handling, processing, and preservation so that data can be directly compared between specimen sets, as well as insufficient leveraging of the highest quality tissue samples and associated data across an array of research needs, have strained economies of scale for the biobanking field. Although existing biobanks for private research contribute economic benefits to stakeholders that can be easily substantiated, little has been published to demonstrate the positive outcomes generated from the use, application, and dissemination of their resources more broadly. Through the use of analogous examples, this article presents a rationale for how standardization and consolidation of biobanking resources would contribute to the realization of budget savings, cost avoidances, process efficiencies, and other financial impacts to both the research community and the public. A number of areas are examined, including laboratory analysis efficiencies, data modeling accuracy, infrastructure cost savings, reduced clinical trials evaluation costs, improvements in patient diagnosis, and the potential impact on industry professionalization and job creation. Areas for further study are also outlined. Published by Oxford University Press 2011. Source

Chen X.,Dow Chemical Company | Meece C.,Kelly Services | Gonzalez M.,Dow Chemical Company | Chiang H.,Dow Chemical Company | And 4 more authors.
Organic Process Research and Development

Isoclast Active is a new insecticide manufactured by Dow AgroSciences LLC. In an effort to lower the cost of manufacture of Isoclast Active, we have studied the reaction which produces N-cyano sulfilimine, which is the precursor to Isoclast Active. The reaction involves the oxidative coupling of cyanamide with the sulfide intermediate using sodium hypochlorite. In this study, we demonstrated that a transient intermediate species is produced by the reaction between bleach and cyanamide. On the basis of in situ Raman, IR, and NMR spectroscopic evidence we propose that the intermediate is the anionic form of N-chlorocyanamide: ClN--C=N. The degradation of this intermediate species was found to be highly sensitive to its environment and leads to a complicated mixture of products. This work also demonstrates that in situ Raman and IR spectroscopy are powerful and invaluable tools for monitoring reactions/processes involving unstable reaction intermediates for kinetic modeling and process R&D. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Vaught J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rogers J.,Kelly Services | Myers K.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Lim M.D.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute - Monographs

High-quality biospecimens with appropriate clinical annotation are critical in the era of personalized medicine. It is now widely recognized that biospecimen resources need to be developed and operated under established scientific, technical, business, and ethical/legal standards. To date, such standards have not been widely practiced, resulting in variable biospecimen quality that may compromise research efforts. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research (OBBR) was established in 2005 to coordinate NCI's biospecimen resource activities and address those issues that affect access to the high-quality specimens and data necessary for its research enterprises as well as the broader translational research field. OBBR and the NCI Biorepository Coordinating Committee developed NCI's "Best Practices for Biospecimen Resources" after consultation with a broad array of experts. A Biospecimen Research Network was established to fund research to develop additional evidence-based practices. Although these initiatives will improve the overall availability of high-quality specimens and data for cancer research, OBBR has been authorized to implement a national biobanking effort, cancer HUman Biobank (caHUB). caHUB will address systematically the gaps in knowledge needed to improve the state-of-the-science and strengthen the standards for human biobanking. This commentary outlines the progressive efforts by NCI in technical, governance, and economic considerations that will be important as the new caHUB enterprise is undertaken. Published by Oxford University Press 2011. Source

Vaught J.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Rogers J.,Kelly Services | Carolin T.,Booz Allen Hamilton | Compton C.,U.S. National Cancer Institute
Journal of the National Cancer Institute - Monographs

The preservation of high-quality biospecimens and associated data for research purposes is being performed in variety of academic, government, and industrial settings. Often these are multimillion dollar operations, yet despite these sizable investments, the economics of biobanking initiatives is not well understood. Fundamental business principles must be applied to the development and operation of such resources to ensure their long-term sustainability and maximize their impact. The true costs of developing and maintaining operations, which may have a variety of funding sources, must be better understood. Among the issues that must be considered when building a biobank economic model are: understanding the market need for the particular type of biobank under consideration and understanding and efficiently managing the biobank's "value chain," which includes costs for case collection, tissue processing, storage management, sample distribution, and infrastructure and administration. By using these value chain factors, a Total Life Cycle Cost of Ownership (TLCO) model may be developed to estimate all costs arising from owning, operating, and maintaining a large centralized biobank. The TLCO approach allows for a better delineation of a biobank's variable and fixed costs, data that will be needed to implement any cost recovery program. This article represents an overview of the efforts made recently by the National Cancer Institute's Office of Biorepositories and Biospecimen Research as part of its effort to develop an appropriate cost model and cost recovery program for the cancer HUman Biobank (caHUB) initiative. All of these economic factors are discussed in terms of maximizing caHUB's potential for long-term sustainability but have broad applicability to the wide range of biobanking initiatives that currently exist. Published by Oxford University Press 2011. Source

Han T.,Dow Chemical Company | Dhodapkar S.,Dow Chemical Company | Gong T.,Kelly Services
Particulate Science and Technology

The Schulze Ring Shear Tester (RST) is used to measure flow functions of solids on designing or evaluating a silo. A standard shear rate for the Schulze RST has been set at 1.5 mm/min. In this article, the Schulze RST shear tests with different shear rates (0.375, 1.5, 3, and 6 mm/min) have been done for different solids. The shear test results have shown that changing shear rates significantly impacts flow functions under time consolidations for soft and/or sticky pellets. © 2014 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

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