Yokohama, Japan
Yokohama, Japan

Keio University , abbreviated as Keio or Keidai , is a Japanese university located in Minato, Tokyo. It is known as the oldest institute of higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo . It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.The alumni include Japanese prime ministers and prominent political, administrative, legal, medical and corporate leaders. In particular, alumni of the Faculty of Economics has had significant influence on Japanese business world. Keio ranks third in the world for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies. It also ranks 9th in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index. The university is one of the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology's thirteen "Global 30" Project universities. Wikipedia.


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Patent
University of Pittsburgh and Keio University | Date: 2015-04-29

Provided herein are methods or making and using whole or partial organ ECM structures comprising an anticoagulant. Also provided are organ structures prepared according to those methods.


Patent
Keio University | Date: 2016-09-29

In accordance with the disclosed semiconductor chip and multi-chip module, signal transmission is made possible between semiconductor chips that are placed on a plane so as to be adjacent to each other through inductive coupling without affecting other coils such as in an oscillation circuit or an antenna circuit for RF communication. A multilayer solenoid coil, where a plane of the coil formed in a multilayer wiring structure in a semiconductor body is parallel to a main surface of the semiconductor body, is formed along at least one side end surface of the semiconductor body.


Patent
TOAGOSEI Co. and Keio University | Date: 2016-09-29

The composition for producing neural stem cells provided by the present invention contains an artificially synthesized synthetic peptide having a neural stem cell-inducing peptide sequence that induces neural stem cells from fibroblasts, and one or two or more pharmaceutically acceptable carriers. The neural stem cell-inducing peptide sequence is any of (i) an amino acid sequence constituting a signal peptide of any protein belonging to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) family, (ii) a partial amino acid sequence of the amino acid sequence of (i), and (iii) a modified amino acid sequence of the amino acid sequence of (i) or (ii).


Patent
Keio University and Nittoh Kogaku K.K. | Date: 2015-08-20

Provided is an illumination module capable of preventing a light exit surface from being darker along peripheral edge portions as though having borders. An illumination module (1) includes: a light guiding plate (20), which has an end surface (21) and a first principal surface (23); a light source (30) configured to emit light that enters the end surface (21); and a diffusion plate (50), which has alight incident surface (55) and a light exit surface (56). The diffusion plate (50) includes a protruding part (51), which protrudes toward the light guiding plate (20) side and the light source (30), which is positioned so as to face a peripheral edge portion (26) on the end surface (21) side of the light guiding plate (20), and which has a light incident surface (52) into which light exiting the peripheral edge portion (26) enters.


Patent
Keio University | Date: 2015-04-01

An anonymization system is equipped with a provisioning data manager, a provisioning rule manager, and an issuer. Upon receiving data that contains predetermined information and provisioning rules that correspond to the data and are used as conditions under which the data is anonymized, the provisioning data manager stores the data and provides the provisioning rules. The provisioning rule manager stores the provisioning rules provided by the provisioning data manager. When a request is made to issue the anonymized data, that is, the data that has been anonymized, if the issuance request is in accord with the provisioning rules stored in the provisioning rule manager, the issuer acquires the data corresponding to the provisioning rules from the provisioning data manager, issues the anonymized data by anonymizing the acquired data, and provides the anonymized data.


Patent
Keio University and Chugai Seiyaku Kabushiki Kaisha | Date: 2017-03-01

The present inventors focused on the fact that inflammation at the subretinal macular area enhances choroidal neovascularization, and developed pharmaceutical agents that suppress initiation or advancement of neovascularization by angiogenic factors such as VEGF. More specifically, the present inventors revealed that administering anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibodies to mice treated with laser photocoagulation inhibits the development of choroidal neovascularization.


Patent
Keio University and Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha | Date: 2017-03-08

To provide a marker for determining sensitivity to an anti-cancer agent, which can determine whether or not a patient has a therapeutic response to the anti-cancer agent, and novel cancer therapeutic means employing the marker. The marker for determining sensitivity to an anti-cancer agent is formed of one or more substances selected from the group consisting of an amino-acid-metabolism-related substance, a nucleic-acid-metabolism-related substance, a substance in the pentose phosphate pathway, a substance in the glycolytic pathway, a substance in the TCA cycle, a polyamine-metabolism-related substance, lauric acid, 6-phosphogluconic acid, butyric acid, 4-methylpyrazole, isobutylamine, glycolic acid, NADH, NAD^(+), and a substance involved in the metabolism of any of these substances.


Patent
Keio University and Kabushiki Kaisha Yakult Honsha | Date: 2017-03-22

To provide a marker for determining sensitivity of a patient to an anti-cancer agent, and novel cancer therapeutic means employing the marker. The marker for determining sensitivity to an anti-cancer agent is formed of one or more substances selected from the group consisting of a substance or a fragment thereof detected as an anion at m/z of 149.05 to 149.06, a substance or a fragment thereof detected as an anion at m/z of 152.99 to 153.00, a substance or a fragment thereof detected as a cation at m/z of 724.34 to 724.35, the peaks being determined by means of a mass spectrometer, glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydrobiopterin, GABA, lactic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid, 2-methylbutyroylcarnitine, 1-methyladenosine, and glutathione, and a substance involved in a metabolic pathway of any of these substances.


The present invention is directed to provide cancer stem cell proliferation inhibitors and inducers of intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species. To this end, provided are cancer stem cell proliferation inhibitors and inducers of intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species in a cancer stem cell each containing pimozide or sertindole as an active ingredient.


Patent
Keio University | Date: 2017-04-19

Provided is a taste substance-supplying article capable of enabling an eater to enjoy the taste of a taste substance when s/he puts a food or drink, said food or drink with an extremely low content of the taste substance, into the oral cavity. The taste substance-supplying article (1) is provided with: a taste substance-supplying body comprising a taste substance which is brought into contact with taste receptors and gives a sensation of taste, and a taste releasing part which holds the taste substance and slowly releases the same; and a fixing part (80) which fixes the taste substance-supplying body to the oral cavity so that the taste-releasing part can be in contact with a part of an area, said area being a part of the oral cavity and having the taste receptors. When the releasing part is in contact with the taste receptors, the taste substance is supplied to the taste receptors and contacted therewith.


Heidari M.,Keio University | Yan J.,Keio University
Precision Engineering | Year: 2017

Porous silicon is receiving increasing interest from a wide range of scientific and technological fields due to its excellent material properties. In this study, we attempted ultraprecision surface flattening of porous silicon by diamond turning and investigated the fundamental material removal mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy and laser Raman spectroscopy of the machined surface showed that the mechanisms of material deformation and phase transformation around the pores were greatly different from those of bulk single-crystal silicon. The mechanism of cutting was strongly dependent on the direction of cutting with respect to pore edge orientation. Crack propagation was dominant near specific pore edges due to the release of hydrostatic pressure that was essential for ductile machining. Wax was used as an infiltrant to coat the workpiece before machining, and it was found that the wax not only prevented chips from entering the pores, but also contributed to suppress brittle fractures around the pores. The machined surface showed a nanometric surface flatness with open pores, demonstrating the possibility of fabricating high-precision porous silicon components by diamond turning. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Tsuneyoshi Y.,Keio University | Negishi K.,Keio University | Tsubota K.,Keio University
American Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2017

Purpose To explore factors affecting the difference between objective refractive data measured under monocular closed-field viewing and binocular open-field viewing. Design Prospective observational case series. Methods SETTING: Institutional. STUDY POPULATION: Twenty-nine healthy volunteers (58 eyes; mean age, 38.4 ± 10.0 years; range, 25–60 years). OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Objective monocular refractions (MR) measured with the Nidek Auto Ref/Keratometer ARK-730A; objective binocular refractions (BR) and objective accommodative amplitude (AA) measured with the Grand Seiko Auto Ref/Keratometer WAM-5500; ocular dominance measured using the hole-in-the-card test; presence and magnitude of far/near (30 cm) phoria evaluated by the cover test and alternating cover test using a prism bar. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The difference between objective refractive data measured under monocular closed-field viewing and binocular open-field viewing. Results The spherical equivalent (SE) of the BR was significantly (P <.001) more hyperopic by 0.51 ± 0.33 diopter (D) than the MR. The difference (BR minus MR) tended to decline with increasing age and decreasing AA (r = −0.231, P =.08; r = 0.223, P =.092, respectively). The correlation between age and difference in SE was significant in dominant eyes (r = −0.372, P =.047) but not in nondominant eyes (r = −0.102, P =.60). In nondominant eyes, the amount of near phoria was correlated significantly (r = 0.403, P =.03) with the difference in SE. The correlation was strong (r = 0.598, P = .01) in 17 subjects with more than 3 D of AA. Conclusions Binocular assessment of refraction is important for precise refractive therapy. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Ienaga N.,Keio University | Saito H.,Keio University
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2017

Reconstruction of three-dimensional (3D) models from images is currently one of the most important areas of research in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a method to recover 3D models using the minimum number of line segments. By using structure-from-motion, the proposed method first recovers a 3D model of line segments detected from an input image sequence. We then detect overlapping 3D line segments that redundantly represent a single line structure so that the number of 3D line segments representing the target scene can be reduced without losing the detailed geometry of the structure. We apply matching and depth information to remove redundant line segments from the model while keeping the necessary segments. In experiments, we confirm that the proposed method can greatly reduce the number of line segments. We also demonstrate that the accuracy and computational time for camera pose estimation can be significantly improved with the 3D line segment model recovered by the proposed method. Moreover, we have applied the proposed method to see through occluded areas. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.


Fukuda S.,Keio University
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2017

The word Emotion comes from the Latin word e=ex=out and mov ere=motion. So, literally it means to move out. To move out or to act, we have to make a decision. Thus, Emotion is closely related to decision making. Yesterday, the changes were small so we could easily make predictions. Therefore, we did not need to make decisions or even we had to, they were not too much critical. But today changes are frequent and extensive. And what makes the situation difficult is they are unpredictable. Therefore, we need another approach to make decisions with more flexibility and faster adaptability. This paper discusses the issue of awareness or perception and recognition of a problem, which precede a decision or to problem solving and proposes a versatile approach to defining a problem. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017.


Koike Y.,Keio University
Optics InfoBase Conference Papers | Year: 2016

The latest status on advanced photonics polymer technology will be reviewed focusing on overwhelmingly realistic 8K display achieved by high-speed graded-index plastic optical fiber, zero and ultra-high birefringent polymer films, etc. © OSA 2016.


Takekawa S.,Keio University | Oka T.,Keio University | Tanaka K.,Keio University
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2017

This paper reports the discovery of evidence for physical contact between the Galactic circumnuclear disk (CND) and an exterior giant molecular cloud. The central 10 pc of our Galaxy has been imaged in the HCN J = 1-0, HCO+ J = 1-0, CS J = 2-1, H13CN J = 1-0, SiO J = 2-1, SO N J = 23-12, and HC3N J = 11-10 lines using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m radio telescope. Based on our examination of the position-velocity maps of several high-density probe lines, we have found that an emission "bridge" may be connecting the +20 km s-1 cloud (M-0.13-0.08) and the negative-longitude extension of the CND. Analyses of line intensity ratios imply that the chemical property of the bridge is located between the +20 km s-1 cloud and the CND. We introduce a new interpretation that a part of the CND may be colliding with the 20 km s-1 cloud and the collision may be responsible for the formation of the bridge. Such collisional events could promote mass accretion onto the CND or into the inner ionized cavity, which may be further tested by proper motion studies. © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Nomura M.,Keio University | Ohsuga K.,Japan National Astronomical Observatory | Ohsuga K.,Kanagawa University
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2017

In order to reveal the origin of the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) that are frequently observed in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations of the line-driven disc winds, which are accelerated by the radiation force due to the spectral lines. The line-driven winds are successfully launched for the range of MBH = 106-9M⊙ and ε = 0.1-0.5, and the resulting mass outflow rate (M˙w), momentum flux (p˙w), and kinetic luminosity (E˙w) are in the region containing 90 per cent of the posterior probability distribution in the M˙w-Lbol plane, p˙w-Lbol plane, and E˙w-Lbol plane shown in Gofford et al., where MBH is the black hole mass, ε is the Eddington ratio, and Lbol is the bolometric luminosity. The bestfitting relations in Gofford et al., d log M˙w/d logLbol ~ 0.9, d log p˙w/d logLbol ~ 1.2, and d logE˙w/d logLbol ~ 1.5, are roughly consistent with our results, d log M˙w/d logLbol ~ 9/8, d log p˙w/d logLbol ~ 10/8, and d logE˙w/d logLbol ~ 11/8. In addition, our model predicts that no UFO features are detected for the AGNs with ε ≲ 0.01, since the winds do not appear. Also, only AGNs with MBH ≲ 108M⊙ exhibit the UFOs when ε ~ 0.025. These predictions nicely agree with the X-ray observations. These results support that the line-driven disc wind is the origin of the UFOs. © 2016 The Authors.


Imoto Y.,Keio University | Yan J.,Keio University
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2017

Single-crystal diamond is an important material for cutting tools, micro electro mechanical systems, optical devices, and semiconductor substrates. However, the techniques for producing microstructures on diamond surface with high efficiency and accuracy have not been established. This paper proposes a thermochemical imprinting method for transferring microstructures from a nickel (Ni) mold onto single-crystal diamond surface. The Ni mold was micro-structured by a nanoindenter and then pressed against the diamond surface under high temperature and pressure in argon atmosphere. Results show that microstructures on the Ni mold were successfully transferred onto the diamond surface, and their depth increased with both pressure and temperature. Laser micro-Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analyses indicate that a graphite layer was formed over the contact area between diamond and Ni during pressing, and after washing by a mixed acid, the graphite layer could be completely removed. This study demonstrated the feasibility of a cost-efficient fabrication method for large-area microstructures on single-crystal diamond. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Katsumata J.,Keio University
Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems, PACIS 2016 - Proceedings | Year: 2016

Introduction: The United Nations has listed 8 millennium development goals as urgent healthcare tasks related to the social environment of affiliated countries, including three related to the healthcare agenda: reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating HIV/AIDS. India has a huge national territory and the largest population among developing countries with acute diarrhea being one of the leading contributors. Methods: Disease factors need to be biologically clarified. In this study, I proposed a system in which medical data are collected through mobile van clinic visits in rural areas near Jaipur City. I also considered parents to think about spiritual care using an interview guide. Discussion: In the urban areas of India, remote medical treatment and exchange of diagnostic images have been performed in the department of neurosurgery and other departments. A system such as the Internet should be established to enable administration of remote medical treatment even in areas with multiethnic and multi-religious populations. Conclusion: To reduce mortality among children in India, I conducted an interview survey of this proposal. I analyzed the results of my interview guide with participants of meetings held among Indian people. They were surveyed, and the results were effective.


An ultrathin two-dimensional polymer coating was prepared on a passivated iron electrode and then the passive film was healed by immersion treatment in 0.1 M NaNO3. The time required for passive film breakdown, tbd was measured by monitoring the open-circuit potential in 0.1 M solutions of four anions. The protective efficiencies of the passivated, polymer-coated and healed electrodes were extremely high, around 99.9% before tbd and hence, complete protection against corrosion of iron was accomplished, unless the passive film was broken down. On the other hand, the tbd values of the passivated Fe electrode, tbd0 have been determined in 0.1 M solutions of 14 different anions. In the present investigation, the tbd values of the passivated electrode covered with the polymer coating, tbd and those of the passivated, polymer-coated and healed electrode, tbd 2 are estimated from tbd0. These values are discussed using classifications of anions based on the hard and soft acids and bases principle. Further, the effect of anion concentration on the tbd 2 value is discussed.


Outram B.I.,Keio University
2016 IEEE International Workshop on Mixed Reality Art, MRA 2016 | Year: 2016

Music visualization is particularly suited to enjoying music and for new modes of interaction and embodiment in virtual reality. Here I demonstrate several real-time virtual reality sound and music visualization techniques and applications using both music from electronic music producer James Le Roux, and sound from a user's microphone. Additionally, the adoption of an 'orbital mode' interaction technique allows unprecedented hands-free user observation and navigation control. Users are able to pause the sound, halting the visualization data so that it can be viewed in freeze-frame from any angle. Video available at: https://youtu.be/8yAtCl-Ip8M. © 2016 IEEE.


Uriu D.,Keio University | Odom W.,Simon Fraser University
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2016

We describe the design, implementation, and deployment of Fenestra, a domestic technology embodied in the form of a wirelessly connected round mirror, photo frame, and candle that displays photos of departed loved ones. Fenestra's interaction design, form, and materials are inspired by Japanese domestic practices of memorializing departed loved ones with a home altar called butsudan. We deployed Fenestra in three Japanese households to explore how this design artifact might support everyday domestic practices of memorialization, and where complications might potentially emerge. Findings reveal that a range of outcomes emerged across our participants' experiences of living with Fenestra-from profound remembrance to unexpected uses to unsettling encounters. These findings are interpreted to present opportunities for future research and practice initiatives in the HCI community.


Sato R.,Keio University | Onoe H.,Keio University
Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) | Year: 2017

This paper describes a fiber-shaped microscale tissue with blood vessel networks. We co-cultured Hep-G2 (Human hepatic epithelial cell line) and HUVEC (human umbilical endothelial cell) in a collagen/alginate core-shell hydrogel microfiber fabricated by using a microfluidic device. We observed difference in construction of blood vessel networks in the hepatic tissue by varying in the ratio of co-cultured cells and the diameter of the core. In addition, by arranging the fiber-shaped tissues to construct macroscale tissue assembly, we confirmed the connection of blood vessel networks between the assembled fiber-shaped tissues. © 2017 IEEE.


Ivandini T.A.,University of Indonesia | Einaga Y.,Keio University
Chemical Communications | Year: 2017

Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are recognized as being superior to other electrode materials due to their outstanding chemical and dimensional stability, their exceptionally low background current, the extremely wide potential window for water electrolysis that they have, and their excellent biocompatibility. However, whereas these properties have been utilized in the rapid development of electroanalytical applications, very few studies have been done in relation to their applications in electrocatalysis or electrosynthesis. In this report, following on from reports of the electrosynthesis of various products through anodic and cathodic reactions using BDD electrodes, the potential use of these electrodes in electrosynthesis is discussed. © 2017 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Yamamoto N.,Keio University
EPJ Web of Conferences | Year: 2017

The conventional neutrino transport theory for core-collapse supernovae misses one key property of neutrinos: the left-handedness. The chirality of neutrinos modifies the hydrodynamic behavior at the macroscopic scale and leads to topological transport phenomena. We argue that such transport phenomena should play important roles in the evolution of core-collapse supernovae, and, in particular, lead to a tendency toward the inverse energy cascade from small to larger scales, which may be relevant to the origin of the supernova explosion. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.


Yoshida K.,Keio University | Onoe H.,Keio University
20th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences, MicroTAS 2016 | Year: 2016

This paper describes core-shell hydrogel microsprings that encapsulate various functional materials inside. Core-shell hydrogel microsprings were spontaneously assembled by using a bevel-tip capillary with coaxial-la minar flow: the outer flow is sodium a lginate solution and the inner f low contains functional materials. We found that the microspring formation mainly depends on the rapid anisotropic-gelation of thin outer calcium alginate hydrogel, regardless of the properties of core materials. Using this feature, we successfully demonstrated various types of hydrogel microsprigs encapusulating functional materials. We believe that our method would be powerful approach to various microscale biochemical applications including soft actuators/sensors and scaffolds for cells.


This study aimed to compare the hemodynamic performance and clinical results of the EVAHEART and HeartMate II left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). From 2007 to 2016, 14 patients received EVAHEART and 28 received HeartMate II at our center. Early survival, driveline infection and neurological events were evaluated. Hemodynamic performance was evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization. Mean follow-up was 35.5 ± 14.8 months for EVAHEART, and 29.8 ± 6.5 months for HeartMate II. Survival rates were comparable between the two groups. After 24 months, freedom from driveline infection was 28% with EVAHEART, and 85% with HeartMate II; freedom from neurological events was 21% with EVAHEART, and 89% with HeartMate II. Serum lactate dehydrogenase was significantly lower with EVAHEART. There was a significantly greater decrease in left ventricular size with HeartMate II. In catheter examination performed 1 month postoperatively, HeartMate II recipients had significantly lower pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and mean pulmonary pressure, despite a comparable cardiac index. Both devices provided excellent clinical results and hemodynamic performance. HeartMate II could be a better choice to avoid driveline infection and neurological events. Our results suggest that HeartMate II reduced right ventricular afterload. However, further analysis of more cases is required. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs


Iwamoto T.,Keio University
PICMET 2016 - Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology: Technology Management For Social Innovation, Proceedings | Year: 2016

The event by the name of Everyone's Dream Award (Minna-no-yume Award in Japanese) started in 2010 in Japan and the competition for dream-based social innovation was executed at the event almost every year. The events had been executed 5 times so far. Several hundred organizations applied for the competition at every event and 31 organizations in total were selected as finalists and made presentations in the big facilities which can accommodate several thousand people. Among 31 organizations, dreams based on deep technologies were selected for this research. Among the dreams based on deep technologies, the organization which won the best prize was selected from each event. Those organizations include WHILL from Everyone's Dream Award 3 held in January, 2013, Ory Laboratory from Everyone's Dream Award 4 held in February, 2014 and Astroscale from Everyone's Dream Award 5 held in February, 2015 and how these dreams had been coming true was investigated through the case studies. It was found that Everyone's Dream Award stimulated the other organizations to establish the eco-system for social innovation in Japan and that Everyone's Dream Award was playing a role of an "accelerator for social innovation" in the eco-system in Japan. © 2016 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Inc.


Tanaka K.D.,Keio University
Ornithological Science | Year: 2016

Polymorphism provides a classic example of adaptive evolution. A great advantage of studying polymorphism is that the phenotype can serve as a genetic marker; therefore, researchers can take full advantage of this to test a hypothesis based on Darwin’s principle of adaptive evolution. Evolutionary theories of polymorphism have been established and suggest that polymorphism is likely maintained through negative frequency-dependent selection. Such selection is mediated by the viewer’s perception or recognition of the focal trait as expressed by appearance, such as the colour and pattern of eggs. The viewer’s response to that trait selects against the majority of the population, and thus favours the rare type. Such evolutionary dynamics can also be applied to avian brood parasitism, in which parasites exploit the parental care of their hosts. In this review, I describe recent findings in brood parasitic systems, in which polymorphism plays an important role in the coevolutionary arms races, at the egg, chick, and adult stages. Finally, I emphasize the need to synthesize traditional ultimate approaches with proximate approaches, incorporating genomics and psychology, in order to draw a fuller picture of the coevolutionary arms race between avian brood parasites and their hosts. © The Ornithological Society of Japan 2016.


Aoki S.,Keio University
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2016

Latin American countries have long traditions in creating international law rules which are ahead of time and sometimes different from those from European countries. One Example would be a treaty reservation system found as early as in the nineteenth century in Latin American countries which is to a certain extent similar to that adopted after World War II first in the advisory opinion by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 1951 and later taken in the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Another is the concrete provision of the right of collective self-defense, for the first time, provided for Act of Chapultepec in March 1945 which was followed by Art. 51 of the UN Charter (Act of Chapultepec was developed into the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance in 1947). The field of international space law also contains the specific Latin American accents from the ideas of the delimitation and definition of the outer space, to the concept of equitable access and use of the geostationary orbit, to the idea of the special status of the Equatorial countries, to the prior consent by the sensed State on the dissemination of satellite data expressed especially in mid 1970s, and to the restriction of the use of nuclear power sources in exploration of outer space. Of course, those ideas are not only developed by Latin American countries, but the special leadership in the Latin America cannot be denied. This article explores how Latin American concept in space law has influenced the international cooperation in carrying out space activities. First, characteristics of Latin American rules of space law have been studied from the outsider's standpoint as an Asian researcher. Second, the characteristics in Latin American regional cooperative mechanisms in space law have been studied using the comparative methodology. Several common elements of the Latin American mechanisms in cooperative mechanisms would be presented.


Uchiyama T.,Keio University | Tomoshige T.,Keio University
Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology | Year: 2017

A mechanomyogram (MMG) measured with a displacement sensor (displacement MMG) can provide a better estimation of longitudinal muscle stiffness than that measured with an acceleration sensor (acceleration MMG), but the displacement MMG cannot provide transverse muscle stiffness. We propose a method to estimate both longitudinal and transverse muscle stiffness from a velocity MMG using a system identification technique. The aims of this study are to show the advantages of the proposed method. The velocity MMG was measured using a capacitor microphone and a differential circuit, and the MMG, evoked by electrical stimulation, of the tibialis anterior muscle was measured five times in seven healthy young male volunteers. The evoked MMG system was identified using the singular value decomposition method and was approximated with a fourth-order model, which provides two undamped natural frequencies corresponding to the longitudinal and transverse muscle stiffness. The fluctuation of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the velocity MMG was significantly smaller than that from the acceleration MMG. There was no significant difference between the fluctuations of the undamped natural frequencies estimated from the velocity MMG and that from the displacement MMG. The proposed method using the velocity MMG is thus more advantageous for muscle stiffness estimation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Iwamoto J.,Keio University
Clinical calcium | Year: 2017

Physical activity plays an important role in maintaining or enhancing bone health. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Proper exercise and sports activity at each life stage are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis.


In this study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccine in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy (DCCP) for patients with stage IV melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine-containing regimen. Six HLA-A24 and 3 HLA-A02 patients were treated with carboplatin (area under the curve 5) and paclitaxel (175 mg/m) on day 1 and DCs (2×10 cells) pulsed with Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1), gp100, tyrosinase, and either MAGE-A3 (for HLA-A24) or MAGE-A2 (for HLA-A02) peptides on days 8 and 22 in 28-day cycle for up to three cycles. DCCP was well tolerated, and median progression-free survival and median overall survival were 2.3 and 12.0 months, respectively. In four of nine patients, a WT1-specific immune response (WT1-IR) was detected using the interferon-γ enzyme-linked ImmunoSpot assay and WT1/HLA tetramer assay. DCCP was more likely to elicit a WT1-IR in patients who received DCs pulsed with the HLA-A24-restricted peptide (75%) compared with patients who received DCs pulsed with the HLA-A02-restricted peptide (0%, P=0.058). Furthermore, three (75%) of four patients with a WT1-IR survived longer than 12 months, whereas only one (20%) of five patients without a WT1-IR who received the BRAF inhibitor after DCCP survived longer than 12 months. These results suggest that DCCP may be beneficial for HLA-A24 melanoma patients with a WT1-IR. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


TOKYO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, CEO: Hiroo Unoura), Hitachi, Ltd. (Hitachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, President & CEO: Toshiaki Higashihara), Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd. (OKI, Minato-ku, Tokyo, President Shinya Kamagami), Keio University (Keio, Minato-ku, Tokyo, President Professor Atsushi Seike), KDDI Research, Inc. (KDDI Research, Fujimino-shi, Saitama, president, CEO: Yasuyuki Nakajima) and Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd. (Furukawa Ele


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: www.prnewswire.com

SHANGHAI, May 4, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- 51job, Inc. (Nasdaq: JOBS) ("51job" or the "Company"), a leading provider of integrated human resource services in China, announced today a change to its Board of Directors. The Company's Board of Directors has accepted the resignation of Mr. Kazumasa Watanabe due to a change in his professional responsibilities at Recruit Holdings Co., Ltd. ("Recruit"), which is a principal shareholder of the Company, and has appointed Mr. Junichi Arai as a director, effective immediately. Mr. Arai is a corporate officer of Recruit, a leading human resource and information services company in Japan listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, since November 2016. He is responsible for Recruit's capital market strategies in the finance department and corporate planning department. Prior to joining Recruit, Mr. Arai had an extensive career in investment banking, especially in strategic advisory services, for 28 years. He worked at Lehman Brothers Japan, Morgan Stanley Japan and Mitsubishi UFJ Securities and also co-founded Nakamura Arai Partners, a small boutique advisory firm, in 2011. Mr. Arai received his Bachelor degree in Economics from Keio University in 1988.


News Article | May 4, 2017
Site: en.prnasia.com

SHANGHAI, May 5, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- 51job, Inc. (Nasdaq: JOBS) ("51job" or the "Company"), a leading provider of integrated human resource services in China, announced today a change to its Board of Directors. The Company's Board of Directors has accepted the resignation of Mr. Kazumasa Watanabe due to a change in his professional responsibilities at Recruit Holdings Co., Ltd. ("Recruit"), which is a principal shareholder of the Company, and has appointed Mr. Junichi Arai as a director, effective immediately. Mr. Arai is a corporate officer of Recruit, a leading human resource and information services company in Japan listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, since November 2016. He is responsible for Recruit's capital market strategies in the finance department and corporate planning department. Prior to joining Recruit, Mr. Arai had an extensive career in investment banking, especially in strategic advisory services, for 28 years. He worked at Lehman Brothers Japan, Morgan Stanley Japan and Mitsubishi UFJ Securities and also co-founded Nakamura Arai Partners, a small boutique advisory firm, in 2011. Mr. Arai received his Bachelor degree in Economics from Keio University in 1988. Founded in 1998, 51job is a leading provider of integrated human resource services in China.  With a comprehensive suite of HR solutions, 51job meets the needs of enterprises and job seekers through the entire talent management cycle, from initial recruitment to employee retention and career development.  The Company's main online recruitment platforms (http://www.51job.com, http://www.yingjiesheng.com, and http://www.51jingying.com), as well as mobile applications, connect millions of people with employment opportunities every day.  51job also provides a number of other value-added HR services, including business process outsourcing, training, professional assessment, executive search and compensation analysis. 51job has a call center in Wuhan and a nationwide sales office network spanning 25 cities across China. To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/51job-inc-announces-board-change-300451362.html


ANN ARBOR, MI - Hundreds of thousands of babies worldwide die every year from infections that ravage their digestive systems - including those caused by Salmonella and E. coli bacteria. Millions more get sick. Could the difference in survival come not from their immature immune systems, but rather from the mix of bacteria that grow in their tiny guts? New research in mice offers evidence that some of those bacteria - called Clostridia -- provide key protection against infection, in addition to helping digest food. But it also shows that the youngest newborn mice don't have Clostridia yet, making them the most vulnerable to invading bacteria similar to the pathogens that sicken so many human babies. The findings, made at the University of Michigan Medical School and published in Science, could point the way to new approaches to protect human babies. "Any parent knows that newborns are very susceptible to infections in the first year of life, including enteric, or gut, infections," says Gabriel Nunez, M.D., the study's senior author and a U-M pathology professor. "This work suggests that the lack of protective bacteria in the gut microbiota is a mechanism for that susceptibility, perhaps more than the age of the immune system." Nunez and his colleagues, including co-first authors and research fellows Yun-Gi Kim, Ph.D. and Kei Sakamoto M. D., Ph. D., started with a blank slate: mice bred in a germ-free environment at U-M. With no natural gut bacteria of their own, the mice offered a unique chance to see the effects of transplanted microbes from normal mice of different ages, and to test vulnerability to infection. The researchers also used advanced DNA analysis techniques that allowed them to detect the types and amounts of bacteria in mouse guts. The bottom line of their experiments: Somewhere in the period around weaning mice from mother's milk to solid food, Clostridia bacteria begin to grow in the gut, and work to prevent the growth of two forms of illness-causing bacteria. Nunez, Kim, Sakamoto and their colleagues carried out a careful series of experiments using both newborn and adult germ-free mice, and samples of gut microbes taken from the feces of 4-day-old, 12-day-old and 16-day-old normal mice. They found that the samples from the older normal mice had the most diversity of their gut microbes, including Clostridia and Bacteroides bacteria not seen in the younger mice that were still getting their nutrition entirely from mother's milk. First, they gave the germ-free mice a transplant of bacteria from 4-day-old or 16-day-old normal mice, and then exposed them to a strain of Salmonella that can infect the gut but not spread body-wide. Half the mice that got the 4-day microbes died, but none of those with 16-day microbes did. They tried it again with Citrobacter rodentium - a strain of bacteria similar to the E. coli strains that make humans sick. Germ-free mice with transplanted 4-day microbes got sick and many died. But when the researchers added bacteria from 16-day-old normal mice, the amount of C. rodentium in the guts of surviving mice went down. Next, the researchers looked at what happened to germ-free mice that had been given a newborn mouse's microbes, but with extra doses of either Clostridia or Bacteroides bacteria added in. They exposed groups of these mice to C. rodentium - and found that only the mice given Clostridia were able to resist the infections. Ninety percent of the mice that got extra Clostridia, then Salmonella, were still alive after a week, compared with 50 percent of those that hadn't received it. Since E. coli and Salmonella also affect adults, the researchers tested what happened when normal adult mice were given vancomycin, an antibiotic that selectively kills bacteria like Clostridia and Bacteroides. Both C. rodentium and Salmonella flourished in these environments. To see what role the body's own immune system played in fighting infection, compared with gut microbes, the team also studied two strains of mice that have impaired immune systems. Raised in a germ-free environment, and then given a transplant of gut microbes from a four-day-old normal mouse, these mouse were still able to resist Salmonella infection without any help from their immune system - but only when they had received a dose of added Clostridium first. Finally, the researchers looked at the impact of adding succinate - a salt that oxygen-loving bacteria in the gut produce as a byproduct - into the drinking water of germ-free mice with 4-day microbes that had received extra Clostridia. These mice fought off Salmonella infection even better - suggesting that the anaerobic Clostridia feed off the waste products of the aerobic bacteria that flourish in the guts of newborns. Nunez and his colleagues are already working on further research on the role of Clostridia in defending against gut infections. They want to determine which strains of Clostridia - and there are many - have the largest effect. They're also looking at the role of mother's milk in establishing a newborn's gut microbiome and conveying protection from infection, as well as the transition to solid foods that can carry microbes into a newborn's gut from the outside world. And, they want to test whether other components of the microbiome protect against other pathogens. "Normally, we acquire Clostridia strains in our guts when we begin to eat solids, but this work suggests a window of vulnerability to enteric pathogens in the early stages of life," says Nunez, who holds the Paul deKruif professorship in pathology and is a member of the executive committee for the U-M Medical School's Host Microbiome Initiative. He notes that the research would have been impossible without the Medical School's Germ-Free Mouse Facility. He says that if the protective role of added Clostridia for newborns bears out in further animal studies, it might be possible to propose a clinical trial in humans to test a combination of strains. In addition to Nunez, Kim and Sakamoto, the new study's authors include members of the Pathology, Internal Medicine, Microbiology & Immunology and Biomedical Engineering departments at U-M, as well as the University of Chicago, and Japan's Keio University and Korea's Seoul National University. The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health (DK095782, DK091191, AI106302)


Tanaka K.F.,National Institute for Physiological science | Samuels B.A.,Keio University | Hen R.,Columbia University
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Using in situ hybridization, we describe, for the first time, the profiles of expression of serotonin receptors (Htr/5-HTR) along the dorsal-ventral axis of mouse hippocampus. cRNA probes for most Htrs, excluding Htr6, were used. All hippocampal subregions and the entorhinal cortex cells providing input into the hippocampus were examined. The study shows that some, but not all, Htrs are expressed in the cells of the hippocampal circuitry. At both the subfield and the cell type levels, a somewhat overlapping pattern is observed. Four serotonin receptors, Htr1a, Htr2a, Htr2c and Htr7, display an expression pattern that changes along the dorsal-ventral axis of the hippocampus. Given the proposed functional differentiation of the hippocampus along its long axis, with the dorsal pole more involved in cognitive functions and the ventral pole more involved in mood and anxiety, our results suggest that serotonin receptors enriched in the ventral pole probably contribute to mood- and anxiety-related behaviours. © 2012 The Royal Society.


Diefenbach A.,University of Mainz Medical Center | Colonna M.,University of Washington | Koyasu S.,RIKEN | Koyasu S.,Keio University
Immunity | Year: 2014

Recent years have witnessed the discovery of an unprecedented complexity in innate lymphocyte lineages, now collectively referred to as innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILCs are preferentially located at barrier surfaces and are important for protection against pathogens and for the maintenance of organ homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of ILCs has been linked to the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Recent evidence suggests that ILCs can be grouped into two separate lineages, cytotoxic ILCs represented by conventional natural killer (cNK) cells and cytokine-producing helper-like ILCs (i.e., ILC1s, ILC2s, ILC3s). We will focus here on current work in humans and mice that has identified core transcriptional circuitry required for the commitment of lymphoid progenitors to the ILC lineage. The striking similarities in transcriptional control of ILC and Tcell lineages reveal important insights into the evolution of transcriptional programs required to protect multicellular organisms against infections and to fortify barrier surfaces. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are important for protection against pathogens and for maintenance of organ homeostasis. Diefenbach and colleagues examine the core transcriptional circuitry required for commitment to the ILC lineage, as well as the transcriptional programs that drive differentiation into distinct ILC populations. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Watanabe S.,Keio University
Behavioural Pharmacology | Year: 2011

There are many examples of the social facilitation of drug effects. This study focused on the pharmacological state of social partners and reports the effects of drug injections in mice whose cage mates were also, or were not, injected with the drug. The reinforcing property of methamphetamine was examined in a social context using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in mice. The paired and control-paired groups both received CPP training with a cage mate. In the paired group, both mice were either injected with methamphetamine (2 mg/kg), or with saline. The control-paired group received CPP training with their cage mate but treatment was reversed: when one mouse was injected with the drug the other was injected with saline. For the paired group, the methamphetamine injection enhanced the reinforcing effect of the drug in comparison with the mice that had undergone conventional CPP in a single-mouse design. In contrast, the control-paired group did not show such a social enhancement effect. These results suggest that sharing the same experience is crucial for the social enhancement of the methamphetamine reinforcing effect. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Ema H.,Keio University | Morita Y.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Suda T.,Keio University
Experimental Hematology | Year: 2014

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a more heterogeneous population than previously thought. Extensive analysis of reconstitution kinetics after transplantation allows a new classifications of HSCs based on lineage balance. Previously unrecognized classes of HSCs, such as myeloid- and lymphoid-biased HSCs, have emerged. However, varying nomenclature has been used to describe these cells, promoting confusion in the field. To establish a common nomenclature, we propose a reclassification of short-, intermediate-, and long-term (ST, IT, and LT) HSCs defined as: ST < 6 months, IT > 6 months, and LT > 12. We observe that myeloid-biased HSCs or α cells overlap with LT-HSCs, whereas lymphoid-biased HSCs or γ/δ cells overlap with ST-HSCs, suggesting that HSC lifespan is linked to cell differentiation. We also suggest that HSC heterogeneity prompts reconsideration of long-term (>4 months) multilineage reconstitution as the gold standard for HSC detection. In this review, we discuss relationships among ST-, IT-, and LT-HSCs relevant to stem cell heterogeneity, hierarchical organization, and differentiation pathways. © 2014 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells.


Yamamoto R.,University of Tokyo | Morita Y.,University of Tokyo | Morita Y.,Leibniz Institute for Age Research | Ooehara J.,University of Tokyo | And 8 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2013

Consensus holds that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to multipotent progenitors (MPPs) of reduced self-renewal potential and that MPPs eventually produce lineage-committed progenitor cells in a stepwise manner. Using a single-cell transplantation system and marker mice, we unexpectedly found myeloid-restricted progenitors with long-term repopulating activity (MyRPs), which are lineage-committed to megakaryocytes, megakaryocyte-erythroid cells, or common myeloid cells (MkRPs, MERPs, or CMRPs, respectively) in the phenotypically defined HSC compartment together with HSCs. Paired daughter cell assays combined with transplantation revealed that HSCs can give rise to HSCs via symmetric division or directly differentiate into MyRPs via asymmetric division (yielding HSC-MkRP or HSC-CMRP pairs). These myeloid bypass pathways could be essential for fast responses to ablation stress. Our results show that loss of self-renewal and stepwise progression through specific differentiation stages are not essential for lineage commitment of HSCs and suggest a revised model of hematopoietic differentiation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Terasawa Y.,Keio University | Fukushima H.,Kansai University | Umeda S.,Keio University
Human Brain Mapping | Year: 2013

Recent studies in cognitive neuroscience have suggested that the integration of information about the internal bodily state and the external environment is crucial for the experience of emotion. Extensive overlap between the neural mechanisms underlying the subjective emotion and those involved in interoception (perception of that which is arising from inside the body) has been identified. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the neural substrates of interoception and emotional experience remain unclear. We examined the common and distinct features of the neural activity underlying evaluation of emotional and bodily state using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The right anterior insular cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) were identified as commonly activated areas. As both of these areas are considered critical for interoceptive awareness, these results suggest that attending to the bodily state underlies awareness of one's emotional state. Uniquely activated areas involved in the evaluation of emotional state included the temporal pole, posterior and anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Also the precuneus was functionally associated with activity of the right anterior insular cortex and VMPFC when evaluating emotional state. Our findings indicate that activation in these areas and the precuneus are functionally associated for accessing interoceptive information and underpinning subjective experience of the emotional state. Thus, awareness of one's own emotional state appears to involve the integration of interoceptive information with an interpretation of the current situation. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


In Japan's health insurance system, the prices paid by multiple payers for nearly all health care goods and services are codified into a single fee schedule and are individually revised within the global rate set by the government. This single payment system has allowed total health care spending to be controlled despite a fee-for-service system with its incentives for increased volume of services; Japan's growing elderly population; and the regular introduction of new technologies and therapies. This article describes aspects of Japan's approach, as well as how that nation has expanded payment for inpatient hospital care based on case-mix. The result of the payment system is that Japan's rate of health spending growth has been well below that of other industrial nations. The percentage of gross domestic product spent on health increased from 7.7 percent in 2000 to 8.5 percent in 2008, compared to an increase from 13.7 percent to 16.4 percent in the United States. Japan's approach confirms that enlightened government regulation can maintain access to care, avoid rationing, make use of the latest technology, and allow for multiple insurance plans and an aging population-all while restraining the growth of health care spending.


Mashima R.,Keio University
Immunology | Year: 2015

miR-155 is involved in non-coding microRNAs found in humans, mice and chickens of which the sequence is conserved. Historically, miR-155 was identified as a B-cell integration cluster (bic), which induces B-cell leucosis in chickens, by its activation through viral promoter insertion. Subsequent studies have shown that transgenic mice expressing miR-155 in B cells generated lymphoma, showing that miR-155 is oncogenic. Biochemical investigation identifies many substrates of miR-155, and one of them in B cells and macrophages is the SH2-domain containing inositol-5′-phosphatase 1. A deficiency of miR-155 in the immune system causes attenuated immune functions. Clinically, several types of malignancy including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have high miR-155 expression levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


A pathological diagnosis assisting apparatus according to the present invention includes an image classification unit configured to classify at least one type of a specific substance, a tissue area extraction unit configured to extract a tissue area in the image of the sample, an image dividing unit configured to divide the tissue area into a plurality of sections, a specific substance occupancy rate calculation unit configured to, calculate an occupancy rate of the at least one type of the specific substance in each of the plurality of sections, and a diagnosis assisting information providing unit configured to determine an intermediate value of the occupancy rate of the specific substance from the calculated occupancy rates of the plurality of sections and to provide the intermediate value as the diagnosis assisting information.


A pathological diagnosis assisting apparatus according to the present invention provides the diagnosis assisting information for assisting diagnosis of tissue fibrosis from the image of the stained sample, and includes an image reading unit configured to read the image of the stained sample and an image processing unit configured to process the image. The image processing unit includes an image classification unit configured to classify the collagenous fiber and the elastic fiber, a tissue area extraction unit configured to extract a tissue area, an occupancy rate calculation unit configured to calculate the occupancy rates of the collagenous fiber and the elastic fiber in the tissue area, and a diagnosis assisting information providing unit configured to provide the diagnosis assisting information based on the calculated occupancy rates of the collagenous fiber and the elastic fiber.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Keio University and Kyoto University | Date: 2010-05-13

The present invention relates to a blood vessel wall analyzing apparatus provided with a structure enabling accurate measurement of plaque components in a blood vessel wall in a state that reduces the burden on a patient. In the blood vessel wall analyzing apparatus (1), measurement light is illuminated onto a measured portion within a blood vessel such as a carotid artery (C) from a light illuminating unit (30) provided outside the blood vessel, while light from the measured portion is detected in a light receiving unit (40) provided outside the blood vessel. Thus, since the status of the blood vessel wall can be analyzed without inserting an apparatus involved in measurement into the blood vessel, the burden on the patient is reduced during measurement. In addition, as a result of carrying out measurement using near infrared light (a light component in the wavelength range of 780 nm to 2750 nm) that exhibits characteristics that differ according to the compositions of substances such as plaque adhered within the blood vessel, analyses can be carried out that distinguish compositions such as plaque using an analyzing apparatus provided outside the blood vessel.


Patent
NEC Corp and Keio University | Date: 2014-08-15

An image acquisition unit (2020) acquires an analysis image. The analysis image is an image in which a plurality of cell nuclei in a lesion of a target person are captured. A feature-value calculation unit (2040) calculates the feature-value relating to the cell nuclei from the analysis image. An evaluation function acquisition unit (2060) acquires an evaluation function from an evaluation function storage unit (10). The evaluation function is a function with which prediction information is calculated based on the feature-value. The prediction information generation unit (2080) generates prediction information relating to a target person based on a feature-value, which has been calculated from an analysis image, and an evaluation function which has been acquired by the evaluation function acquisition unit (2060). The prediction information is information indicating a prediction of a prognosis of a disease of the target person or a prediction of malignancy of a disease of the target person.


Patent
National University of Singapore and Keio University | Date: 2012-10-19

A human-computer interface device comprising an array of elements wherein each element is pivotally coupled to an adjacent first element by a first pivotal coupling and to an adjacent second element by a second pivotal coupling, the first pivotal coupling being operable to pivot about an axis which is substantially orthogonal to an axis about which the second pivotal coupling is operable to pivot.


Patent
Asubio Pharma Co. and Keio University | Date: 2010-04-07

The object of the present invention is to improve the post-transplantation engraftment rate of cardiomyocytes that have been purified to such an extent that they are free from non-cardiomyocytes and any components derived from other species. To solve this problem, the present inventors studied the possibility of constructing cell masses from the purified cardiomyocytes. As a result, they revealed that the stated problem could be solved by providing a method of preparing cell masses of cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells, characterized in that cell masses of aggregated cells containing cardiomyocytes that had been differentiated and induced from pluripotent stem cells were dispersed to single cells to thereby obtain purified cardiomyocytes, which were then cultured in a culture medium under serum-free conditions so that they were reaggregated.


Patent
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Kyoto University and Keio University | Date: 2012-03-21

The present invention relates to a blood vessel wall analyzing apparatus provided with a structure enabling accurate measurement of plaque components in a blood vessel wall in a state that reduces the burden on a patient. In the blood vessel wall analyzing apparatus (1), measurement light is illuminated onto a measured portion within a blood vessel such as a carotid artery (C) from a light illuminating unit (30) provided outside the blood vessel, while light from the measured portion is detected in a light receiving unit (40) provided outside the blood vessel. Thus, since the status of the blood vessel wall can be analyzed without inserting an apparatus involved in measurement into the blood vessel, the burden on the patient is reduced during measurement. In addition, as a result of carrying out measurement using near infrared light (a light component in the wavelength range of 780 nm to 2750 nm) that exhibits characteristics that differ according to the compositions of substances such as plaque adhered within the blood vessel, analyses can be carried out that distinguish compositions such as plaque using an analyzing apparatus provided outside the blood vessel.


News Article | January 17, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

In the grand scheme of the universe, black holes are the ultimate dead-ends - nothing can escape these spacetime vacuums, not even light. Astronomers currently know of two types of black holes. The first kind are called stellar-mass black holes, which are middle-sized spacetime regions that form after very massive stars set off gigantic explosions when they run out of nuclear fuel. The second kind are called supermassive black holes, aptly named because of their size. These black holes are often detected at the center of galaxies, including the Milky Way. Our galaxy contains the Sgr. A*, the biggest and largest supermassive black hole with a solar mass of 400 million. Another example of a supermassive black hole is one found at the center of the dwarf galaxy NGC 5195. NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope spotted the supermassive black hole as it was burping galactic gas. Supermassive black holes have masses that range from several millions to billions of times the mass of our own sun. Unlike stellar-mass black holes, no one knows how supermassive black holes form. Now, a team of experts in Japan may have found what could be considered as the second most massive black hole - next only to the Sgr. A* - in the Milky Way. The discovery may possibly help shed light on the evolution of black holes. An Enigmatic Gas Cloud With An Interesting Characteristic What's curious about the discovery is that the massive black hole was not directly detected by scientists, and that what they first caught present instead had an unusual characteristic. Led by Professor Tomoharu Oka of the Keio University, the group of astronomers had located a mysterious gas cloud named CO-0.40-0.22, a space object that is about 200 light-years away from Sgr. A*. Researchers detected the enigmatic gas cloud through the use of the Nobeyama 45-m telescope in Japan and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) in Chile. Japan's National Astronomical Society operated both telescopes. What scientists found unusual is that the gas cloud CO-0.40-0.22 had an unusually wide velocity dispersion, meaning that the cloud holds gas that has a wide variety of speeds. Basically, velocity dispersion is the spread and velocities of stars or gas within a galaxy, a statistical average of the combined motions of many stars. Again, the team used the Nobeyama 45-m telescope to obtain 21 emission lines from 18 molecules. The results showed that the gas cloud has an elliptical shape and consists of two components. The first component was compact and had low density, with a very wide velocity dispersion of 100 kilometers per second or 62 miles per second. The second component was dense and extended 10 light-years, with only a narrow velocity dispersion. The gas cloud has a wide velocity dispersion because there are no holes inside it, scientists said. Even more so, the infrared and X-ray observations did not detect any compact objects. This indicates that the velocity dispersion is not triggered by a local energy input such as supernova explosions or the explosion of a star, something that causes the formation of stellar-mass black holes. Simulating Gas Clouds To Better Understand The Discovery A simulated model using a gravity source with 100 thousand times the mass of the sun with a radius of 0.3 light-years offered the best fit to the CO-0.40-0.22 phenomenon. With that, Oka and his team performed a simulation of gas clouds tossed by a strong gravity source. In the simulation, the gas clouds were attracted by the gravity source, and the speeds increased as they approached it, reaching maximum at the closest point to the object. The clouds continued past the gravitational source and the speeds decreased. "Considering the fact that no compact objects are seen in X-ray or infrared observations, as far as we know the best candidate for the compact massive object is a black hole," said Oka. The First Detection Of An Intermediate-Mass Black Hole If the enigmatic gas cloud does contain a massive black hole, Oka said it will be the first time that an intermediate-mass black hole has been detected. How will this affect what we know about black holes? There is a theory that supermassive black holes form from mergers of many intermediate-mass black holes. Scientists find the theory problematic as there is no firm observational evidence for the existence of intermediate-mass black holes. Oka and his team's findings, which are featured in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, might be the key to solve this cosmic puzzle. If cloud CO-0.40-0.22 indeed encloses an intermediate-mass black hole, it might support the intermediate-mass black hole theory regarding the evolution of supermassive black holes. A New Way To Detect Black Holes The team's research also opened up a new way to search for black holes. Through radio telescopes, scientists found that that there are many other compact clouds with wide velocity dispersions similar to CO-0.40-0.22. Oka and his colleagues propose that some of these compact clouds might hold black holes. The Milky Way alone is home to about 100 million black holes, but X-ray observations have only detected dozens so far. Most of the black holes may possibly be "dark" and may be very difficult to see directly at any wavelength. In the end, Oka said that investigations of gas motion through the use of radio telescopes may provide a complementary way to search for "dark" black holes. This even has the potential to dramatically increase the number of black hole candidates in the Milky Way, he added.


CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Vedanta Biosciences, pioneering the development of a novel class of therapies for immune and infectious diseases based on rationally designed consortia of bacteria derived from the human microbiome, today announced that it has entered into translational medicine collaborations with Stanford University School of Medicine and Leiden University Medical Center. The relationships will focus on food allergies in children and on patients with C. difficile infection or graft-versus-host disease, respectively. Both collaborations seek to better understand patterns in the microbiome that may potentially inform clinical responses to therapy. Under the terms of the agreement with Stanford, Vedanta will work in collaboration with Kari Nadeau, MD, PhD, Director of the Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, to analyze the potential connection between the gut microbiome and responses to oral immunotherapies in children with food allergies. With Leiden University, Vedanta will generate clinical data from interventional studies of fecal transplantation in C. difficile patients treated with donors from the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank, as well as clinical data from patients with graft-versus-host disease, in collaboration with Ed Kuijper, MD, PhD, Professor of Medical Microbiology at the Leiden University Medical Center and co-chair of the Netherlands Donor Feces Bank. The clinical data will feed into Vedanta’s leading platform for discovery, development, and GMP manufacturing of rationally designed bacterial consortia drugs. “We’re excited to announce our relationships with Stanford and Leiden University,” said Bruce Roberts, PhD, Chief Scientific Officer of Vedanta Biosciences. “Collaborations with leading academic centers are an important part of our strategy to support our drug development efforts with human data and with careful science.” About Vedanta Biosciences Vedanta Biosciences is pioneering development of a novel class of therapies for immune and infectious diseases based on rationally designed consortia of bacteria derived from the human microbiome, with clinical trials expected to begin in the first half of 2017. Founded by PureTech Health (PureTech Health plc, PRTC.L) and a group of world-renowned experts in immunology and microbiology, Vedanta Biosciences is a leader in the microbiome field with capabilities to discover, develop and manufacture drugs based on live bacterial consortia. Leveraging its proprietary technology platform and the expertise of its team of scientific co-founders, Vedanta Biosciences has isolated a vast collection of human-associated bacterial strains and characterized how the immune system recognizes and responds to these microbes. This work has led to the identification of human commensal bacteria that induce a range of immune responses – including induction of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, among others – as well as the characterization of novel molecular mechanisms of microbial-host communication. These advances have been published in leading peer-reviewed journals including Science, Nature (multiple), Cell and Nature Immunology. Vedanta Biosciences has harnessed these biological insights as well as data from clinical translational collaborations to generate a pipeline of programs in development for infectious disease, autoimmune disease, inflammation and immune-oncology. The clinical potential of therapeutic manipulation of the microbiome has been validated by multiple randomized, controlled trials in infectious disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Vedanta Biosciences’ scientific co-founders have pioneered the fields of innate immunity, Th17 and regulatory T cell biology, and include Dr. Ruslan Medzhitov (Professor of Immunobiology at Yale), Dr. Alexander Rudensky (tri-institutional Professor at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Institute, the Rockefeller University and Cornell University), Dr. Dan Littman (Professor of Molecular Immunology at NYU), Dr. Brett Finlay (Professor at the University of British Columbia) and Dr. Kenya Honda (Professor, School of Medicine, Keio University). Vedanta is backed by PureTech Health, Seventure, Invesco Asset Management, and Rock Springs Capital. Forward Looking Statement This press release contains statements that are or may be forward-looking statements, including statements that relate to the company's future prospects, developments and strategies. The forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and are subject to known and unknown risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results, performance and achievements to differ materially from current expectations, including, but not limited to, those risks and uncertainties described in the risk factors included in the regulatory filings for PureTech Health plc. These forward-looking statements are based on assumptions regarding the present and future business strategies of the company and the environment in which it will operate in the future. Each forward-looking statement speaks only as at the date of this press release. Except as required by law and regulatory requirements, neither the company nor any other party intends to update or revise these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


News Article | December 25, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Researchers affiliated with the Kawasaki INnovation Gateway at SKYFRONT, have successfully generated the first ever non-human primate X-SCID models by using two genome editing techniques. The findings were published in Cell Stem Cell, July 2016. Further information about science and technology projects at Kawasaki City is available in the Kawasaki SkyFront iNewsletter that highlights research being conducted by scientists and industries affiliated with Kawasaki INnovation Gateway at SKYFRONT (KING SKYFRONT)—the City’s flagship science and technology hub launched in 2013 to focus on open innovation in the life sciences and environment. First non-human primate model for severe combined immunodeficiency: While many insights are gained into diseases and genetic disorders from rodent models, there is a pressing need to find models that can more accurately represent disease progression in the human body, such as non-human primates. The latest advances in genome editing technology are opening doors to generating non-human primate models for studying specific genetic disorders, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). X-SCID patients do not produce enough T-cells and natural killer cells to tackle infections. The condition stems from a defective gene, IL2-RG, and scientists are keen to know more about the disorder and how to improve treatment. Now, Erika Sasaki at the Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, and co-workers across Japan and the US, have successfully generated the first ever non-human primate X-SCID models by using two genome editing techniques – zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). The team worked with marmoset monkeys because they are easy to handle and have a small body size perfect for testing small amounts of new drugs in preclinical trials. They screened the most effective ZFNs to knock-out IL2-RG gene among the 16 pairs of candidate ZFNs cultured cells. They then injected the selected ZFNs into 1 cell stage marmoset embryos and performed a specialized screening test to check for, and avoid, mosaicism (if the models carrying the mutant gene in all of the tissues in the body or not). The researchers then transferred the embryos to surrogate mothers. Of the 5 ZFN and 4 TALEN baby marmosets that were born, three have since survived to adulthood and represent the first group of X-SCID non-human primate models ever created. Further tests showed that the IL2-RG knockout marmoset models exhibited strong phenotypic similarities to human patients with X-SCID. Sasaki’s team are confident that their work paves the way for the creation of multiple gene knock-out models for specific diseases and genetic disorders. Reference and affiliations K. Sato1, R. Oiwa1, W. Kumita1, R. Henry2, T. Sakuma3, R. Ito1, R. Nozu1, T. Inoue1, I. Katano1, K. Sato4, N. Okahara1, J. Okahara1, Y. Shimizu1, M. Yamamoto1, K. Hanazawa5, T. Kawakami6, Y. Kametani7, R. Suzuki8, T. Takahashi1, E. J. Weinstein2, T. Yamamoto3, Y. Sakakibara4, S. Habu9, J. Hata1, H. Okano10*, & E. Sasaki1,11,* Generation of a nonhuman primate model of severe combined immunodeficiency using highly efficient genome editing. Cell Stem Cell 19 127-138 (2016) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.06.003 1. Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan 2. Horizon Discovery, Saint Louis, MO 63146, USA 3. Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526, Japan 4. Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Keio University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan 5. Department of Oncology, Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Nerima-ku, Tokyo 177-8521, Japan 6. Medical Proteo Scope Company, Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa 236-0004, Japan 7. Department of Molecular Life Science, Division of Basic Medical Science and Molecular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193, Japan 8. Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Clinical Research Center for Rheumatology and Allergy, Sagamihara National Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0392, Japan 9. Atopy Research Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan 10. Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan 11. Advanced Research Center, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan About KING SKYFRONT KING SKYFRONT is located on the opposite side of the Tama River that separates Tokyo International Airport (also known as Haneda Airport) and the Tonomachi district of Kawasaki. The Airport plays an important role in the globalization of the innovative activities of scholars, industrialists and City administrators based at KING SKYFRONT. KING SKYFRONT was launched in 2013 as a base for scholars, industrialists and government administrators to work together to devise real life solutions to global issues in the life sciences and environment.


News Article | April 5, 2016
Site: cleantechnica.com

Panasonic Corporation and Nomura Real Estate Development Company recently, along with the Tsunashima Sustainable Smart Town Council, revealed the concept plans for a new “smart town” that will be constructed in Tsunashima in the City of Yokohama, according to reports. The smart town — which, to give a better idea of location to those unfamiliar with the country, will be found southwest of Tokyo — will reportedly feature a hydrogen fuel-cell refueling station, a town “energy center,” and a dormitory for students from abroad. The smart city is aiming to reduce total carbon dioxide emissions by 40% (as compared to 2006 levels), and to increase “new energy” usage rates to at least 30%. A recent press release provides some further details: The concept plan sets forth the town’s environmental targets, safety and security goals, and rules for the landscapes and operations, seeking to create a town where the participants from different industries collaborate in harmony to achieve the goals. Yokohama City will support the Tsunashima SST project as the city pushes forward its efforts as a “FutureCity,” a model city selected by the Japanese government to address common challenges including the environment. The Tsunashima SST, at the site of a former Panasonic factory, consists of residential and non-residential facilities. Under the concept of “Innovating the Future Together,” private enterprises and the local government involved aim for an urban smart city, fostering innovations by exploiting synergies among progressive knowledge, technology, and services. They also envision a town that brings together people who want a better future and makes their interactions part of a global network. …Tokyo Gas Group will install a gas cogeneration system in the town energy center, from which electricity and thermal energy produced by the system will be provided to other facilities. JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation will be involved in operating a refueling station of hydrogen, which is considered as the next-generation energy source, and promote hydrogen supply to fuel-cell vehicles as well as other initiatives toward a future hydrogen-based society. Keio University will open an international student dormitory designed to realize active international exchanges and collaboration with the local community through mechanisms encouraging student-led activities and practical efforts by researchers. The aim is reportedly to open the “smart town” sometime in 2018.   Drive an electric car? Complete one of our short surveys for our next electric car report.   Keep up to date with all the hottest cleantech news by subscribing to our (free) cleantech newsletter, or keep an eye on sector-specific news by getting our (also free) solar energy newsletter, electric vehicle newsletter, or wind energy newsletter.  


Home > Press > Quantum computer coding in silicon now possible: Strongest possible proof obtained that using entanglement to write executable software code for quantum computers is indeed possible Abstract: A team of Australian engineers has proven -- with the highest score ever obtained -- that a quantum version of computer code can be written, and manipulated, using two quantum bits in a silicon microchip. The advance removes lingering doubts that such operations can be made reliably enough to allow powerful quantum computers to become a reality. The result, obtained by a team at Australia's University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, appears today in the international journal, Nature Nanotechnology. The quantum code written at UNSW is built upon a class of phenomena called quantum entanglement, which allows for seemingly counterintuitive phenomena such as the measurement of one particle instantly affecting another - even if they are at opposite ends of the universe. "This effect is famous for puzzling some of the deepest thinkers in the field, including Albert Einstein, who called it 'spooky action at a distance'," said Professor Andrea Morello, of the School of Electrical Engineering & Telecommunications at UNSW and Program Manager in the Centre for Quantum Computation & Communication Technology, who led the research. "Einstein was sceptical about entanglement, because it appears to contradict the principles of 'locality', which means that objects cannot be instantly influenced from a distance." Physicists have since struggled to establish a clear boundary between our everyday world -- which is governed by classical physics -- and this strangeness of the quantum world. For the past 50 years, the best guide to that boundary has been a theorem called Bell's Inequality, which states that no local description of the world can reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics. Bell's Inequality demands a very stringent test to verify if two particles are actually entangled, known as the 'Bell test', named for the British physicist who devised the theorem in 1964. "The key aspect of the Bell test is that it is extremely unforgiving: any imperfection in the preparation, manipulation and read-out protocol will cause the particles to fail the test," said Dr Juan Pablo Dehollain, a UNSW Research Associate who with Dr Stephanie Simmons was a lead author of the Nature Nanotechnology paper. "Nevertheless, we have succeeded in passing the test, and we have done so with the highest 'score' ever recorded in an experiment," he added. In the UNSW experiment, the two quantum particles involved are an electron and the nucleus of a single phosphorus atom, placed inside a silicon microchip. These particles are, literally, on top of each other -- the electron orbits around the nucleus. Therefore, there is no complication arising from the spookiness of action at a distance. However, the significance of the UNSW experiment is that creating these two-particle entangled states is tantamount to writing a type of computer code that does not exist in everyday computers. It therefore demonstrates the ability to write a purely quantum version of computer code, using two quantum bits in a silicon microchip -- a key plank in the quest super-powerful quantum computers of the future. "Passing the Bell test with such a high score is the strongest possible proof that we have the operation of a quantum computer entirely under control," said Morello. "In particular, we can access the purely-quantum type of code that requires the use of the delicate quantum entanglement between two particles." In a normal computer, using two bits one, could write four possible code words: 00, 01, 10 and 11. In a quantum computer, instead, one can also write and use 'superpositions' of the classical code words, such as (01 + 10), or (00 + 11). This requires the creation of quantum entanglement between two particles. "These codes are perfectly legitimate in a quantum computer, but don't exist in a classical one," said UNSW Research Fellow Stephanie Simmons, the paper's co-author. "This is, in some sense, the reason why quantum computers can be so much more powerful: with the same number of bits, they allow us to write a computer code that contains many more words, and we can use those extra words to run a different algorithm that reaches the result in a smaller number of steps." Morello highlighted the importance of achieving the breakthrough using a silicon chip: "What I find mesmerising about this experiment is that this seemingly innocuous 'quantum computer code' - (01 + 10) and (00 + 11) - has puzzled, confused and infuriated generations of physicists over the past 80 years. "Now, we have shown beyond any doubt that we can write this code inside a device that resembles the silicon microchips you have on your laptop or your mobile phone. It's a real triumph of electrical engineering," he added. ### In addition to the team lead by Morello, the work was supported by Professor Andrew Dzurak and his team at UNSW, as well as collaborators from the University of Melbourne and Japan's Keio University. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Imai M.,Keio University | Kita S.,University of Warwick
Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Sound symbolism is a non-arbitrary relationship between speech sounds and meaning. We review evidence that, contrary to the traditional view in linguistics, sound symbolism is an important design feature of language, which affects online processing of language, and most importantly, language acquisition. We propose the sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis, claiming that (i) pre-verbal infants are sensitive to sound symbolism, due to a biologically endowed ability to map and integrate multi-modal input, (ii) sound symbolism helps infants gain referential insight for speech sounds, (iii) sound symbolism helps infants and toddlers associate speech sounds with their referents to establish a lexical representation and (iv) sound symbolism helps toddlers learn words by allowing them to focus on referents embedded in a complex scene, alleviating Quine's problem. We further explore the possibility that sound symbolism is deeply related to language evolution, drawing the parallel between historical development of language across generations and ontogenetic development within individuals. Finally, we suggest that sound symbolism bootstrapping is a part of a more general phenomenon of bootstrapping by means of iconic representations, drawing on similarities and close behavioural links between sound symbolism and speech-accompanying iconic gesture. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Creutzig T.,TU Darmstadt | Hikida Y.,Keio University | Ronne P.B.,University of Cologne
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

In a previous work we have proposed that the Prokushkin-Vasiliev higher spin N = 2 supergravity on AdS3 is dual to a large N limit of the N = (2,2) ℂPN Kazama- Suzuki model. There is now strong evidence supporting this proposal based on symmetry and spectrum comparison. In this paper we will give further evidence for the duality by studying correlation functions. We compute boundary three point functions with two fermionic operators and one higher spin bosonic current in terms of the bulk supergravity theory. Then we compare with the results in the dual CFT, where the supersymmetry of the theory turns out to be very helpful. In particular we use it to confirm results conjectured in the bosonic case. Moreover, correlators with a fermionic current can be obtained via supersymmetry. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Creutzig T.,TU Darmstadt | Hikida Y.,Keio University | Ronne P.B.,University of Cologne
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We propose a duality between a higher spin N=1 supergravity on AdS 3 and a large N limit of a family of N=(1,1) superconformal field theories. The gravity theory is an N=1 truncation of the N=2 supergravity found by Prokushkin and Vasiliev, and the dual conformal field theory is defined by a supersymmetric coset model. We check this conjecture by comparing one loop partition functions and find agreement. Moreover, we study the symmetry of the dual coset model and in particular compute fields of the coset algebra of dimension 3/2, 2, 2 and 5/2 explicitly. © 2013 SISSA, Trieste, Italy.


Shibata T.,Otsumanakano Junior and Senior High School | Murakami T.,Keio University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

This paper proposes a new power-assist control in pushing task as an intelligent function of wheelchair by repulsive compliance control. In this strategy, the reaction force of human input into object is estimated without torque/force sensor and is utilized to generate the power-assist torque for wheel driving. The proposed approach brings a sophisticated function that makes it easy to carry out pushing task by wheelchair rider. First, human acceleration estimation observer (HAOB) and workspace disturbance observer (WDOB) are employed. HAOB can abstract human input as equivalent acceleration without torque/force sensor. WDOB guarantees robustness of the whole control system against disturbances. Second, HAOB-based compliance control is constructed to generate the motion command of pushing task for power-assist control. The generated motion command is determined so that the wheelchair accelerates according to human input. From this point of view, the proposed control is called repulsive compliance control. The compliance control itself is passive control, and stable and flexible responses are expected. Simulations and experiments are conducted to confirm the validity of the proposed approach. © 2011 IEEE.


Gudnason S.B.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study a Skyrme-type model with a quadratic potential for a field with S2 vacua. We consider two flavors of the model, the first is the Skyrme model and the second has a sixth-order derivative term instead of the Skyrme term; both with the added quadratic potential. The model contains molecules of half Skyrmions, each of them is a global (anti)monopole with baryon number 1/2. We numerically construct solutions with baryon numbers one through six, and find stable solutions which look like beads on rings. We also construct a molecule with fractional Skyrmions having the baryon numbers 1/3+2/3, by adding a linear potential term. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study a Skyrme-type model with a potential term motivated by Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs), which we call the BEC Skyrme model. We consider two flavors of the model: the first is the Skyrme model, and the second has a sixth-order derivative term instead of the Skyrme term, both with the added BEC-motivated potential. The model contains toroidally shaped Skyrmions, and they are characterized by two integers P and Q, representing the winding numbers of two complex scalar fields along the toroidal and poloidal cycles of the torus, respectively. The baryon number is B=PQ. We find stable Skyrmion solutions for P=1,2,3,4,5 with Q=1, while for P=6 and Q=1, it is only metastable. We further find that configurations with higher Q>1 are all unstable and split into Q configurations with Q=1. Finally we discover a phase transition, possibly of first order, in the mass parameter of the potential under study. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We construct a D-brane soliton, a composite topological soliton sharing some properties with a D-brane, in a Skyrme model in 4+1 dimensions, in which Skyrmions are strings ending on a domain wall. We further generalize this D-brane soliton to diverse dimensions. A string, carrying the πN-1 topological charge, ends on a domain wall in an O(N) model with higher-derivative terms in N+1 dimensions. © 2015 American Physical Society.


Arai N.,University of Electro - Communications | Yausoka K.,Keio University | Zeng X.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2013

We have performed molecular simulations to investigate morphologies and the phase diagram of the self-assembled triblock Janus nanoparticle confined to nanotubes. The triblock Janus nanoparticle is decorated with two hydrophobic caps at the north and south poles with a tunable area, separated by an electrically charged middle band. On the basis of the observed pressure- and tube-radius-dependent morphologies, we derive semiquantitative phase diagrams of the axial pressure versus the ratio of the radius of the nanoparticle to the radius of the nanotube. Three distinct walls of the nanotube, namely, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and hydroneutral, are considered. We find that the three phase diagrams corresponding to three chemically different walls of the nanotube show some universal features. These features can be illustrated through a schematic assembly map and a roadmap on the variation of coordination number of the nanoparticles. In particular, we find that highly ordered morphologies tend to form when the coordination number of Janus particles is a multiple of 2. The orientation ordering and self-assembly behavior of the Janus nanoparticles can be qualitatively predicted when the chemical nature of the nanotube wall is known. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Koishi T.,University of Fukui | Yasuoka K.,Keio University | Fujikawa S.,RIKEN | Fujikawa S.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Zeng X.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
ACS Nano | Year: 2011

We perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to measure the contact-angle hysteresis for a nanodroplet of water placed on a nanopillared surface. The water droplet can be in either the Cassie state (droplet being on top of the nanopillared surface) or the Wenzel state (droplet being in contact with the bottom of nanopillar grooves). To measure the contact-angle hysteresis in a quantitative fashion, the molecular dynamics simulation is designed such that the number of water molecules in the droplets can be systematically varied, but the number of base nanopillars that are in direct contact with the droplets is fixed. We find that the contact-angle hysteresis for the droplet in the Cassie state is weaker than that in the Wenzel state. This conclusion is consistent with the experimental observation. We also test a different definition of the contact-angle hysteresis, which can be extended to estimate hysteresis between the Cassie and Wenzel state. The idea is motivated from the appearance of the hysteresis loop typically seen in computer simulation of the first-order phase transition, which stems from the metastability of a system in different thermodynamic states. Since the initial shape of the droplet can be controlled arbitrarily in the computer simulation, the number of base nanopillars that are in contact with the droplet can be controlled as well. We show that the measured contact-angle hysteresis according to the second definition is indeed very sensitive to the initial shape of the droplet. Nevertheless, the contact-angle hystereses measured based on the conventional and new definition seem converging in the large droplet limit. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Fleischhacker W.W.,Innsbruck Medical University | Uchida H.,Keio University | Uchida H.,Center for Addiction and Mental Health
International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Antipsychotic polypharmacy remains prevalent; it has probably increased for the treatment of schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings. The current evidence suggests some clinical benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy, such as better symptom control with clozapine plus another antipsychotic, and a reversal of metabolic side-effects with a concomitant use of aripiprazole. On the other hand, the interpretation of findings in the literature should be made conservatively in light of the paucity of good studies and potentially serious side-effects. Also, although the available data are still limited, two smaller-scale clinical trials provide preliminary evidence that converting antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy could be a valid and reasonable treatment option. Several studies have explored strategies to change physicians' antipsychotic polypharmacy prescribing behaviours. These have revealed that, while the impact of purely educational interventions may be limited, more aggressive procedures such as directly notifying physicians by letters or phone calls can be more effective in reducing antipsychotic polypharmacy. In conclusion, antipsychotic polypharmacy can work for some clinically difficult conditions; however, it should be the exception rather than the rule and may be avoidable in many patients. More importantly, the paucity of the data clearly emphasizes the need for further investigations on not only advantages and disadvantages of antipsychotic polypharmacy, but also regarding effective interventions in already prescribed polypharmacy regimens. © 2012 CINP.


Bruner E.,National Research Center sobre la Evolucion Humana | de la Cuetara J.M.,Autonomous University of Madrid | Masters M.,Montana Tech of the University of Montana | Amano H.,Keio University | Ogihara N.,Keio University
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy | Year: 2014

Anatomical systems are organized through a network of structural and functional relationships among their elements. This network of relationships is the result of evolution, it represents the actual target of selection, and it generates the set of rules orienting and constraining the morphogenetic processes. Understanding the relationship among cranial and cerebral components is necessary to investigate the factors that have influenced and characterized our neuroanatomy, and possible drawbacks associated with the evolution of large brains. The study of the spatial relationships between skull and brain in the human genus has direct relevance in cranial surgery. Geometrical modeling can provide functional perspectives in evolution and brain physiology, like in simulations to investigate metabolic heat production and dissipation in the endocranial form. Analysis of the evolutionary constraints between facial and neural blocks can provide new information on visual impairment. The study of brain form variation in fossil humans can supply a different perspective for interpreting the processes behind neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's disease. Following these examples, it is apparent that paleontology and biomedicine can exchange relevant information and contribute at the same time to the development of robust evolutionary hypotheses on brain evolution, while offering more comprehensive biological perspectives with regard to the interpretation of pathological processes. © 2014 Bruner, de la Cuétara, Masters, Amano and Ogihara.


Arai N.,University of Electro - Communications | Yasuoka K.,Keio University | Zeng X.C.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Nanoscale | Year: 2013

We investigate translocation dynamics of a vesicle cell under collision with a Janus or a homogeneous hydrophobic/hydrophilic nanoparticle. To this end, we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulation by setting the nanoparticle with different initial velocities, different chemical patterns of the surface for the nanoparticle, and different orientations (for the Janus nanoparticle). Particular attention is given to translocation dynamics, in-cell water discharge, and the late-stage morphologies of the vesicle/nanoparticle system after the collision. We observe three late-stage states for the Janus nanoparticle, and four late-stage states for the homogeneous nanoparticles. We find that the late-stage state and the associated dynamical pathway not only depend on the relative velocity but also on the chemical pattern of the nanoparticle surface, as well as on the orientation of the incident Janus nanoparticle. We have examined the time-dependent mean radius of the vesicle, the number of in-cell water beads lost from the vesicle, as well as the collision-induced pore size on the lipid membrane during the course of collision. Our simulation provides microscopic insights into the resilience of the vesicle-cell membrane and dynamical behavior of the vesicle under the attack of a foreign nanoparticle. Knowledge and insights gained through the simulation will have implication to the drug delivery with different chemical coatings. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

Skyrmions can be transformed into lumps or baby Skyrmions by being trapped inside a domain wall. Here we find that they can also be transformed into sine-Gordon kinks when confined by vortices, resulting in confined Skyrmions. We show this both by an effective field theory approach and by direct numerical calculations. The existence of these trapped and confined Skyrmions does not rely on higher-derivative terms when the host solitons are flat or straight. We also construct a Skyrmion as a twisted vortex ring in a model with a sixth-order derivative term. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Fukushima K.,Keio University | Kashiwa K.,Brookhaven National Laboratory
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

We investigate quark deconfinement by calculating the effective potential of the Polyakov loop using the non-perturbative propagators in the Landau gauge measured in the finite-temperature lattice simulation. With the leading term in the 2-particle-irreducible formalism the resultant effective potential exhibits a first-order phase transitions for the pure SU(3) Yang-Mills theory at the critical temperature consistent with the empirical value. We also estimate the thermodynamic quantities to confirm qualitative agreement with the lattice data near the critical temperature. We then apply our effective potential to the chiral model-study and calculate the order parameters and the thermodynamic quantities. Unlike the case in the pure Yang-Mills theory the thermodynamic quantities are sensitive to the temperature dependence of the non-perturbative propagators, while the behavior of the order parameters is less sensitive, which implies the importance of the precise determination of the temperature-dependent propagators. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Hiroi K.,Keio University | Komatsu K.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Komatsu K.,University Paris - Sud | Sato T.,Keio University
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics | Year: 2011

γ-Fe2O3/SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles with different shell thicknesses were prepared to elucidate the condition for superspin-glass (SSG) dynamics. As the shell thickness decreases, the contribution of interparticle dipolar interaction becomes apparent in the magnetic dynamics of nanoparticle assembly. The frequency dependence of peaks in ac-magnetic susceptibility in samples with strong interactions slows down, which is characterized as the emergence of a spin-glasslike phase. Aging in magnetization relaxation is found in a strongly interacting sample with an interparticle distance of L≤14 nm but is scarce in a sample with L = 18 nm. Scaling analysis reveals an increase in superparamagnetic properties with an increase in L. Therefore the critical interparticle distance necessary for SSG transition is 15-18 nm with 11-nm γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. This corresponds to the ratio of interparticle-interaction energy to the magnetic-anisotropy energy Edip/Ea of 6-12%. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Okuno Y.,Keio University | Nakamura-Ishizu A.,Keio University | Otsu K.,Osaka University | Otsu K.,King's College London | And 2 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2012

The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a master regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), acts as a barrier to cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. Aside from DDR signaling, ATM also functions in oxidative defense. Here we show that Atm in mice is activated specifically in immature vessels in response to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Global or endothelial-specific Atm deficiency in mice blocked pathological neoangiogenesis in the retina. This block resulted from increased amounts of ROS and excessive activation of the mitogen activated kinase p38Î ± rather than from defects in the canonical DDR pathway. Atm deficiency also lowered tumor angiogenesis and enhanced the antiangiogenic action of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) blockade. These data suggest that pathological neoangiogenesis requires ATM-mediated oxidative defense and that agents that promote excessive ROS generation may have beneficial effects in the treatment of neovascular disease. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Yoshizawa K.,Hokkaido University | Ferreira R.L.,Federal University of Lavras | Kamimura Y.,Keio University | Lienhard C.,Natural History Museum of the City of Geneva
Current Biology | Year: 2014

Sex-specific elaborations are common in animals and have attracted the attention of many biologists, including Darwin [1]. It is accepted that sexual selection promotes the evolution of sex-specific elaborations. Due to the faster replenishment rate of gametes, males generally have higher potential reproductive and optimal mating rates than females. Therefore, sexual selection acts strongly on males [2], leading to the rapid evolution and diversification of male genitalia [3]. Male genitalia are sometimes used as devices for coercive holding of females as a result of sexual conflict over mating [4, 5]. In contrast, female genitalia are usually simple. Here we report the reversal of intromittent organs in the insect genus Neotrogla (Psocodea: Prionoglarididae) from Brazilian caves. Females have a highly elaborate, penis-like structure, the gynosome, while males lack an intromittent organ. The gynosome has species-specific elaborations, such as numerous spines that fit species-specific pouches in the simple male genital chamber. During prolonged copulation (∼40-70 hr), a large and potentially nutritious ejaculate is transferred from the male via the gynosome. The correlated genital evolution in Neotrogla is probably driven by reversed sexual selection with females competing for seminal gifts. Nothing similar is known among sex-role reversed animals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

Skyrmions of different dimensions are related by domain walls. We obtain explicit full numerical solutions of various Skyrmion configurations trapped inside a domain wall. We find for the quadratic mass term that multi-Skyrmions are ring shaped and conjecture for the linear mass term, that the lowest-energy state of multi-Skyrmions will consist of charge-2 rings accommodated in a lattice. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2014

We construct a spherical domain wall which has baryon charge distributed on a sphere of finite radius in a Skyrme model with a sixth-order derivative term and a modified mass term. Its distribution of energy density likewise takes the form of a sphere. In order to localize the domain wall at a finite radius we need a negative coefficient in front of the Skyrme term and a positive coefficient of the sixth order derivative term to stabilize the soliton. Increasing the pion mass pronounces the shell-like structure of the configuration. © 2014 American Physical Society.


Creutzig T.,TU Darmstadt | Hikida Y.,Keio University | Ronne P.B.,University of Cologne
Journal of High Energy Physics | Year: 2012

Vasiliev's higher spin supergravity theory on three dimensional anti-de Sitter space is studied and, in particular, the partition function is computed at one loop level. The dual conformal field theory is proposed to be a large N limit of the N = (2, 2) ℂP N Kazama-Suzuki model in two dimensions. The proposal is based on symmetry considerations and comparison of the bulk partition function with the conformal field theory. Our findings suggest that the theory is strong-weak self-dual. © SISSA 2012.


Patent
Keio University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2016-06-10

There are provided an optical film having both low orientation birefringence and low photoelastic birefringence and, at the same time, having excellent transparency and heat resistance, and a polarizing plate including the optical film and a liquid crystal display device. An acrylic copolymer according to the present invention includes as constituent units 0.5 to 35% by mass of N-aromatic substituted maleimide units and 60 to 85% by mass of alkyl (meth)acrylate units having a negative intrinsic birefringence in terms of a homopolymer.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2012-11-06

The present invention can provide a methacrylic resin which has excellent transparency and color and less defects such as fish eyes and thus suitable for optical films by adding (A) a polymeric dispersant represented by formula (1) below and (B) an inorganic salt and/or organic salt selected from alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts and ammonium salts when methyl methacrylate alone or a monomer mixture containing methyl methacrylate as one component is subjected to suspension-polymerization: (n=10 to 60 mol %, m=40 to 90 mol %, R_(1 )is hydrogen or a methyl group, R_(2 )is an alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and M is an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or NH_(4).)


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2012-09-25

Disclosed is an optical film produced by a method comprising continuously discharging a molten resin on a casting roll through a die lip of an extruder, wherein the molten resin contains a copolymer of (A) 75 to 99% by weight of an (meth)acrylate monomer that, when homopolymerized, has a negative intrinsic birefringence, and (B) 1 to 25% by weight of an (meth)acrylate monomer that, when homopolymerized, has a positive intrinsic birefringence, and a velocity ratio V_(2)/V_(1 )of 1.2 to 15 is satisfied wherein V_(1 )represents a discharge velocity of the molten resin from the die lip, m/min; and V_(2 )represents a surface velocity of the casting roll, m/min.


Patent
Keio University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2013-11-22

There are provided an optical film having both low orientation birefringence and low photoelastic birefringence and, at the same time, having excellent transparency and heat resistance, and a polarizing plate including the optical film and a liquid crystal display device. An acrylic copolymer according to the present invention includes as constituent units 0.5 to 35% by mass of N-aromatic substituted maleimide units and 60 to 85% by mass of alkyl (meth)acrylate units having a negative intrinsic birefringence in terms of a homopolymer.


Patent
Nippon Oil Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2014-10-01

The present invention can provide a methacrylic resin which has excellent transparency and color and less defects such as fish eyes and thus suitable for optical films by adding (A) a polymeric dispersant represented by formula (1) below and (B) an inorganic salt and/or organic salt selected from alkali metal salts, alkaline earth metal salts and ammonium salts when methyl methacrylate alone or a monomer mixture containing methyl methacrylate as one component is subjected to suspension-polymerization:_(1) is hydrogen or a methyl group, R_(2) is an alkyl group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, and M is an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal or NH_(4).)


Patent
Genefrontier Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2013-10-01

The present invention provides an antibody that specifically binds to human ADAM28, inhibits enzyme activity of human ADAM28, and has an activity to suppress metastasis of a cancer cell that expresses human ADAM28. The antibody of the present invention can be a human antibody.


Patent
Keio University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2012-09-25

Disclosed is an optical film comprising a resin material containing a copolymer of 20 to 90% by weight of methyl methacrylate, 10 to 70% by weight of tert-butylcyclohexyl methacrylate represented by formula (I): and 0 to 20% by weight of a monomer other than methyl methacrylate and tert-butylcyclohexyl methacrylate, the optical film having been produced by drawing an undrawn film formed by melt-extruding the resin material by a factor of 1.4 to 6.0 in terms of area ratio.


Patent
Keio University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2014-10-15

Disclosed is an optical film comprising a resin material containing a copolymer of 20 to 90% by weight of methyl methacrylate, 10 to 70% by weight of tert-butylcyclohexyl methacrylate represented by formula (I):


The present invention provides: a novel metalloprotein, i.e., selenium-lactoferrin; and a process for producing the metalloprotein. Selenium-lactoferrin according to the present invention can be produced suitably by adding a selenium salt to a solution containing lactoferrin and/or apolactoferrin and then subjecting the resultant mixed solution to dialysis or ultrafiltration. Selenium-lactoferrin according to the present invention has an excellent therapeutic effect on corneal and conjunctival diseases, and is suitable for mass production on an industrial scale.


Sato S.,National Defense Medical College Research Institute | Ando T.,Keio University | Obara M.,Keio University
Optics Letters | Year: 2011

We developed an optical-fiber-based photomechanical gene transfer system for endoscopic or catheter-based application. A fiber tip with a laser-absorbing film covered with a transparent plastic disk for plasma confinement was attached to a quartz fiber; the film was irradiated with nanosecond laser pulses transmitted through the fiber to generate photomechanical waves (PMWs). Characteristics of PMWs emitted from the fiber tip were examined to confirm the necessary conditions for gene transfer. We then attempted to transfer reporter genes to the rat skin as a test tissue in vivo with the fiber system, and the results showed significantly high protein levels and spatially selective pinpoint gene expressions in the tissue. © 2011 Optical Society of America.


Patent
Keio University and Nippon Oil Corporation | Date: 2014-08-13

Disclosed is an optical film produced by a method comprising continuously discharging a molten resin on a casting roll through a die lip of an extruder, wherein the molten resin contains a copolymer of (A) 75 to 99% by weight of an (meth)acrylate monomer that, when homopolymerized, has a negative intrinsic birefringence, and (B) 1 to 25% by weight of an (meth)acrylate monomer that, when homopolymerized, has a positive intrinsic birefringence, and a velocity ratio V_(2)/V_(1) of 1.2 to 15 is satisfied wherein V_(1) represents a discharge velocity of the molten resin from the die lip, m/min; and V_(2) represents a surface velocity of the casting roll, m/min.


Patent
GeneFrontier Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2014-10-14

The present invention provides an antibody that specifically binds to human aggrecanase, and inhibits enzymatic activity of the human aggrecanase. In one embodiment, aggrecanase is ADAMTS4. In one embodiment, the antibody recognizes a particular epitope in human ADAMTS4, and inhibits not only aggrecanase activity of human ADAMTS4 but also aggrecanase activity of human ADAMTS5. In addition, the present invention also provides use of said antibody in the prophylaxis or treatment of the progression of arthritis.


Patent
GeneFrontier Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2015-09-16

The present invention provides an antibody that specifically binds to human ADAM28, inhibits enzyme activity of human ADAM28, and has an activity to suppress metastasis of a cancer cell that expresses human ADAM28. The antibody of the present invention can be a human antibody.


Patent
Keio University and Sinloihi Co. | Date: 2011-03-16

An ink composition comprising a microparticulate fluorescent material which can emit a high brightness fluorescent light by ultraviolet ray and has a predetermined nanosize is provided. The ink composition comprises a microparticulate fluorescent material represented by the formula YVO_(4):A, wherein A is a rare earth metal other than yttrium, which can emit a fluorescent light by the excitation with ultraviolet ray. The fluorescent material has an average primary particle size of 30 to 400nm and has not been calcined. The fluorescent material is prepared by, for example, mixing Composition (I) containing a yttrium compound, a compound of rare earth metal other than yttrium and a complex forming compound in water with Composition (II) containing a vanadium compound in water and then reacting them.


The present invention provides: a novel metalloprotein, i.e., selenium-lactoferrin; and a process for producing the metalloprotein. Selenium-lactoferrin according to the present invention can be produced suitably by adding a selenium salt to a solution containing lactoferrin and/or apolactoferrin and then subjecting the resultant mixed solution to dialysis or ultrafiltration. Selenium-lactoferrin according to the present invention has an excellent therapeutic effect on corneal and conjunctival diseases, and is suitable for mass production on an industrial scale.


Gudnason S.B.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Modern Physics | Gudnason S.B.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2015

A class of effective field theories for moduli or collective coordinates on solitons of generic shapes is constructed. As an illustration, we consider effective field theories living on solitons in the O(4) non-linear sigma model with higher-derivative terms. © 2015 The Authors.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

A product of digesting a micronutrient found in soy may hold the key to why some people seem to derive a heart-protective benefit from eating soy foods, while others do not, a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health-led study discovered. Japanese men who are able to produce equol—a substance made by some types of “good” gut bacteria when they metabolize isoflavones (micronutrients found in dietary soy)—have lower levels of a risk factor for heart disease than their counterparts who cannot produce it, according to the research published in the British Journal of Nutrition. “Scientists have known for some time that isoflavones protect against the buildup of plaque in arteries, known as atherosclerosis, in monkeys, and are associated with lower rates of heart disease in people in Asian countries,” said senior author Akira Sekikawa, M.D., Ph.D., an associate professor of epidemiology at Pitt Public Health. “We were surprised when a large trial of isoflavones in the U.S. didn’t show the beneficial effects among people with atherosclerosis in Western countries. Now, we think we know why.” All monkeys can produce equol, as can 50 to 60 percent of people in Asian countries. However, only 20 to 30 percent of people in Western countries can. Sekikawa and his colleagues, who include scientists in Japan, recruited 272 Japanese men aged 40 to 49 and performed blood tests to find out if they were producing equol. After adjusting for other heart disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking and obesity, the team found that the equol-producers had 90-percent lower odds of coronary artery calcification, a predictor of heart disease, than the equol non-producers. The daily intake of dietary isoflavones—found in traditional soy foods such as tofu, miso and soymilk—is 25 to 50 milligrams in China and Japan, while it is less than 2 milligrams in Western countries. Equol is available as a supplement—bypassing the need for gut bacteria to produce it—though no clinical trials have been performed to determine a safe dosage for heart protective effects, or if it even does provide such protection. “I do not recommend that people start taking equol to improve their heart health or for any other reason unless advised by their doctor,” said Sekikawa. “Much more study is needed.” Sekikawa and his team are pursuing funding for a much larger observational study to expand on their findings and eventually a randomized clinical trial to examine the effect of taking equol on various medical conditions and diseases. “Our discovery about equol may have applications far beyond heart disease,” said Sekikawa. “We know that isoflavones may be associated with protecting against many other medical conditions, including osteoporosis, dementia, menopausal hot flashes, and prostate and breast cancers. Equol may have an even stronger effect on these diseases.” Additional authors on this research include lead author Vasudha Ahuja, Ph.D., of Pitt Public Health; and co-authors Katsuyuki Miura, M.D., Ph.D., Akira Fujiyoshi, M.D., Ph.D., Maryam Zaid, Ph.D., Naoko Miyagawa, M.D., Ph.D., Aya Kadota, M.D., Ph.D., and Hirotsuga Ueshima, M.D., Ph.D., all of Shiga University of Medical Science in Japan; Abhishek Vishnu, M.D., Ph.D., and Rhobert Evans, Ph.D., both of Pitt Public Health; Takashi Hisamatsu, M.D., Ph.D., of Shiga University of Medical Science and Shimane University in Japan; and Tomonori Okamura, M.D., Ph.D., of Keio University in Japan. This research was funded by National Institutes of Health grant R01 HL68200, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology grants B16790335 and A13307016, and a small grant from Pitt Public Health’s Department of Epidemiology.


News Article | March 11, 2016
Site: phys.org

The discovery, published Thursday in the journal Science, could lead to new methods to manage the more than 50 million tons of this particular type of plastic produced globally each year. The plastic found in water bottles is known as polyethylene terephthalate, or PET. It is also found in polyester clothing, frozen-dinner trays and blister packaging. "If you walk down the aisle in Wal-Mart you're seeing a lot of PET," said Tracy Mincer, who studies plastics in the ocean at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts. Part of the appeal of PET is that it is lightweight, colorless and strong. However, it has also been notoriously resistant to being broken down by microbes-what experts call "biodegradation." Previous studies had found a few species of fungi can grow on PET, but until now, no one had found any microbes that can eat it. To find the plastic-eating bacterium described in the study, the Japanese research team from Kyoto Institute of Technology and Keio University collected 250 PET-contaminated samples including sediment, soil and wastewater from a plastic bottle recycling site. Next they screened the microbes living on the samples to see whether any of them were eating the PET and using it to grow. They originally found a consortium of bugs that appeared to break down a PET film, but they eventually discovered that just one of bacteria species was responsible for the PET degradation. They named it Ideonella sakainesis. Further tests in the lab revealed that it used two enzymes to break down the PET. After adhering to the PET surface, the bacteria secretes one enzyme onto the PET to generate an intermediate chemical. That chemical is then taken up by the cell, where another enzyme breaks it down even further, providing the bacteria with carbon and energy to grow. The researchers report that a community of Ideonella sakaiensis working this way could break down a thin film of PET over the course of six weeks if the temperature were held at a steady 86 degrees Fahrenheit. Mincer said the study was impressive and did a good job showing that these organisms were eating the plastic pretty well. However, he said it was not immediately clear whether or not it would help keep plastics out of the ocean, for example. "When I think it through, I don't really know where it gets us," he said. "I don't see how microbes degrading plastics is any better than putting plastic bottles in a recycling bin so they can be melted down to make new ones." He added that the research could make it easier to identify other microbes that might have similar PET-degrading capabilities. "This process could be quite common," he said. "Now that we know what we are looking for, we may see these microbes in many areas around the world." Explore further: Plastics and chemicals they absorb pose double threat to marine life S. Yoshida et al. A bacterium that degrades and assimilates poly(ethylene terephthalate), Science (2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aad6359


News Article | December 8, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

TOKYO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Mori Trust Co., Ltd. (Headquarters: Minato Ward, Tokyo; President: Miwako Date) announces that the Company established its US subsidiary Mori America LLC on November 7, 2016 with the aim of promoting overseas investment business in the US. It also concluded a sale and purchase agreement for two office buildings in Boston, Massachusetts, on November 15, 2016. In future, we are scheduled to acquire the buildings, effective January 5, 2017, after completing the process for such acquisition. We announced the medium- and long-term vision “Advance 2027” in June of this year when the new president took office. Based on this vision, we are conducting business with an eye to making total investments on the order of 800 billion yen. We set investments in overseas real estate as a key business strategy in the Vision in an attempt to capture business opportunities overseas and build a stable asset portfolio that can ride out a global economic change. Following the policy of “Advance 2027,” we have decided to establish a subsidiary with the aim of promoting the overseas investment business in the US in earnest and, as the first overseas investment project in the Vision, to acquire two office buildings with a high operational rate in the Back Bay District, which is a popular location for offices in Boston. Mori Trust Group owns 124 real properties for management and leasing, including offices, hotels and residences, primarily in central Tokyo. Recently, we started construction of the Tokyo World Gate (a total floor area of about 2,150,000 square feet), which is the first project accredited as an architectural structure for National Strategy Urban Planning. In addition to domestic projects like this, we will also pursue a policy of promoting investments in real estate in the US. We intend to expand the total amount of investments overseas to between 100 billion yen and 200 billion yen in the future. 1. Outline of Properties to be Acquired Boston, where the above properties are located, is the largest city in Massachusetts in the northeastern US. Boston is one of America’s most prominent cosmopolitan cities and is rich in history and culture, in addition to being called “America’s Birthplace.” The area has some of the world’s most prestigious universities, such as Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Along with a cluster of cutting-edge medical institutions, Boston is a center of education and medicine in the US. In addition, the city is a popular tourist destination for its cityscape, with historic towns and modern buildings combined in harmony, and for its reputation as a safe city. The business areas are concentrated in the Financial District with many high-rise buildings, where a number of banks and other financial institutions are located; the Back Bay District, with its high-end offices, residences and entertainment facilities nearby; and the Sea Port District, where there is an increasing number of urban development projects in recent years. These districts form a dynamic international city that attracts companies and entrepreneurs mainly from the high-tech industry. The properties to be acquired by this agreement are located in the Back Bay District, which is a popular office area with exclusive fashion boutiques, restaurants, hotels and residences also found in the vicinity. The properties are two buildings with a total rentable floor space of about 825,000 square feet, a complex of a Class A modern high-rise building, rare in this area, and an over 100 year-old historical building, indicating the high value of a stable asset. 10 St. James Avenue won “BOMA Boston 2016 TOBY (the Outstanding Building of the Year) & Industry Awards,” one of the greatest programs in the US to recognize commercial real estate, and have garnered an extremely high reputation for their function, design and other aspects. (2) Schedule January 5, 2017: Settlement of Payment and Transfer of Properties About Mori Trust Group The Mori Trust Group originated in the Mori Group, which was founded by Taikichiro Mori, and has been in business over 60 years. Current Chairman and CEO Akira Mori, the third son of the founder, created the Mori Trust Group, a major developer in Japan. Since then, the Group has been engaged in the businesses of real estate development, hotels and resorts, and investment. In June 2016, Miwako Date, the granddaughter of Taikichiro Mori and the daughter of Akira Mori, became President and Chief Executive Officer to take over operations. Date formulated the medium- and long-term vision and has pushed forward with the Group’s diverse operations. Real Estate Development Business As a major real estate developer in Japan, the Mori Trust Group owns 124 facilities for management and leasing with a total floor area of about 15,930,000 square feet (including offices, hotels, residences and commercial complexes) in prime locations in the Tokyo metropolitan area and across the nation. One of its ongoing projects is construction of a 38-story complex in Toranomon in central Tokyo, where numerous international offices, residences and commercial facilities are clustered. “The Tokyo World Gate” with a floor area of about 2,150,000 square feet is a complex containing offices, an international hotel, apartments with hotel-like services, exclusive residences for freehold, and a concierge service to facilitate the daily life of foreigners. It is under construction and is scheduled to be completed in March 2020. Furthermore, development of large complexes is planned in the Akasaka and Shinagawa areas in central Tokyo. Hotels & Resorts Business The Mori Trust Group has developed, owned and managed 21 hotels and resorts with a total of about 3,800 guest rooms nationwide. The Group is known as a business operator that has pioneered attracting international hotel brands to Japan. Furthermore, the Group is the biggest Marriot Group hotel owner in Japan, which owns, manages and operates 11 existing, rebranded, and newly developing hotels under the brand name of Marriot International. Regarding hotel projects currently underway, ten new hotels are planned primarily in areas that are among the most popular cities and regions in Japan, such as Ginza, Hokkaido, Nara and Okinawa. Investment Business The Group is recognized as a company that contributed to the creation of the REIT market in Japan, and has listed a comprehensive REIT on the Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE). We are working to list a second REIT that specializes in hotels on the TSE. Financial Results The consolidated financial position of Mori Trust Group as of March 31, 2016 comprised total net assets of 1.3 trillion yen (market value), equity ratio 31% (book value). The Group posted, for the term ended March 2016, 163.0 billion yen in operating revenue, 41.2 billion yen in operating income, and 34.0 billion yen in net income. The Group forecasts 148.0 billion yen in operating revenue, 30.0 billion yen in operating income, and 57.0 billion yen in net income for the term ending March 2017. Medium- and Long-Term Vision “Advance 2027” Following current President Miwako Date assuming the position of president, the Group announced a medium- and long-term vision, which emphasizes that the Group is prepared to make investments on the order of 800 billion yen in real properties and projects at home and overseas by 2027 while retaining its current level of owned capital rate, which is high by the standards of Japanese developers. After graduating from Keio University’s graduate school, Date joined a major consulting firm. In 1998, she joined the Mori Trust Co., Ltd., and in June 2016, became the President and CEO of the Mori Trust Co. Her father is Akira Mori, current Chairman and CEO. While overseeing a number of large-scale real estate development projects in central Tokyo, Miwako Date steered the hotels & resorts business into bringing in a number of international hotels including: CONRAD TOKYO; Shangri-La Hotel Tokyo; Tokyo Marriott Hotel; Suiran, a Luxury Collection Hotel, Kyoto; The Westin Sendai; Courtyard by Marriott Tokyo Station; and Courtyard by Marriott Shin-Osaka Station.


News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

PITTSBURGH, Feb. 22, 2017 - A product of digesting a micronutrient found in soy may hold the key to why some people seem to derive a heart-protective benefit from eating soy foods, while others do not, a University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health-led study discovered. Japanese men who are able to produce equol -- a substance made by some types of "good" gut bacteria when they metabolize isoflavones (micronutrients found in dietary soy)--have lower levels of a risk factor for heart disease than their counterparts who cannot produce it, according to the research published in the British Journal of Nutrition. "Scientists have known for some time that isoflavones protect against the buildup of plaque in arteries, known as atherosclerosis, in monkeys, and are associated with lower rates of heart disease in people in Asian countries," said senior author Akira Sekikawa, M.D., Ph.D., an associate professor of epidemiology at Pitt Public Health. "We were surprised when a large trial of isoflavones in the U.S. didn't show the beneficial effects among people with atherosclerosis in Western countries. Now, we think we know why." All monkeys can produce equol, as can 50 to 60 percent of people in Asian countries. However, only 20 to 30 percent of people in Western countries can. Sekikawa and his colleagues, who include scientists in Japan, recruited 272 Japanese men aged 40 to 49 and performed blood tests to find out if they were producing equol. After adjusting for other heart disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking and obesity, the team found that the equol-producers had 90-percent lower odds of coronary artery calcification, a predictor of heart disease, than the equol non-producers. The daily intake of dietary isoflavones -- found in traditional soy foods such as tofu, miso and soymilk--is 25 to 50 milligrams in China and Japan, while it is less than 2 milligrams in Western countries. Equol is available as a supplement--bypassing the need for gut bacteria to produce it--though no clinical trials have been performed to determine a safe dosage for heart protective effects, or if it even does provide such protection. "I do not recommend that people start taking equol to improve their heart health or for any other reason unless advised by their doctor," said Sekikawa. "Much more study is needed." Sekikawa and his team are pursuing funding for a much larger observational study to expand on their findings and eventually a randomized clinical trial to examine the effect of taking equol on various medical conditions and diseases. "Our discovery about equol may have applications far beyond heart disease," said Sekikawa. "We know that isoflavones may be associated with protecting against many other medical conditions, including osteoporosis, dementia, menopausal hot flashes, and prostate and breast cancers. Equol may have an even stronger effect on these diseases." Additional authors on this research include lead author Vasudha Ahuja, Ph.D., of Pitt Public Health; and co-authors Katsuyuki Miura, M.D., Ph.D., Akira Fujiyoshi, M.D., Ph.D., Maryam Zaid, Ph.D., Naoko Miyagawa, M.D., Ph.D., Aya Kadota, M.D., Ph.D., and Hirotsuga Ueshima, M.D., Ph.D., all of Shiga University of Medical Science in Japan; Abhishek Vishnu, M.D., Ph.D., and Rhobert Evans, Ph.D., both of Pitt Public Health; Takashi Hisamatsu, M.D., Ph.D., of Shiga University of Medical Science and Shimane University in Japan; and Tomonori Okamura, M.D., Ph.D., of Keio University in Japan. This research was funded by National Institutes of Health grant R01 HL68200, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology grants B16790335 and A13307016, and a small grant from Pitt Public Health's Department of Epidemiology. About the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health The University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, founded in 1948 and now one of the top-ranked schools of public health in the United States, conducts research on public health and medical care that improves the lives of millions of people around the world. Pitt Public Health is a leader in devising new methods to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases, HIV/AIDS, cancer and other important public health problems. For more information about Pitt Public Health, visit the school's Web site at http://www. .


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.biosciencetechnology.com

Much of human health hinges on how well the body manufactures and uses energy. For reasons that remain unclear, cells’ ability to produce energy declines with age, prompting scientists to suspect that the steady loss of efficiency in the body’s energy supply chain is a key driver of the aging process. Now, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that supplementing healthy mice with a natural compound called NMN can compensate for this loss of energy production, reducing typical signs of aging such as gradual weight gain, loss of insulin sensitivity and declines in physical activity. The study is published Oct. 27 in the journal Cell Metabolism. “We have shown a way to slow the physiologic decline that we see in aging mice,” said Shin-ichiro Imai, MD, PhD, a professor of developmental biology and of medicine. “This means older mice have metabolism and energy levels resembling that of younger mice. Since human cells rely on this same energy production process, we are hopeful this will translate into a method to help people remain healthier as they age.” Imai is working with researchers conducting a clinical trial to test the safety of NMN in healthy people. The phase 1 trial began earlier this year at Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo. With age, the body loses its capacity to make a key element of energy production called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Past work by Imai and co-senior author Jun Yoshino, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine, has shown that NAD levels decrease in multiple tissues as mice age. Past research also has shown that NAD is not effective when given directly to mice so the researchers sought an indirect method to boost its levels. To do so, they only had to look one step earlier in the NAD supply chain to a compound called NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide). NMN can be given safely to mice and is found naturally in a number of foods, including broccoli, cabbage, cucumber, edamame and avocado. The new study shows that when NMN is dissolved in drinking water and given to mice, it appears in the bloodstream in less than three minutes. Importantly, the researchers also found that NMN in the blood is quickly converted to NAD in multiple tissues. “We wanted to make sure that when we give NMN through drinking water, it actually goes into the blood circulation and into tissues,” Imai said. “Our data show that NMN absorption happens very rapidly.” To determine the long-term effects of giving NMN, Imai, Yoshino and their colleagues studied three groups of healthy male mice fed regular mouse chow diets. Starting at five months of age, one group received a high dose of NMN-supplemented drinking water, another group received a low dose of the NMN drinking water, and a third group served as a control, receiving no NMN. The researchers compared multiple aspects of physiology between the groups, first at 5 months of age and then every three months, until the mice reached 17 months of age. Typical laboratory mice live about two years. The researchers found a variety of beneficial effects of NMN supplementation, including in skeletal muscle, liver function, bone density, eye function, insulin sensitivity, immune function, body weight and physical activity levels. But these benefits were seen exclusively in older mice. “When we give NMN to the young mice, they do not become healthier young mice,” Yoshino said. “NMN supplementation has no effect in the young mice because they are still making plenty of their own NMN. We suspect that the increase in inflammation that happens with aging reduces the body’s ability to make NMN and, by extension, NAD.” In skeletal muscle, the investigators — including the study’s first author, Kathryn Mills, the research supervisor in Imai’s lab — found that NMN administration helps energy metabolism by improving the function of mitochondria, which operate as cellular power plants. They also found that mice given NMN gained less weight with aging even as they consumed more food, likely because their boosted metabolism generated more energy for physical activity. The researchers also found better function of the mouse retina with NMN supplementation, as well as increased tear production, which is often lost with aging. They also found improved insulin sensitivity in the older mice receiving NMN, and this difference remained significant even when they corrected for differences in body weight. In a paper published earlier this year in Cell Reports, Yoshino and his colleagues revealed more details of how NAD works in influencing glucose metabolism and the body’s fat tissue. In that study, the mice had a defect in the ability to manufacture NAD only in the body’s fat tissue. The rest of their tissues and organs were normal. “Even though NAD synthesis was stopped only in the fat tissue, we saw metabolic dysfunction throughout the body, including the skeletal muscle, the heart muscle, the liver and in measures of the blood lipids,” Yoshino said. “When we gave NMN to these mice, these dysfunctions were reversed. That means NAD in adipose tissue is a critical regulator of whole body metabolism.” Added Imai, “This is important because Jun showed that if you mess up NAD synthesis only in fat tissue, you see insulin resistance everywhere. Adipose tissue must be doing something remarkable to control whole body insulin sensitivity.” During the long-term NMN study in healthy mice, Imai also said they monitored the animals for any potential increase in cancer development as a result of NMN administration. “Some tumor cells are known to have a higher capability to synthesize NAD, so we were concerned that giving NMN might increase cancer incidence,” Imai said. “But we have not seen any differences in cancer rates between the groups.” The phase 1 trial in Japan is using NMN manufactured by Oriental Yeast Co., which also provided the NMN used in these mouse studies. Outside of this clinical trial, high-grade NMN for human consumption is not commercially available. But there’s always broccoli.


News Article | October 27, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Much of human health hinges on how well the body manufactures and uses energy. For reasons that remain unclear, cells' ability to produce energy declines with age, prompting scientists to suspect that the steady loss of efficiency in the body's energy supply chain is a key driver of the aging process. Now, scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have shown that supplementing healthy mice with a natural compound called NMN can compensate for this loss of energy production, reducing typical signs of aging such as gradual weight gain, loss of insulin sensitivity and declines in physical activity. The study is published Oct. 27 in the journal Cell Metabolism. "We have shown a way to slow the physiologic decline that we see in aging mice," said Shin-ichiro Imai, MD, PhD, a professor of developmental biology and of medicine. "This means older mice have metabolism and energy levels resembling that of younger mice. Since human cells rely on this same energy production process, we are hopeful this will translate into a method to help people remain healthier as they age." Imai is working with researchers conducting a clinical trial to test the safety of NMN in healthy people. The phase 1 trial began earlier this year at Keio University School of Medicine in Tokyo. With age, the body loses its capacity to make a key element of energy production called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). Past work by Imai and co-senior author Jun Yoshino, MD, PhD, an assistant professor of medicine, has shown that NAD levels decrease in multiple tissues as mice age. Past research also has shown that NAD is not effective when given directly to mice so the researchers sought an indirect method to boost its levels. To do so, they only had to look one step earlier in the NAD supply chain to a compound called NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide). NMN can be given safely to mice and is found naturally in a number of foods, including broccoli, cabbage, cucumber, edamame and avocado. The new study shows that when NMN is dissolved in drinking water and given to mice, it appears in the bloodstream in less than three minutes. Importantly, the researchers also found that NMN in the blood is quickly converted to NAD in multiple tissues. "We wanted to make sure that when we give NMN through drinking water, it actually goes into the blood circulation and into tissues," Imai said. "Our data show that NMN absorption happens very rapidly." To determine the long-term effects of giving NMN, Imai, Yoshino and their colleagues studied three groups of healthy male mice fed regular mouse chow diets. Starting at five months of age, one group received a high dose of NMN-supplemented drinking water, another group received a low dose of the NMN drinking water, and a third group served as a control, receiving no NMN. The researchers compared multiple aspects of physiology between the groups, first at 5 months of age and then every three months, until the mice reached 17 months of age. Typical laboratory mice live about two years. The researchers found a variety of beneficial effects of NMN supplementation, including in skeletal muscle, liver function, bone density, eye function, insulin sensitivity, immune function, body weight and physical activity levels. But these benefits were seen exclusively in older mice. "When we give NMN to the young mice, they do not become healthier young mice," Yoshino said. "NMN supplementation has no effect in the young mice because they are still making plenty of their own NMN. We suspect that the increase in inflammation that happens with aging reduces the body's ability to make NMN and, by extension, NAD." In skeletal muscle, the investigators -- including the study's first author, Kathryn Mills, the research supervisor in Imai's lab -- found that NMN administration helps energy metabolism by improving the function of mitochondria, which operate as cellular power plants. They also found that mice given NMN gained less weight with aging even as they consumed more food, likely because their boosted metabolism generated more energy for physical activity. The researchers also found better function of the mouse retina with NMN supplementation, as well as increased tear production, which is often lost with aging. They also found improved insulin sensitivity in the older mice receiving NMN, and this difference remained significant even when they corrected for differences in body weight. In a paper published earlier this year in Cell Reports, Yoshino and his colleagues revealed more details of how NAD works in influencing glucose metabolism and the body's fat tissue. In that study, the mice had a defect in the ability to manufacture NAD only in the body's fat tissue. The rest of their tissues and organs were normal. "Even though NAD synthesis was stopped only in the fat tissue, we saw metabolic dysfunction throughout the body, including the skeletal muscle, the heart muscle, the liver and in measures of the blood lipids," Yoshino said. "When we gave NMN to these mice, these dysfunctions were reversed. That means NAD in adipose tissue is a critical regulator of whole body metabolism." Added Imai, "This is important because Jun showed that if you mess up NAD synthesis only in fat tissue, you see insulin resistance everywhere. Adipose tissue must be doing something remarkable to control whole body insulin sensitivity." During the long-term NMN study in healthy mice, Imai also said they monitored the animals for any potential increase in cancer development as a result of NMN administration. "Some tumor cells are known to have a higher capability to synthesize NAD, so we were concerned that giving NMN might increase cancer incidence," Imai said. "But we have not seen any differences in cancer rates between the groups." The phase 1 trial in Japan is using NMN manufactured by Oriental Yeast Co., which also provided the NMN used in these mouse studies. Outside of this clinical trial, high-grade NMN for human consumption is not commercially available. But there's always broccoli. Mills KF, Yoshida S, Stein LR, Grozio A, Kubota S, Sasaki Y, Redpath P, Migaud ME, Apte RS, Uchida K, Yoshino J, Imai S. Long-term administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide mitigates age-associated physiological decline in mice. Cell Metabolism. Oct. 27, 2016. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant numbers P30 DK020579 and P30 DK56341; a Research to Prevent Blindness Physician Scientist Award; a Research to Prevent Blindness Unrestricted Grant to the Department of Ophthalmology; the Hope Center for Neurological Disorders at Washington University; the UK Research Councils; and Biotechnology and Biological Science Research Council. This work was conducted under a sponsored research agreement between Washington University and Oriental Yeast Co. Stromsdorfer KL, Yamaguchi S, Yoon MJ, Moseley AC, Franczyk MP, Kelly SC, Qi N, Imai S, Yoshino J. NAMPT-mediated NAD+ biosynthesis in adipocytes regulates adipose tissue function and multi-organ insulin sensitivity in mice. Cell Reports. Aug. 4, 2016. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant numbers DK56341, DK37948, DK20579, DK52574, UL1 TR000450, DK104995, AG024150, AG037457, DK089503, DK020572; a Central Society for Clinical and Translational Research Early Career Development Award; the Longer Life Foundation; and the Sumitomo Life Welfare and Culture Foundation. Imai is a co-founder of Metro Midwest Biotech, whose technology was evaluated in this Cell Reports paper. Washington University School of Medicine's 2,100 employed and volunteer faculty physicians also are the medical staff of Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals. The School of Medicine is one of the leading medical research, teaching and patient-care institutions in the nation, currently ranked sixth in the nation by U.S. News & World Report. Through its affiliations with Barnes-Jewish and St. Louis Children's hospitals, the School of Medicine is linked to BJC HealthCare.


News Article | December 6, 2016
Site: www.businesswire.com

TOKYO--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Zadara™ Storage, the provider of enterprise-class storage-as-a-service (STaaS) today announced that Keio University has selected the Zadara VPSA storage array to provide file services to their over 2,000 member university staff. By working with Zadara’s partner CDC, Keio University is able to upgrade their aging IT infrastructure to address immediate disaster recovery and cost challenges, and also position themselves for future growth. Zadara’s partner CDC, is a leading provider of enterprise storage solutions. With over 30 years of experience, the company focuses on providing industry-leading solutions to solve key customer challenges. By focusing on both short- and long-term requirements, CDC is able to architect solutions that address both immediate challenges, but also provide the scalability and flexibility customers need to enable growth and long-term success. Keio University is located in Minato-ku, Tokyo. Like most higher education institutions, they face demanding storage requirements. At the same time, they must deal with limited budgets, limited resources, as well as peaks and valleys in capacity and performance requirements – depending on whether classes are in session or on break. Keio University also needed to deploy a disaster recovery architecture that would protect them from a variety of unexpected disasters. To address these challenges, Keio turned to Zadara’s partner CDC to architect a solution using industry-leading cloud-based technology that would solve not only their current challenges, but support their capacity, performance and DR needs for many years to come. After considering a variety of storage offerings from industry leaders such as NetApp and Dell, Keio University chose the Zadara VPSA storage array to support their file server applications. By replacing their existing storage in Mita (Tokyo) and Hiyoshi (Kanagawa), Japan with centralized Zadara VPSA storage at the CDC data center, they significantly reduced their capital, operating and maintenance expenses. Keio University selected a hybrid cloud architecture combining on-premise Zadara VPSA storage as well as a DRaaS remote mirror to Zadara VPSA storage at the CDC/Equinix data center in Tokyo. “Our storage challenges were significant. Our prior storage was old and needed to be replaced and we also need to architect a remote mirror solution to protect us from a variety of potential disasters,” said Yasuki Kaneko, chief administrator of IT Center for Keio University. “CDC worked closely with us to leverage the benefits of the Zadara Storage VPSA, and we found it aligned very well with our requirements. We now have a cost-effective hybrid solution that leverages key technologies to securely mirror our data to the CDC data center in Tokyo. We are well protected and have a scalable solution to support future growth.” “We are thrilled to be able to solve Keio University’s storage challenges,” said Dani Naor, vice president, international sales at Zadara Storage. “Higher education has become a very strong market for Zadara Storage given their inconsistent capacity and performance requirements and limited internal resources. The Zadara VPSA solution meets their needs perfectly.” Click to Tweet: .@Keio University selects #Zadara hybrid #CloudStorage to address DR and cost challenges #ZadaraCloud http://bit.ly/KeioSelectsZadara Zadara Storage offers enterprise Storage-as-a-Service (STaaS) through the award-winning Zadara Storage Cloud. It can be deployed at any location (cloud, on-premise or hybrid), supporting any data type (block, file and object) and connecting to any protocol (FC, iSCSI, iSER, NFS, CIFS, S3, Swift). The VPSA™ service provides enterprise SAN and NAS while the ZIOS™ service delivers private object storage. Zadara is available via OPaaS (On-Premise-as-a-Service) and through a variety of partners including Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure and others. Visit www.zadarastorage.com, the Zadara Blog, or on LinkedIn and Twitter.


Led by Marisa Hamamoto, a Professional Dancer Once Paralyzed from the Neck Down ​​​​​​​​​​​Infinite Flow, a nonprofit and America's first professional wheelchair ballroom dance company, performed a massive flash mob at 4:30pm on Sunday November 13, 2016 at the Venice Beach Boardwalk. Approximately 100 dancers of all ages and ethnicities — with half being wheelchair and powerchair users, as well as some who are deaf, blind, and those with intellectual disabilities, members who identify as LGBTQ, and two special needs dogs (a wheelchair dog named Bubbles and a dog with a missing limb) —  came together to celebrate, honor and bring awareness to the importance of inclusion, diversity and accessibility by dancing together in a one-of-a-kind #InfiniteInclusion flash mob. The flash mob opened with all dancers posing for the #MannequinChallenge in silence, and then transitioned to dancing to Justin Timberlake’s “Can’t Stop the Feeling.”  The choreography uniquely fused ballroom dancing, hip-hop, and sign language, letting dancers with and without disabilities dance as equals. Here is the official video of the #InfiniteInclusion flash mob: In the climate of much division and tension following the past week following the election results, the #InfiniteInclusion flash mob sends a powerful and positive message celebrating difference and diversity.  “Though we are all infinitely different, we can unite as one, and practicing inclusion brings infinite possibilities,” says Marisa Hamamoto, Infinite Flow’s Founder & Artistic Director.  “Dancing is a powerful tool of breaking barriers and bringing diverse people together.  Maybe I can get Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton, and President Obama to join us for another #InfiniteInclusion flash mob in the coming weeks.” Infinite Flow Founder & Artistic Director Marisa Hamamoto knows firsthand what it’s like not to be able to walk. In 2006, Marisa suddenly became paralyzed from the neck down during a contemporary dance class. The following day, she was diagnosed with a rare spinal cord disease called spinal cord infarction, and was told by the doctor that she may never walk or dance again. Today she is back on her feet and dancing professionally.  Marisa founded Infinite Flow in March 2015 as a way of giving back her love for dance, with the vision of building a world-class dance company that incorporated dancers with and without disabilities.  During this initial year of building Infinite Flow’s programs, which includes the professional dance troupe, weekly adult wheelchair dance classes, Infinite Flow Kids, and other community outreach, Marisa realized Infinite Flow was more than a dance company, but also a vehicle for social change to mass-market inclusion.  She named this movement #InfiniteInclusion and launched the project with the flash mob that took place on Nov 13. Notable flash mob dancers with disabilities who joined in the project included actress with Down Syndrome Caley Versfelt (Star of A&E “Born this Way”), wheelchair personalities Mia Schaikewitz and Auti Angel (Stars of Sundance Channel “Push Girls”), professional wheelchair body builder Adelfo Cerame Jr., and deaf dance sensation Shaheem.  Two special needs dogs: a wheelchair dog named Bubbles and a dog with a missing limb named Mumra joined in on the celebration as well. The flashmob was directed by Founder Marisa Hamamoto, who also danced in it as well, and the video was shot and edited by Khang Le, a Senior Film student at USC University of Southern California’s School of Cinematic Arts. We ask that people who wish to support our mission follow us on social media, and make a tax-deductible donation at the Generosity crowdfunding campaign that launched on Oct 26: https://www.generosity.com/community-fundraising/create-infinite-possibilities-with-infinite-flow--2 ​All proceeds will be used towards Infinite Flow’s community wheelchair dance classes, community outreach, professional dance troupe development, and other #InfiniteInclusion events and activities, leading a social movement to mass-market inclusion through dance and innovation. Infinite Flow, based in Los Angeles and America’s first professional wheelchair ballroom dance company, is a nonprofit organization founded in Los Angeles in March 2015 with the mission to lead a social movement to mass market inclusion through dance and innovation as a way to stand up for those who are tragically excluded from living up to their full potential as productive, creative individuals. We are dedicated to Since our beginning, we have performed at 40+ events, instructed 150+ wheelchair users through workshops, weekly dance classes, and community outreach, and have been recognized locally and nationally in media outlets such as NBC’s Today Show, NowThis, Refinery29, GOOD Magazine, Mic, Broadway World, Dance Spirit Magazine, ABC Robin Roberts N’Courage Blog, LA Parent Magazine, ABC-7 News, Fox-11 News, and many MORE. Marisa believes we all have a dancer inside of us and we all can make a difference in the world.  Professional Ballroom & Salsa Dancer, Speaker, and the Brain behind Infinite Flow.  After 20 years of dancing ballet and contemporary dance in both the US and Japan, Marisa started ballroom dancing while recovering from Spinal Cord Infarction, a severe neurological disease which laid her paralyzed from the neck down.  She feels blessed to be back on the dance floor again, and is now dancing and teaching professionally full-time. Marisa founded Infinite Flow in January 2015 as a way of giving back her love for dance, and it is her life mission to help find the dancer inside of each person.  Marisa has been featured in various commercials, infomercials, and TV shows, and has performed at hundreds of shows, events, and private parties. Marisa earned both her BA and MA on merit scholarships from Keio University, the “Harvard” of Japan.  While in college, Marisa linked her dancing with her academic studies, and researched and published papers in the fields of Dance Science and Dance Education and served on leadership for the International Association for Dance Medicine and Science for 3 years. She was named Newcomer of the Year at the San Fernando Valley Business Journal Women in Business Awards in 2015.  Marisa has volunteered 30+ hours weekly since January 2015 to get Infinite Flow off the ground.  She is a leader and artist on the rise and has many great plans for the future of Infinite Flow.  "Whether you have two left feet or two left wheels, we all have a dancer inside of us."​


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

MIAMI, FL and TOKYO, JAPAN--(Marketwired - February 13, 2017) - Etrion Corporation ("Etrion" or the "Company") (TSX: ETX) ( : ETX), a solar independent power producer, announced today that Toshihiro Awata has joined the Company as Managing Director for Japan. Mr. Awata held several key senior positions at Hitachi High-Technologies and comes with a wealth of experience of 30 years in power generation and transmission as well as renewable and energy saving in emerging markets. Mr. Awata holds a bachelor's degree in Commercial Law from Keio University and an MBA from Chuo University. Etrion's CEO, Marco A. Northland, commented, "I am very pleased with the appointment of Toshihiro Awata as Managing Director in Japan. He has extensive experience and deep relationships in the energy sector. This hire further demonstrates Etrion's commitment to building a dynamic leading business in Japan. I'm confident that Toshiro will play a key role to further develop our growing portfolio in Japan." Etrion Corporation is an independent power producer that develops, builds, owns and operates utility-scale solar power generation plants. The Company owns 109 MW of installed solar capacity in Chile and Japan. Etrion has 17 MW of solar projects under construction in Japan and is also actively developing additional greenfield solar power projects in Japan. Etrion is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada and the NASDAQ OMX Stockholm Exchange in Sweden under ticker symbol "ETX". Etrion's largest shareholder is the Lundin family, which owns approximately 24% of the Company's shares directly and through various trusts. Note: The capacity of power plants in this release is described in approximate megawatts on a direct current ("DC") basis, also referred to as megawatt-peak ("MWp"). Subscribe to receive Etrion's press releases by email as soon as they are published. Click here to subscribe Etrion discloses the information provided herein pursuant to the Swedish Securities Market Act. The information was submitted for publication at 10:00 a.m. CET on February 13, 2017.


IWAKI, FUKUSHIMA, Japan, Nov. 16, 2016 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- HealtheeOne Inc. is incorporated in Iwaki-city, Fukushima, Japan, and aims to develop and deliver, in and out of Japan, products and services in the TMT (Technology, Media & Telecommunications) and Healthcare combined fields. The company announces today that this Fukushima TMT x Healthcare startup received a subsidy from the Iwaki-city municipal government in Fukushima, and that, as a seed round, HealtheeOne has raised US$0.8 million by issuing shares to business partners and by receiving a subordinated loan from Japan Finance Corporation, a national government-backed financial institution. HealtheeOne currently has around 20 team members in and out of Japan, and is developing a brand-new business assistance service for clinics, targeted to be released and announced by the end of 2016. The company intends to use this US$0.8M in funds to enhance and accelerate team development for product engineering, sales & marketing, and customer services. About HealtheeOne The value proposition of HealtheeOne is to enable local communities to enjoy access to proper and compassionate healthcare. Our core technologies, together with our operations and services, for instance, can contribute to reducing the stress and burden of daily paperwork for front-line care workers and can also assist operators to increase patients’ and family members’ satisfaction. We intend to release the first product by the end of 2016. Also, as a startup founded in Fukushima, HealtheeOne tries to play a key role for the area’s industrial revitalization and development in the TMT and healthcare fields. “I am truly pleased to see the new start-up, HealtheeOne, reducing the daily burden for busy front-line healthcare workers and, as a result, contributing great value to the entire care cycle for patients and their families. I am sure that, based in Iwaki, Fukushima, HealtheeOne will develop innovative medical care models in the near future.” — Yuji Yamamoto Founder & CEO at MinaCare Co., Ltd. Researcher at Sony Computer Science Laboratories, Inc.; MD, Ph.D. from University of Tokyo MBA from Harvard Business School “HealtheeOne is one of the most promising entrepreneurial ventures Iwaki-city Municipal Government proactively supports. We greatly expect that HealtheeOne’s projects and businesses will lead to solving social issues Iwaki-city faces such as its fast-aging population and the quite low number of medical doctors and nurses per capita, and that this visionary and socially-conscious start-up will develop and grow rapidly from Iwaki.” — Hiroshi Arakawa Director General at Industry Development Dept., Iwaki-city Municipal Government in Fukushima, Japan, on loan from Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan “Japan Finance Corporation decided to support HealtheeOne by providing a subordinated loan to this startup whose projects practically advance solutions to medical care problems in aging societies and accelerate industry development in the bay area of Fukushima, which have been affected by the tsunami and by the accident at the nuclear power plant in 2011. We are looking forward to HealtheeOne’s further growth.” — Makoto Ito Chief, Tohoku Business Start-up Support Center, at Japan Finance Corporation “We are pleased to announce this successful US$0.8M Seed Round from our business partners. Healthcare is necessary and should be always accessible for everyone, which I had felt as a family member of a terminal home care patient in 2009. However, in order to secure accessibility and a certain level of care services, front-line care workers must devote themselves around-the-clock. We believe that our technology, service and intelligence will minimize non-core activities of care/medical workers and maximize the satisfaction of patients and their family members. Furthermore, as a TMT x Healthcare startup in Iwaki-city of Fukushima, about a 2-hour train ride from Tokyo, we are aiming to be a role model, choosing Fukushima for the incorporation place instead of Delaware.” — Masakazu Koyanagi Founder & CEO at HealtheeOne Inc. Born in Fukushima in 1976, “Koya” has developed his professional career in TMT industries as a corporate entrepreneur at Itochu Corporation in Tokyo, as Director of Product, Risk & Insurance Management at Asurion Japan K.K., a company for mobile phone insurance services and as a founding member and the Vice President of Corporate Development at Midokura, a network virtualization software startup in Switzerland. He’s also engaged in non-profit organizations as a founding member of Paris team at Greenbird, a Japanese NPO for clean activities in towns and streets. His passion to devote himself to the healthcare field comes from his personal experiences of Tokyo-Fukushima roundtrips every weekend in 2009 in order for his father’s terminal care at home in Iwaki-city, Fukushima. Koya received Bachelor of Engineering (Electrical Engineering) from Keio University, Japan and holds MBA from HEC Paris School of Management, France.


News Article | October 26, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Mathematical analysis has led researchers in Japan to a formula that can describe the movement of DNA inside living human cells. Using these calculations, researchers may be able to reveal the 3D architecture of the human genome. In the future, these results may allow scientists to understand in detail how DNA is organized and accessed by essential cellular machinery. Previous techniques of studying the genome's architecture have relied on methods that require killing the cells. This research project, involving collaborators at multiple institutes in Japan, used alternative molecular and cell biology techniques to keep the cells alive and collect data about the natural movement of DNA. DNA is often envisaged as a stable and static code, but the genome as a whole is actually an active molecule that moves around and changes shape. Currently, scientists can sequence the entire basic code of DNA, but knowing the larger-scale 3D architecture of the genome would reveal more information about how cells use the code. While the cell is growing, DNA is stored as an unraveled spool of string; certain portions (euchromatin) are more loosely wound, and therefore accessible to the cellular machinery that turns DNA into protein, than other areas that are kept tightly wound (heterochromatin). When the cell prepares to split in half during cell division, it packages all of the chromatin into tightly-wound, X-shaped chromosomes. "Our calculations consider the fractal dimensions of the DNA, which shows how densely the DNA is packed inside the cell. The way the DNA is packed may indicate how the cell uses certain genes," said Soya Shinkai, PhD, Assistant Professor at Hiroshima University and first author of the research paper. Along the "string" of chromatin are regularly-spaced, barrel-shaped "beads" of DNA-protein complexes called nucleosomes. Researchers tracked nucleosomes' movement around the cell to understand where and how chromatin is stored. Researchers labeled the nucleosomes with fluorescent tags and took microscopy images during the growth phase of human cells. They then used theories of polymer physics to quantify the movement of the nucleosomes. "Every second, a 10 nanometer-sized nucleosome can move 100 nanometers. The constant, subtle random forces within the cell make the chromatin move around so much," said Shinkai. Before a cell can use a gene, the DNA must be completely unwound. Areas of chromatin containing frequently used genes are less tightly wrapped than areas of chromatin with infrequently used genes. A model to visualize how chromatin is packed within the cell could allow researchers to understand which genes are accessed most or least often and how the genome is physically organized. "Our calculations are relevant to local chromatin structures, but this method could also be extended to whole chromosomes. These mathematical formulas are a theory for how to interpret the visual data from microscope images of DNA moving within the cell," said Yuichi Togashi, PhD, Associate Professor at Hiroshima University and last author of the research paper. Future research projects will include finding new microscopy and DNA labeling techniques to visually track the movement of individual nucleosomes over longer periods time. The four researchers who published the recent paper are experts in theoretical and computational biophysics, structural biology, cell biology, and molecular biology. The results come from a research project made possible by an interdisciplinary team of scientists associated with the Research Center for the Mathematics on Chromatin Live Dynamics at Hiroshima University. Other collaborators for the project include the National Institute of Genetics (Japan), Keio University, and Sokendai Graduate University for Advanced Studies. Find more Hiroshima University news on our Facebook page: http://www. Information about the RcMcD is available in both English and Japanese at: http://www.


Takamura E.,Tokyo Women's Medical University | Tsubota K.,Keio University | Watanabe H.,Kansai Rosai Hospital | Ohashi Y.,Ehime University
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2012

Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution with those of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution in dry eye patients, using mean changes in fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores as endpoints. Trial design and methods: In this multicenter, randomised, double-masked, parallel study of 286 dry eye patients with fluorescein and rose bengal staining scores of ≥3 were randomised to the treatment groups in a 1:1 ratio. Efficacy and safety were evaluated after drop-wise instillation of the study drug, six times daily for 4 weeks. Results: After 4 weeks, the intergroup difference in the mean change from baseline in fluorescein staining score was -0.03; this verified the non-inferiority of diquafosol. The mean change from baseline in rose bengal staining score was significantly lower in the diquafosol group (p=0.010), thus verifying its superiority. The incidence of adverse events was 26.4% and 18.9% in the diquafosol and sodium hyaluronate groups, respectively, with no significant difference. Conclusions: Diquafosol (3%) and sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) exhibit similar efficacy in improving fluorescein staining scores of dry eye patients, whereas, diquafosol exhibits superior efficacy in improving rose bengal staining scores. Diquafosol has high clinical efficacy and is well tolerated with a good safety profile.


Katsumata N.,Nippon Medical School | Yasuda M.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Isonishi S.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Takahashi F.,Kitasato University | And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2013

Background: The primary analysis of the JGOG 3016 trial showed that a dose-dense paclitaxel and carboplatin regimen significantly improves progression-free and overall survival compared with the conventional regimen as first-line chemotherapy for patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or primary peritoneal cancer. We report the long-term follow-up results for survival. Methods: This randomised controlled trial was done at 85 centres in Japan. Patients with stage II-IV ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment (carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] 6 mg/mL per min and paclitaxel 180 mg/m2 on day 1) or dose-dense treatment (carboplatin AUC 6 mg/mL per min on day 1 and paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15). The treatments were repeated every 3 weeks for six cycles; responding patients had three additional cycles. The randomisation was done centrally by telephone or fax, stratified by residual disease, stage, and histological type. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival; overall survival was a secondary endpoint. Long-term information on adverse events was not collected. Efficacy analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00226915. Findings: 637 patients were enrolled, of whom 631 were analysed (312 assigned to the dose-dense regimen, 319 to the conventional regimen). Median follow-up was 76·8 months (IQR 68·9-85·6). Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the dose-dense treatment group than in the conventional treatment group (28·2 months [95% CI 22·3-33·8] vs 17·5 months [15·7-21·7]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·76, 95% CI 0·62-0·91; p=0·0037). Median overall survival was 100·5 months (95% CI 65·2-∞) in the dose-dense treatment group and 62·2 months (52·1-82·6) in the conventional treatment group (HR 0·79, 95% CI 0·63-0·99; p=0·039). Interpretation: Dose-dense treatment offers better survival than conventional treatment and is a potential new standard of care for first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Funding: Japanese Gynecologic Oncology Group, Bristol-Myers Squibb. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Amagai M.,Keio University | Stanley J.R.,University of Pennsylvania
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

Much of the original research on desmosomes and their biochemical components was through analysis of skin and mucous membranes. The identification of desmogleins 1 and 3, desmosomal adhesion glycoproteins, as targets in pemphigus, a fatal autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes, provided the first link between desmosomes, desmogleins, and human diseases. The clinical and histological similarities of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome or bullous impetigo and pemphigus foliaceus led us to identify desmoglein 1 as the proteolytic target of staphylococcal exfoliative toxins. Genetic analysis of striate palmoplantar keratoderma and hypotrichosis identified their responsible genes as desmogleins 1 and 4, respectively. More recently, these fundamental findings in cutaneous biology were extended beyond the skin. Desmoglein 2, which is expressed earliest among the four isoforms of desmoglein in development and found in all desmosome-bearing epithelial cells, was found to be mutated in arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and has also been identified as a receptor for a subset of adenoviruses that cause respiratory and urinary tract infections. The story of desmoglein research illuminates how dermatological research, originally focused on one skin disease, pemphigus, has contributed to understanding the biology and pathophysiology of many seemingly unrelated tissues and diseases. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Kanazawa H.,Keio University | Okano T.,Tokyo Women's Medical University
Journal of Chromatography A | Year: 2011

Temperature-responsive chromatography for the separation of biomolecules utilizing poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and its copolymer-modified stationary phase is performed with an aqueous mobile phase without using organic solvent. The surface properties and function of the stationary phase are controlled by external temperature changes without changing the mobile-phase composition. This analytical system is based on nonspecific adsorption by the reversible transition of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic PNIPAAm-grafted surface. The driving force for retention is hydrophobic interaction between the solute molecules and the hydrophobized polymer chains on the stationary phase surface. The separation of the biomolecules, such as nucleotides and proteins was achieved by a dual temperature- and pH-responsive chromatography system. The electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions could be modulated simultaneously with the temperature in an aqueous mobile phase, thus the separation system would have potential applications in the separation of biomolecules. Additionally, chromatographic matrices prepared by a surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) exhibit a strong interaction with analytes, because the polymerization procedure forms a densely packed polymer, called a polymer brush, on the surfaces. The copolymer brush grafted surfaces prepared by ATRP was an effective tool for separating basic biomolecules by modulating the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Applications of thermally responsive columns for the separations of biomolecules are reviewed here. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Yukawa M.,Keio University | Sung Y.,KAIST | Lee G.,KAIST
IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing | Year: 2013

In this paper, a novel adaptive beamforming algorithm is proposed under a linearly and quadratically constrained minimum variance (LQCMV) beamforming framework, based on a dual-domain projection approach that can efficiently implement a quadratic-inequality constraint with a possibly rank-deficient positive semi-definite matrix, and the properties of the proposed algorithm are analyzed. As an application, relaxed zero-forcing (RZF) beamforming is presented which adopts a specific quadratic constraint that bounds the power of residual interference in the beamformer output with the aid of interference-channel side-information available typically in wireless multiple-access systems. The dual-domain projection in this case plays a role in guiding the adaptive algorithm towards a better direction to minimize the interference and noise, leading to considerably faster convergence. The robustness issue against channel mismatch and ill-posedness is also addressed. Numerical examples show that the efficient use of interference side-information brings considerable gains. © 1991-2012 IEEE.


Gaillard P.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1 | Saito Y.,Keio University | Pierre-Louis O.,University Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

The imbibition of a solid island on a substrate with a square array of pillars is studied by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. Imbibition is found to occur via an intermediate state where an island sits on the film. Two dynamical regimes are identified depending on the geometry of the substrate: a stochastic regime, where the dynamics are controlled by the nucleation-limited motion of the imbibition front across the array of pillars, and a deterministic regime limited by the diffusion of atoms on top of the imbibition film. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Matano M.,Keio University | Date S.,Keio University | Date S.,Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory Inc. | Shimokawa M.,Keio University | And 7 more authors.
Nature Medicine | Year: 2015

Human colorectal tumors bear recurrent mutations in genes encoding proteins operative in the WNT, MAPK, TGF-β, TP53 and PI3K pathways. Although these pathways influence intestinal stem cell niche signaling, the extent to which mutations in these pathways contribute to human colorectal carcinogenesis remains unclear. Here we use the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing system to introduce multiple such mutations into organoids derived from normal human intestinal epithelium. By modulating the culture conditions to mimic that of the intestinal niche, we selected isogenic organoids harboring mutations in the tumor suppressor genes APC, SMAD4 and TP53, and in the oncogenes KRAS and/or PIK3CA. Organoids engineered to express all five mutations grew independently of niche factors in vitro, and they formed tumors after implantation under the kidney subcapsule in mice. Although they formed micrometastases containing dormant tumor-initiating cells after injection into the spleen of mice, they failed to colonize in the liver. In contrast, engineered organoids derived from chromosome-instable human adenomas formed macrometastatic colonies. These results suggest that 'driver' pathway mutations enable stem cell maintenance in the hostile tumor microenvironment, but that additional molecular lesions are required for invasive behavior. © 2015 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Takano M.,National Defense Medical College | Tsuda H.,Keio University | Sugiyama T.,Iwate Medical University
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2012

Abstract. Several clinical trials to establish standard treatment modality for ovarian cancers included a high abundance of patients with serous histologic tumors, which were quite sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy. On the other hand, ovarian tumor with rare histologic subtypes such as clear cell or mucinous tumors have been recognized to show chemo-resistant phenotype, leading to poorer prognosis. Especially, clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (CCC) is a distinctive tumor, deriving from endometriosis or clear cell adenofibroma, and response rate to platinum-based therapy is extremely low. It was implied that complete surgical staging enabled us to distinguish a high risk group of recurrence in CCC patients whose disease was confined to the ovary (pT1M0); however, complete surgical staging procedures could not lead to improved survival. Moreover, the status of peritoneal cytology was recognized as an independent prognostic factor in early-staged CCC patients, even after complete surgical staging. In advanced cases with CCC, the patients with no residual tumor had significantly better survival than those with the tumor less than 1cm or those with tumor diameter more than 1cm. Therefore, the importance of achieving no macroscopic residual disease at primary surgery is so important compared with other histologic subtypes. On the other hand, many studies have shown that conventional platinum-based chemotherapy regimens yielded a poorer prognosis in patients with CCC than in patients with serous subtypes. The response rate by paclitaxel plus carboplatin (TC) was slightly higher, ranging from 22% to 56%, which was not satisfactory enough. Another regimen for CCC tumors is now being explored: irinotecan plus cisplatin, and molecular targeting agents. In this review article, we discuss the surgical issues for early-staged and advanced CCC including possibility of fertility-sparing surgery, and the chemotherapy for CCC disease. © 2012 Takano et al.; Licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Arakawa T.,Alliance Protein Laboratories | Kita Y.,Keio University
Current Protein and Peptide Science | Year: 2014

Arginine is widely used in such applications as protein refolding, solubilization of proteins and small molecules, protein and small molecule formulation, column chromatography and viral inactivation as summarized in this review. What makes arginine effective in these applications is largely based on its ability to suppress protein-protein interactions and protein-surface interactions. The mechanism of these widespread effects of arginine on proteins can be explained at least in part from its unique interactions with the protein surface. Here we describe the modes of the interactions of arginine with model compounds and proteins and also water molecules, and then attempt to explain the mechanism of its effect on proteins by comparing with the interactions that occur between protein and protein denaturants or stabilizers. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.


Patent
Japanese Foundation For Cancer Research, Shimadzu Corporation, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine and Keio University | Date: 2012-04-27

Provided is a technique for using an optical microscope image of an area on a sample to collect area-specific information characterizing each kind of biological tissue from imaging mass analysis data. On an optical image of a two-dimensional target area on a sample, a difference is examined in the kind of tissue or other features and areas are specified, each regarded as the same kind of tissue. When data processing is initiated, peak information is extracted, for each specified area, from mass spectrum data of all the measurement points. A peak method is applied to each area to extract peak information. Then, when a command to compare a set of areas is given, the peak information of those areas is collected. By comparing the peak information of different areas by a machine learning algorithm or similar judging technique, area-specific peak information is obtained, and this information is stored in memory.


Patent
Aisin Seiki, FEAC International Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2011-01-14

Transmission of transmission packets from communication terminals (20) is executed with a probability based on the total number of communication terminals (20) present within a communication area (NA). It is thus possible to determine when to transmit with simple computation, and promptly transmit information. Since when to transmit can be determined with simple computation, when to transmit can promptly be determined according to continuously changing traffic conditions and the throughput of the communication system can be maintained at a high level when the communication terminals (20) are mounted on vehicles.


Patent
Keio University and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2014-04-04

After a sample such as a biomedical tissue section is attached to an electrically-conductive slide glass (S1), the film layer of a matrix substance is appropriately formed by vapor deposition so as to cover the sample (S2). The crystal of the matrix substance in the film layer is very fine and uniform. Subsequently, the slide glass on which the matrix film layer is formed is placed in a vaporized solvent atmosphere, and the solvent infiltrates into the matrix film layer (S3). When the solvent sufficiently infiltrated is vaporized, a substance to be measured in the sample takes in the matrix and re-crystallized. Furthermore, the matrix film layer is formed again on the surface by the vapor deposition (S4). The added matrix film layer absorbs excessive energy of a laser beam during MALDI, which suppresses the denaturation of the substance to be measured and the like, so that high detection sensitivity can be achieved while high spatial resolution is maintained.


Patent
Aisin Seiki, Keio University and Feac International Corporation | Date: 2012-11-21

Transmission of transmission packets from communication terminals (20) is executed with a probability based on the total number of communication terminals (20) present within a communication area (NA). It is thus possible to determine when to transmit with simple computation, and promptly transmit information. Since when to transmit can be determined with simple computation, when to transmit can promptly be determined according to continuously changing traffic conditions and the throughput of the communication system can be maintained at a high level when the communication terminals (20) are mounted on vehicles.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2016-01-20

After a sample such as a biomedical tissue section is attached to an electrically-conductive slide glass (S1), the film layer of a matrix substance is appropriately formed by vapor deposition so as to cover the sample (S2). The crystal of the matrix substance in the film layer is very fine and uniform. Subsequently, the slide glass on which the matrix film layer is formed is placed in a vaporized solvent atmosphere, and the solvent infiltrates into the matrix film layer (S3). When the solvent sufficiently infiltrated is vaporized, a substance to be measured in the sample takes in the matrix and re-crystallized. Furthermore, the matrix film layer is formed again on the surface by the vapor deposition (S4). The added matrix film layer absorbs excessive energy of a laser beam during MALDI, which suppresses the denaturation of the substance to be measured and the like, so that high detection sensitivity can be achieved while high spatial resolution is maintained.


In a research paper in ACS Omega, Jian Wang, Eri Ayano, Yoshie Maitani, and Hideko Kanazawa of Keio University in Japan report the synthesis of the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N'-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)) and analyzed liposomes modified with this polymer. They found that their polymer undergoes dehydration at around 40oC and that temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes had faster cellular uptake and release compared to nonmodified liposomes. Researchers have been interested in finding ways to modify liposomes, hollow spheres comprised of phospholipid bilayers, so that they can be a more effective drug delivery system. One way is to modify the surface of liposomes with polymers that respond to certain environmental stimuli, such as temperature. A key factor in liposomes modified with temperature-dependent polymers is the temperature at which its solubility profile changes, known as the lower critical solution temperature (LCST). Below this temperature, the polymers are soluble in an aqueous solution, while above this temperature they become hydrophobic. This causes the polymer to become dehydrated and to aggregate. This behavior guides the release of a drug within a polymer-modified liposome. In this study Wang et al. synthesized the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)). NIPAAm is temperature responsive and DMAPAAm is hydrophilic. They then evaluated the LCST of this polymer by looking at the transition of PNIPAAm from a coil configuration to a globular shape after it is dehydrated using differential scanning calorimetry and transmittance curves. They found that the copolymer's LCST was about 40oC. They then tested this polymer as a modification to the surface of a liposome, DOTAP/DOPE, and compared this to PEGylated liposomes. After optimizing for stability, they studied colloidal stability by looking at particle size in a suspension. They found that as temperature increased, the particle size remained constant until about 39oC. Above 40oC, the particle size increased started forming aggregates. Studies with carboxyfluorescein (CF) encased in the liposome showed that CF was released once aggregates started to form. Specifically, above 37oC 15% of CF was released in thirty minutes. Then, near the LCST, more CF was released and at 42oC 80% of CF had been released. Wang et al. then studied changes in the fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT) on the surface of the polymer-modified liposome and compared it to PEGylated liposomes. These results showed that as the temperature increased, the aqueous layer decreased in size only in the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes, but not in the PEGylated liposomes. Importantly, the aqueous layer's thickness decreased at the LCST. The next step was to see if the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes displayed good cellular uptake. Wang et al. noted that cellular uptake of the polymer-modified liposomes was much more temperature dependent than the PEGylated liposome controls. Fluorescence microscopy showed that CF-entrapped liposomes (rhodamine labeled) in RAW264.7 and HeLa cells released CF in the cells, while cells treated with free CF and liposomes without CF did exhibit the same level of fluorescence within the temperature range. At 40oC, CF fluorescence appeared throughout the cytosol verifying that the polymer-modified liposomes are temperature dependent in terms of cellular uptake and delivery. The actual mechanism of cellular uptake was analyzed using HeLa cells. The cells were incubated for one hour at 37oC with or without several types of endocytic inhibitors. The cells were then treated with temperature-responsive polymer modified liposomes at either 4oC or 40oC for 30 minutes. Cellular uptake did not occur at 4oC indicating that uptake is an energy-dependent process. Additionally, based on the results from the inhibitors, cellular uptake occurred via microtubule-dependent transport and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, although additional studies will need to be done to gain further insight into the uptake mechanism. This research makes headway in the area of drug delivery via liposomes modified with stimuli-responsive polymers. The polymers reported here respond to temperatures that are higher than body temperature but still within physiological range. They likely dehydrate at LCST, leading to good cellular uptake and controlled drug release. More information: Jian Wang et al. Tunable Surface Properties of Temperature-Responsive Polymer-Modified Liposomes Induce Faster Cellular Uptake, ACS Omega (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.6b00342 Abstract Drug delivery by nanoparticle carriers has been limited by inefficient intracellular drug delivery. Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-modified liposomes can release their content following heating. In this study, we synthesized the temperature-responsive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-N,N′-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide (P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm)) and investigated the properties of liposomes modified with P(NIPAAm-co-DMAPAAm) for intracellular drug carriers. The copolymer displayed a thermosensitive transition at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) that is higher than body temperature. Above the LCST, the temperature-responsive liposomes started to aggregate and release. The liposomes showed a fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT) at the surface below the LCST, and the FALT decreased with increasing temperature. Above 37 °C, cytosolic release from the temperature-responsive liposomes was higher than that from the PEGylated liposomes, indicating intracellular uptake. Here, we showed that the tunable surface properties of the temperature-responsive polymer-modified liposomes possibly enabled their dehydration by heating, which likely induced a faster cellular uptake and release. Therefore, the liposomes could be highly applicable for improving intracellular drug-delivery carriers.


Fukushima K.,Keio University | Su N.,Bielefeld University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We evaluate the thermodynamic quantities of Yang-Mills theory using the Gribov quantization, which deals with nonperturbative resummation. The magnetic scale is automatically incorporated into the framework and we find it efficient to stabilize the perturbative expansion of the free energy. In the temperature range T=Tc∼2Tc the major uncertainty in our results comes from the nonperturbative running coupling that is adopted from the lattice simulation, while the convergence above 2Tc is impressively robust. We also present the corresponding interaction measure (i.e., trace anomaly) up to close to Tc. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Kuwahara T.,University of Tokyo | Kuwahara T.,Tohoku University | Mori T.,University of Tokyo | Saito K.,Keio University
Annals of Physics | Year: 2016

This work explores a fundamental dynamical structure for a wide range of many-body quantum systems under periodic driving. Generically, in the thermodynamic limit, such systems are known to heat up to infinite temperature states in the long-time limit irrespective of dynamical details, which kills all the specific properties of the system. In the present study, instead of considering infinitely long-time scale, we aim to provide a general framework to understand the long but finite time behavior, namely the transient dynamics. In our analysis, we focus on the Floquet-Magnus (FM) expansion that gives a formal expression of the effective Hamiltonian on the system. Although in general the full series expansion is not convergent in the thermodynamics limit, we give a clear relationship between the FM expansion and the transient dynamics. More precisely, we rigorously show that a truncated version of the FM expansion accurately describes the exact dynamics for a certain time-scale. Our theory reveals an experimental time-scale for which non-trivial dynamical phenomena can be reliably observed. We discuss several dynamical phenomena, such as the effect of small integrability breaking, efficient numerical simulation of periodically driven systems, dynamical localization and thermalization. Especially on thermalization, we discuss a generic scenario on the prethermalization phenomenon in periodically driven systems. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


Higaki T.,Keio University | Jeong K.S.,Pusan National University | Kitajima N.,Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics | Takahashi F.,Tohoku University | Takahashi F.,University of Tokyo
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2016

We argue that the QCD axion can arise from many aligned axions with decay constants much smaller than the conventional axion window. If the typical decay constant is of O(100) GeV to 1 TeV, one or more of the axions or saxions may account for the recently found diphoton excess at ~750 GeV. Our scenario predicts many axions and saxions coupled to gluons with decay constants of order the weak scale, and therefore many collider signatures by heavy axions and saxions will show up at different energy scales. In particular, if the inferred broad decay width is due to multiple axions or saxions, a non-trivial peak structure may become evident when more data is collected. We also discuss cosmological implications of the aligned QCD axion scenario. In the Appendix we give a possible UV completion and argue that the high quality of the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is naturally explained in our scenario. © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.


Mori T.,University of Tokyo | Kuwahara T.,University of Tokyo | Kuwahara T.,Tohoku University | Saito K.,Keio University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

We discuss the universal nature of relaxation in isolated many-body quantum systems subjected to global and strong periodic driving. Our rigorous Floquet analysis shows that the energy of the system remains almost constant up to an exponentially long time in frequency for arbitrary initial states and that an effective Hamiltonian obtained by a truncation of the Floquet-Magnus expansion is a quasiconserved quantity in a long time scale. These two general properties lead to an intriguing classification on the initial stage of relaxation, one of which is similar to the prethermalization phenomenon in nearly integrable systems. © 2016 American Physical Society.


Ando K.,Tohoku University | Ando K.,Keio University | Watanabe S.,University of Cambridge | Mooser S.,University of Cambridge | And 4 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2013

Conjugated polymers and small organic molecules are enabling new, flexible, large-area, low-cost optoelectronic devices, such as organic light-emitting diodes, transistors and solar cells. Owing to their exceptionally long spin lifetimes, these carbon-based materials could also have an important impact on spintronics, where carrier spins play a key role in transmitting, processing and storing information. However, to exploit this potential, a method for direct conversion of spin information into an electric signal is indispensable. Here we show that a pure spin current can be produced in a solution-processed conducting polymer by pumping spins through a ferromagnetic resonance in an adjacent magnetic insulator, and that this generates an electric voltage across the polymer film. We demonstrate that the experimental characteristics of the generated voltage are consistent with it being generated through an inverse spin Hall effect in the conducting polymer. In contrast with inorganic materials, the conducting polymer exhibits coexistence of high spin-current to charge-current conversion efficiency and long spin lifetimes. Our discovery opens a route for a new generation of molecular-structure-engineered spintronic devices, which could lead to important advances in plastic spintronics. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Marumoto T.,Medical Institute of Bioregulation | Saya H.,Keio University
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2012

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of glioma. Despite ceaseless efforts by researchers and physicians to find new therapeutic strategies, there have been no significant advances in the treatment of GBMs for several decades and most patients with GBM die within one and half years of diagnosis. Undoubtedly, one reason for this is the insufficient understanding of the initiation and progression of GBMs at the molecular level. However, recent information regarding the genetic and epigenetic alterations and the microRNAs that are aberrantly activated or inactivated in GBMs has helped elucidate the formation of GBM in more detail. Here, we describe recent advances in the understanding of the biology of GBMs. © 2012 Landes Bioscience and Springer Science+Business Media.


Objective: To evaluate the impact of the policy to encourage nursing homes to provide end-of-life care by comparing facility and resident variables associated with dying within the nursing home and not in hospitals, and by comparing life sustaining treatment (LST) respectively provided. Method: Questionnaires mailed to an 11% random sample of 653 nursing homes in 2009. Facility characteristics from 371 nursing homes (57%) and resident characteristics of the 1158 who had been discharged due to death were obtained from 241 facilities (37%). Results: Facility characteristics related to dying in nursing homes were their policy of providing end-of-life care and physicians being based in home care supporting clinics. Resident characteristics related were not having pneumonia as the cause of death, the family's preference of the nursing home as the site of death and agreement within the family. Preferences on the use of LST were adhered more in residents who had died in nursing homes. Conclusion: Although the percentage of residents dying within the facility has increased, the nursing home as a site of death still composes only 3.2% of the total. To increase the latter, nursing homes should refocus their function to providing end-of-life care to those not preferring aggressive treatment. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.


Mayer U.,Bielefeld University | Watanabe S.,Keio University | Bischof H.-J.,Bielefeld University
Journal of Physiology Paris | Year: 2013

The aim of the present review is to show that spatial learning and memory is not a specialty of just a few avian species, and to describe the role of the avian hippocampus in spatial learning, memory and orientation. Based on our own research in zebra finches, we try to give an (not complete and probably biased) overview of this topic, and we also discuss the question of functional equivalence of hippocampus in birds and in mammals in that we question how far theories developed for mammalian hippocampus can also be applied to the avian hippocampal formation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Kobayashi K.,Keio University | Hoshi M.,Chiba University
Frontiers in Zoology | Year: 2011

Background: The mechanisms underlying the switching from an asexual to a sexual mode of reproduction, and vice versa, remain unknown in metazoans. In planarians, asexual worms acquire cryptic sexuality when fed with sexual worms, indicating that sexual worms contain a sex-inducing substance. Although such a chemical compound will provide clues about the mechanisms underlying the switching, information on the sex-inducing substance is poor. In order to identify this substance, we have established an assay system for sexual induction in asexual worms of Dugesia ryukyuensis by feeding them with sexual worms. Here, we carried out an isolation study on the sex-inducing substance using this assay system.Results: After centrifugation of sexual worms homogenised in saline solution, we found that not only did the precipitate have a sex-inducing effect on the asexual worms, which has been shown previously, but the cytosolic fraction did as well. We confirmed that the sex-inducing activity in the cytosolic fraction was recovered in a hydrophilic fraction separated on an octadecylsilane (ODS) column. We showed that the sex-inducing substance in the hydrophilic fraction is papain-resistant and a putative low-molecular-weight compound of less than 500. We also suggest the presence of an enhancer of sexual induction with a molecular weight (MW) of more than 5 K in the hydrophilic fraction.Conclusion: Our experiments showed the existence of a sex-inducing substance and an enhancer of sex-induction in a hydrophilic fraction, and a putative hydrophobic sex-inducing substance in the precipitate. Sexual induction in the asexual worms might be triggered by additive or synergistic effects of these chemical compounds. © 2011 Kobayashi and Hoshi; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Seki T.,Tohoku University | Utsumiya K.,Tohoku University | Nozaki Y.,Keio University | Imamura H.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Takanashi K.,Tohoku University
Nature Communications | Year: 2013

Recent rapid progress in spintronic and magnetic storage nanodevices has required nanomagnets to balance competing goals for high coercive field and low switching field. However, a decisive route for highly efficient magnetization switching has not been established yet. Here we propose a novel switching method using a spin wave of magnetic structures twisted in a nanometre scale. We have experimentally demonstrated extremely low field-magnetization switching in a highly coercive FePt by using a spin wave excited in a soft magnetic permalloy (Ni81Fe19), where permalloy is exchange-coupled to FePt through the interface. We can tune the switching field by varying the magnitude and frequency of the radio frequency magnetic field, and a significant decrease in switching field by one order of magnitude is achieved under the optimum conditions. The spin wave-assisted magnetization switching is a promising technique for ultralow-energy magnetization manipulation. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


De Benedetto A.,University of Rochester | Kubo A.,Keio University | Beck L.A.,University of Rochester
Journal of Investigative Dermatology | Year: 2012

For at least half a century, noninvasive techniques have been available to quantify skin barrier function, and these have shown that a number of human skin conditions and disorders are associated with defects in skin permeability. In the past decade, several genes responsible for skin barrier defects observed in both monogenetic and complex polygenic disorders have been elucidated and functionally characterized. This has led to an explosion of work in the past 6 years that has identified pathways connecting epidermal barrier disruption and antigen uptake, as well as the quality and/or magnitude of the antigen-specific adaptive immune response. This review will introduce the notion that diseases arise from the dynamic crosstalk that occurs between skin barrier and the immune system using atopic dermatitis or eczema as the disease prototype. Nevertheless, the concepts put forth are highly relevant to a number of antigen-driven disorders for which skin barrier is at least transiently compromised, such as psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, and blistering disorders. © 2012 The Society for Investigative Dermatology.


Fukuda K.,Keio University | Kanazawa H.,Keio University | Aizawa Y.,Keio University | Ardell J.L.,University of California at Los Angeles | Shivkumar K.,University of California at Los Angeles
Circulation Research | Year: 2015

Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy, and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem, and higher centers), which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes to hours), and long term (days to years). This important neurovisceral/autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death. Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extracardiac neural remodeling has also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provide a rational mechanistic basis for the development of neuraxial therapies for preventing sudden cardiac death and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.


Zhang Z.,CAS Changchun Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics and Physics | Zhang Z.,Tohoku University | Peng H.,Tohoku University | Yan J.,Keio University
International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture | Year: 2013

To fabricate three-dimensional microstructures, such as micro dimples, micro grooves and micro channels, on ceramic mold materials, tool fabrication with super hard materials is an essential step. In this work, micro electro discharge machining (EDM) was used to fabricate high-precision polycrystalline diamond end mills. Form accuracy and edge sharpness in one micron level were achieved by utilizing electro discharge induced graphitization of diamond grains under extremely low discharge energy conditions. The cutting performance of the fabricated tools was examined by machining micro dimples and micro grooves on tungsten carbide mold substrates. Results showed that using the EDMfabricated tools, ductile mode machining of tungsten carbide was realized with a surface finish of 2 nm Ra, which is comparable to that produced by polishing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Fukushima K.,Keio University | Pawlowski J.M.,University of Heidelberg
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

We analyze chiral symmetry breaking in quark matter in an external magnetic field at zero and finite temperature and quark chemical potential. We first give a brief overview of analytic results within the mean-field approximation. There the critical temperature for chiral restoration is increased by the magnetic field effect. Then we investigate the effects of matter and quantum fluctuations on the magnetic catalysis. More specifically, we compute the critical value of the four-Fermi coupling constant as a function of the magnetic field and the temperature for zero and finite quark chemical potential in the presence of quantum fluctuations. As soon as a nonzero temperature and/or density is turned on, long-range correlations are screened and the critical coupling is no longer vanishing. We extend our dynamical results beyond the leading-order bubble resummation, which results in a nonlocal four-Fermi coupling. This includes in-medium meson effects on the more quantitative level. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Patent
Dnavec Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2011-04-15

An object of the present invention is to provide methods for producing iPS cells with low invasivity and high efficiency. The iPS cells can be produced with high efficiency using a method comprising the steps of culturing mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood for 3 to 14 days in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody, and subjecting the cultured mononuclear cells to dedifferentiation.


Patent
Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. and Keio University | Date: 2015-10-28

This invention provides a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for dry eye, having new ingredients to reduce the deterioration of the lacrimal secretory ability and to inhibit the generation of radical oxygen in lacrimal gland tissue. The prophylactic and therapeutic agent for dry eye of this invention contains the maqui berry extract as the active substance of this invention, i.e. containing delphinidin glycoside extracted from the maqui berry and at least one or more of the active substances delphinidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-glucoside, preferably delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside.


Patent
Murata Manufacturing Co. and Keio University | Date: 2012-09-26

An autonomous mobile body is configured to flexibly avoid obstacles. The mobile body has a movement mechanism configured to translate in a horizontal plane and rotate around a vertical axis, and the distance to an obstacle is derived for each directional angle using an obstacle sensor. A translational potential of the mobile body and a rotational potential of the mobile body for avoiding interference with the obstacle are generated, based on the distance from the autonomous mobile body to the obstacle at each directional angle. An amount of control relating to a translational direction and a translational velocity of the mobile body and an amount of control relating to a rotational direction and an angular velocity of the mobile body are generated based on the generated potentials, and the movement mechanism is driven.


Patent
Keio University and Murata Manufacturing Co. | Date: 2010-11-10

An autonomous mobile body is configured to flexibly avoid obstacles. The mobile body has a movement mechanism configured to translate in a horizontal plane and rotate around a vertical axis, and the distance to an obstacle is derived for each directional angle using an obstacle sensor. A translational potential of the mobile body and a rotational potential of the mobile body for avoiding interference with the obstacle are generated, based on the distance from the autonomous mobile body to the obstacle at each directional angle. An amount of control relating to a translational direction and a translational velocity of the mobile body and an amount of control relating to a rotational direction and an angular velocity of the mobile body are generated based on the generated potentials, and the movement mechanism is driven.


Patent
Keio University and Dnavec Corporation | Date: 2013-02-20

An object of the present invention is to provide methods for producing iPS cells with low invasivity and high efficiency. The iPS cells can be produced with high efficiency using a method comprising the steps of culturing mononuclear cells derived from peripheral blood for 3 to 14 days in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody, and subjecting the cultured mononuclear cells to dedifferentiation.


Patent
Oryza Oil & Fat Chemical Co. and Keio University | Date: 2013-12-17

This invention provides a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for dry eye, having new ingredients to reduce the deterioration of the lacrimal secretory ability and to inhibit the generation of radical oxygen in lacrimal gland tissue. The prophylactic and therapeutic agent for dry eye of this invention contains the maqui berry extract as the active substance of this invention, i.e. containing delphinidin glycoside extracted from the maqui berry and at least one or more of the active substances delphinidin-3-sambubioside-5-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside, delphinidin-3-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-glucoside, preferably delphinidin-3,5-diglucoside.


Patent
Murata Manufacturing Co. and Keio University | Date: 2012-09-26

An autonomous mobile body is configured to smoothly avoid obstacles. The mobile body has a movement mechanism configured to translate in a horizontal plane and rotate around a vertical axis, and the distance to an obstacle is derived for each directional angle using an obstacle sensor. Using a model having two arcs, one at each end in a major axis direction, connected by line segments that lie in the major axis direction and containing the autonomous mobile body, the movement mechanism is driven with a combination of translation and rotation, without interference between the obstacle and the model.


Patent
Keio University and Murata Manufacturing Co. | Date: 2010-11-10

An autonomous mobile body is configured to smoothly avoid obstacles. The mobile body has a movement mechanism configured to translate in a horizontal plane and rotate around a vertical axis, and the distance to an obstacle is derived for each directional angle using an obstacle sensor. Using a model having two arcs, one at each end in a major axis direction, connected by line segments that lie in the major axis direction and containing the autonomous mobile body, the movement mechanism is driven with a combination of translation and rotation, without interference between the obstacle and the model.


Patent
Keio University and Tohoku University | Date: 2010-09-03

An object of the present invention is to provide a method for accurately determining even a renal disease that could not have been detected by various conventional renal disease test methods with a reduced burden on a subject (a donor of a test sample). Another object of the present invention is to provide a method capable of determining an early stage renal disease, focusing on a renal disease marker substance with a small blind GFR area. Further, another object of the present invention is to provide a novel method for screening for a prophylactic/therapeutic agent for a renal disease capable of efficiently screening for a novel prophylactic/therapeutic agent for a renal disease that focused on a new, previously unnoticed renal disease marker substance. In order to achieve these objects, the present invention employs the step of detecting or quantifying one or two or more renal disease marker substances present in a test blood sample.


While the amount of plastic we recycle has grown significantly over the past couple of decades, we’re still throwing far too many plastic bottles in the trash where they will end up as landfill waste. But what if there were a way to dissolve these bottles naturally even after they’d been dumped into a landfill? A newly discovered plastic-eating bacteria has the promise to do just that, although we’re still a long way from knowing just how effective it would be if deployed on a large scale. FROM EARLIER: Galaxy S7 tricks that make the world’s best Android phone even better An article published in Science this week discusses Japanese researchers’ discovery of Ideonella sakaiensis, a species of bacteria that is capable of breaking down polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which accounts for an estimated one-sixth of global plastic production. The researchers say that when cultivated on the plastic, the bacteria “produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET.” These enzymes are crucial for converting the plastic into tow more environmentally friendly components,  terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol. This all sounds great but the researchers have also found that it takes the bacteria six weeks to break down low-quality PET and significantly longer to break down higher quality PET. Nonetheless, one researcher told The Guardian that studying the bacteria further could lead to discovering ways to accelerate the degradation process. “It’s difficult to break down highly crystallised PET,” explained Professor Kenji Miyamoto from Keio University, an author of the study. “Our research results are just the initiation for the application. We have to work on so many issues needed for various applications. It takes a long time.” Another question is whether this kind of bacteria has always been able to break down tightly bonded materials such as PET or whether it has evolved to do so over a remarkably short period of time. These kinds of plastics have been in existence for less than a century, which means that the bacteria’s adaptation to the material would have occurred at a very rapid clip. More from BGR: Huge sale on Nexus 5X and Nexus 6P offers prices starting at just $299 This article was originally published on BGR.com


News Article | December 14, 2015
Site: boingboing.net

The pigeons that could discriminate between a Monet and a Picasso In The Guardian, psychologist Tom "Mind Hacks" Stafford outlines five classic scientific studies that underpin much of today's thinking about how we learn things. One of Stafford's favorites is BF Skinner's 1930s claims that "with the right practice conditions – meaning that correct behaviour is appropriately rewarded – any task can be learned using simple associations." In 1995, Keio University researchers took Skinner's efforts further by training pigeons to discriminate between paintings by Monet and Picasso. Like (Skinner), they believed that we underestimate the power of practice and reward in shaping behaviour. After just a few weeks’ training, their pigeons could not only tell a Picasso from a Monet – indicated by pecks on a designated button – but could generalise their learning to discriminate cubist from impressionist works in general. For a behaviourist, the moral is that even complex learning is supported by fundamental principles of association, practice and reward. It also shows that you can train a pigeon to tell a Renoir from a Matisse, but that doesn’t mean it knows a lot about art. "The science of learning: five classic studies" (The Guardian) And here's a PDF of the 1995 paper: "Pigeons' Discrimination of Paintings by Monet and Picasso"


News Article | April 26, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: A thermoelectric (TE) device*1 using cutting edge thermoelectric conversion technology has been created by a team comprising NEC Corporation, NEC TOKIN Corporation and Tohoku University. The new technology, known as the spin Seebeck effect *2, has conversion efficiency 10 times higher than the conventional method *3. Thermoelectric conversion technology that converts energy abandoned as waste heat back to electric power could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Although conventional spin Seebeck thermoelectric devices have the advantage of low manufacturing costs and high versatility and durability, their energy conversion efficiency is inferior. "We have improved the conversion efficiency of this spin Seebeck thermoelectric device by more than 10 times because of its newly developed material and device structure," says Soichi Tsumura, General Manager, IoT Device Research Laboratories, NEC Corporation. "Furthermore, devices made of flexible material, such as resin, have been achieved using a manufacturing process that does not require high-temperature heat treatment." "The conversion efficiency of this new spin thermoelectric device has been improved by almost one million times when compared to the earliest device, and has taken an important step towards practical use as a generator element. The achievement of practical use as a heat flux sensor is also in sight," says Tsumura. The three parties aim to further the research and development of technologies to generate electricity from the large amount of waste heat emitted by things such as plants, data centers and vehicles. These results were achieved as part of the "Saitoh Spin Quantum Rectification Project" led by Tohoku University Professor Eiji Saitoh. It is funded by the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) program of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). ### Footnotes: *1 The Spin Seebeck effect is a thermoelectric effect discovered in 2008 by Prof. Eiji Saitoh and Associate Prof. Ken-ichi Uchida of Tohoku University (Keio University at that time). This is a phenomenon in which a temperature gradient applied in a magnetic material produces a spin current along the temperature gradient. The spin current is a flow of a magnetic property of an electron, so-called "spin". *2 A thermoelectric device is a device which converts thermal energy directly into electricity and vice versa. *3 Compared with a test module that was produced based on a multi-layered SSE technology published by the Tohoku University group in 2015. *4 The anomalous Nernst effect is a thermoelectric effect discovered about 100 years ago, which relates to the magnetic property of a conductive material. *5 References are as follows, A. Kirihara et. al., Nature Materials 11, (2012) 686. M. Ishida, NEC Technical Journal 66(1), (2013). R. Ramos et. al., Phys. Rev. B 92, (2015) 220407(R) Publication Details: Authors: Title: "Flexible heat-flow sensing sheets based on the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect using one dimensional spin-current conducting films" Journal: Scientific Reports 6, 23114, DOI: 10.1038/srep23114 For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


« Continental showcases car tires and engine mounts with rubber made from dandelion roots; targeting series production in 5-10 years | Main | Hyundai Motor and Cisco collaborate for global connected car project » NEC Corporation, NEC TOKIN Corporation and TOHOKU UNIVERSITY have jointly created a thermoelectric (TE) device using the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) with conversion efficiency 10 times higher than a test module that was produced based on a multi-layered SSE technology published by the Tohoku University group in 2015. The spin-Seebeck effect is a thermoelectric effect discovered in 2008 by Prof. Eiji Saitoh and Associate Prof. Ken-ichi Uchida of Tohoku University (Keio University at that time). This is a phenomenon in which a temperature gradient applied in a magnetic material produces a spin current along the temperature gradient. The spin current is a flow of a magnetic property of an electron. Thermoelectric conversion technology that converts energy abandoned as waste heat back to electric power is strongly anticipated to be used for saving energy and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although conventional spin-Seebeck thermoelectric devices have the advantages of a low manufacturing cost and high versatility and durability, their energy conversion efficiency is inferior. We have improved the conversion efficiency of this spin-Seebeck thermoelectric device by more than 10 times because of its newly developed material and device structure. Furthermore, devices made of flexible material, such as resin, have been achieved using a manufacturing process that does not require high-temperature heat treatment. The conversion efficiency of this new spin thermoelectric device has been improved by almost one million times when compared to the earliest device, and has taken an important step towards practical use as a generator element. The achievement of practical use as a heat flux sensor is also in sight. In the future, the three parties participating in this development aim to further the research and development of technologies to generate electricity from the large amount of waste heat emitted by plants, data centers, vehicles and others. Key features of this new technology are: Development of a low-cost, high-performance ferromagnetic alloy and significant improvement in thermoelectric conversion efficiency. Conventionally, expensive platinum was used as the electrode material to extract electric power in a spin-Seebeck thermoelectric device. This time, new cobalt alloys were developed to replace the platinum. As a result, the cost was significantly reduced. Furthermore, the combination of the thermoelectric effect termed the Anomalous Nernst Effect(ANE), appearing due to the ferromagnetic properties added to the cobalt alloys and the spin Seebeck effect, have improved the thermoelectric conversion efficiency by more than 10 times. The Anomalous Nernst Effect is a thermoelectric effect discovered about 100 years ago, which relates to the magnetic property of a conductive material. Devices with bending resistance and low heat treatment temperature achieved by new deposition technology. New deposition technology fabricates a fine ferrite film for spin-Seebeck thermoelectric devices at 90 ˚C, much lower than the 700 ˚C used with the conventional method. Owing to the decrease in heat treatment temperature, elements can be created on the surface of plastic film, etc., and flexible devices of various shapes are created. This achievement was published in an open access paper in Scientific Reports. These results were achieved as part of the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) “SAITOH Spin Quantum Rectification Project” (Research Director: Eiji Saitoh, Professor of Tohoku University; Research Period: 2014 - 2020 fiscal year) of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST).


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: phys.org

'Mutant morning glories' illustrated in Ukiyoe (wood-block printing from the Edo period), by Utagawa Hiroshige II (Reprinted from the National Diet Library Digital Collections) Credit: The National Diet Library Digital Collections Researchers in Japan have successfully decoded the entire Japanese morning glory genome. Japanese morning glories (Ipomoea nil) are traditional garden plants that are popular in Japan. You can see the flower in many Japanese gardens in the summer. Further, mutants are known to frequently appear in morning glories due to the actions of "jumping genes", called transposons. From the Edo period (about 200 years ago), morning glories with strange shaped flowers and leaves have been bred and appreciated, and this has developed into a unique gardening culture in Japan. Because of the popularity of these "mutant morning glories", a lot of natural mutants have been collected. In modern times, by analyzing these mutants in detail, researchers have found a number of genes that determine flower and leaf shapes as well as flower colors and patterns. The research group has deciphered the entire genome of the Japanese morning glory standard line. One of the research leaders, Professor Yasubumi Sakakibara of Keio University, who was in charge of assembly and bioinformatics analysis of the genome in the present study said that "A high-quality nearly complete genome sequence was obtained, leading to identification of the coding sequences of the approximately forty three thousand morning glory genes, as well as the number and distribution of the transposons which produce the stunning variety of morning glory colors and shapes." The research group used the entire genome sequence to characterize the mutants showing dwarfism with dark-green, thick and wrinkled leaves. They identified a gene for plant hormone biosynthesis that is disrupted by the transposons in the mutants. Kyushu University Lecturer Eiji Nitasaka, stock manager of the National BioResourse Project (NBRP) Morning Glory, said "With the decoding of the genome the value of using Japanese morning glory as a model organism has increased dramatically. I hope Japanese morning glories and their mutants will be used by many researchers around the world." One of the leaders of this study, Assistant Professor Atsushi Hoshino of the National Institute for Basic Biology, said, "The genome sequence of the Japanese morning glory will not only aid in understanding of the morning glory itself, it will also be utilized in research of closely related crops such as sweet potatoes." The research has been published in Nature Communications. The variety of Japanese morning glory colors and shapes. Credit: Kyushu University More information: Atsushi Hoshino et al, Genome sequence and analysis of the Japanese morning glory Ipomoea nil, Nature Communications (2016). DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13295


Koo B.-K.,Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research | Stange D.E.,Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research | Sato T.,Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research | Sato T.,Keio University | And 5 more authors.
Nature Methods | Year: 2012

The study of gene function in endodermal epithelia such as of stomach, small intestine and colon relies heavily on transgenic approaches. Establishing such animal models is laborious, expensive and time-consuming. We present here a method based on Cre recombinaseinducible retrovirus vectors that allows the conditional manipulation of gene expression in primary mouse organoid culture systems. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Cipriani M.,University of Pisa | Cipriani M.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We study the effects of the internal coherent (Rabi) coupling in vortex lattices in two-component BECs under rotation. We find how the vortex lattices without the Rabi coupling known before are connected to the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices with increasing the Rabi coupling. We find that (1) for small Rabi couplings, fractional vortices in a triangular or square lattice for small or large intercomponent coupling constitute hexamers or tetramers, namely multidimer bound states made of six or four vortices, respectively, (2) these bound states are broken into a set of dimers at intermediate Rabi couplings, and (3) vortices change their partners in various ways depending on the intercomponent coupling, to organize themselves for constituting the Abrikosov lattice of integer vortices at strong Rabi couplings. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Hariharan N.,Rutgers University | Maejima Y.,Rutgers University | Nakae J.,Keio University | Paik J.,Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science | And 2 more authors.
Circulation Research | Year: 2010

Rationale: Autophagy, a bulk degradation process of cytosolic proteins and organelles, is protective during nutrient starvation in cardiomyocytes (CMs). However, the underlying signaling mechanism mediating autophagy is not well understood. Objective: We investigated the role of FoxOs and its posttranslational modification in mediating starvation-induced autophagy. Methods and results: Glucose deprivation (GD) increased autophagic flux in cultured CMs, as evidenced by increased mRFP-GFP-LC3 puncta and decreases in p62, which was accompanied by upregulation of Sirt1 and FoxO1. Overexpression of either Sirt1 or FoxO1 was sufficient for inducing autophagic flux, whereas both Sirt1 and FoxO1 were required for GD-induced autophagy. GD increased deacetylation of FoxO1, and Sirt1 was required for GD-induced deacetylation of FoxO1. Overexpression of FoxO1(3A/LXXAA), which cannot interact with Sirt1, or p300, a histone acetylase, increased acetylation of FoxO1 and inhibited GD-induced autophagy. FoxO1 increased expression of Rab7, a small GTP-binding protein that mediates late autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which was both necessary and sufficient for mediating FoxO1-induced increases in autophagic flux. Although cardiac function was maintained in control mice after 48 hours of food starvation, it was significantly deteriorated in mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of FoxO1(3A/LXXAA), those with cardiac-specific homozygous deletion of FoxO1 (c-FoxO1), and beclin1 mice, in which autophagy is significantly inhibited. Conclusions: These results suggest that Sirt1-mediated deacetylation of FoxO1 and upregulation of Rab7 play an important role in mediating starvation-induced increases in autophagic flux, which in turn plays an essential role in maintaining left ventricular function during starvation. © 2010 American Heart Association, Inc.


Takeuchi H.,Hiroshima University | Kasamatsu K.,Kinki University | Tsubota M.,Osaka City University | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2012

We show theoretically that a domain-wall annihilation in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates causes tachyon condensation accompanied by spontaneous symmetry breaking in a two-dimensional subspace. Three-dimensional vortex formation from domain-wall annihilations is considered a kink formation in subspace. Numerical experiments reveal that the subspatial dynamics obey the dynamic scaling law of phase-ordering kinetics. This model is experimentally feasible and provides insights into how the extra dimensions influence subspatial phase transition in higher-dimensional space. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Suzuki A.,Keio University | Suzuki A.,MItsubishi Electric | Ohnishi K.,Keio University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2013

Time delay in bilateral control system seriously deteriorates performance and stability. Acceleration-based bilateral control(ABC) is hybrid of position and force control in the acceleration dimension based on a disturbance observer. It can be divided into two modal spaces: common and differential modal spaces. The sum of master force and slave force is controlled to be zero in common modal space to realize the law of action-reaction. The difference of master position and slave position is controlled to be zero in differential modal space for position tracking. This paper analyzes the stability of each modal space under time delay. Based on modal space analysis, this paper proposes a novel frequency-domain damping design using high-pass filter for ABC. The validity of the proposed control system is confirmed by some experimental results. © 2012 IEEE.


Nitta M.,Keio University | Kasamatsu K.,Kinki University | Tsubota M.,Osaka City University | Takeuchi H.,Hiroshima University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We study a mechanism to create a vorton or three-dimensional skyrmion in phase-separated two-component BECs with the order parameters Ψ 1 and Ψ 2 of the two condensates. We consider a pair of a domain wall (brane) and an antidomain wall (antibrane) stretched by vortices (strings), where the Ψ 2 component with a vortex winding is sandwiched by two domains of the Ψ 1 component. The vortons appear when the domain wall pair annihilates. Experimentally, this can be realized by preparing the phase separation in the order Ψ 1, Ψ 2, and Ψ 1 components, where the nodal plane of a dark soliton in Ψ 1 component is filled with the Ψ 2 component with vorticity. By selectively removing the filling Ψ 2 component gradually with a resonant laser beam, the collision of the brane and antibrane can be made, creating vortons. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Carlini A.,University of Piemonte Orientale | Carlini A.,National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy | Koike T.,Keio University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

We provide exact analytical solutions for the problem of time-optimal transfer of coherence from one spin-polarization to a threefold coherence in a trilinear Ising chain with a fixed energy available and subject to local controls with a non-negligible time cost. The time of transfer is optimal and consistent with a previous numerical result obtained assuming instantaneous local controls. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Kantartzis K.,University of Birmingham | Imai M.,Keio University | Kita S.,University of Birmingham
Cognitive Science | Year: 2011

Sound-symbolism is the nonarbitrary link between the sound and meaning of a word. Japanese-speaking children performed better in a verb generalization task when they were taught novel sound-symbolic verbs, created based on existing Japanese sound-symbolic words, than novel nonsound-symbolic verbs (Imai, Kita, Nagumo, & Okada, 2008). A question remained as to whether the Japanese children had picked up regularities in the Japanese sound-symbolic lexicon or were sensitive to universal sound-symbolism. The present study aimed to provide support for the latter. In a verb generalization task, English-speaking 3-year-olds were taught novel sound-symbolic verbs, created based on Japanese sound-symbolism, or novel nonsound-symbolic verbs. English-speaking children performed better with the sound-symbolic verbs, just like Japanese-speaking children. We concluded that children are sensitive to universal sound-symbolism and can utilize it in word learning and generalization, regardless of their native language. © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.


Kawauchi T.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Kawauchi T.,Keio University | Shikanai M.,Keio University | Kosodo Y.,Kawasaki Medical School
Genes to Cells | Year: 2013

In developing brains, neural progenitors exhibit cell cycle-dependent nuclear movement within the ventricular zone [interkinetic nuclear migration (INM)] and actively proliferate to produce daughter progenitors and/or neurons, whereas newly generated neurons exit from the cell cycle and begin pial surface-directed migration and maturation. Dysregulation of the balance between the proliferation and the cell cycle exit in neural progenitors is one of the major causes of microcephaly (small brain). Recent studies indicate that cell cycle machinery influences not only the proliferation but also INM in neural progenitors. Furthermore, several cell cycle-related proteins, including p27kip1, p57kip2, Cdk5, and Rb, regulate the migration of neurons in the postmitotic state, suggesting that the growth arrest confers dual functions on cell cycle regulators. Consistently, several types of microcephaly occur in conjunction with neuronal migration disorders, such as periventricular heterotopia and lissencephaly. However, cell cycle re-entry by disturbance of growth arrest in mature neurons is thought to trigger neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease. In this review, we introduce the cell cycle protein-mediated regulation of two types of nuclear movement, INM and neuronal migration, during cerebral cortical development, and discuss the roles of growth arrest in cortical development and neurological disorders. © 2013 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.


Patent
Keio University and Meiji University | Date: 2010-05-19

An object of the present invention is to provide an antibacterial medical equipment which has sufficient antibacterial activity in vivo and is excellent in compatibility with living tissues, and also can maintain antibacterial activity over a long period and has high safety. An antibacterial medical equipment characterized in that inositol phosphate is bonded to a Ca compound of a medical equipment whose surface is at least coated with a layer of the Ca compound, or a medical equipment comprising the Ca compound. The antibacterial medical equipment as described above, wherein silver ions are bonded to the inositol phosphate. A method for producing an antibacterial medical equipment, which comprises bringing a medical equipment whose surface is at least coated with a layer of a Ca compound, or a medical equipment comprising a Ca compound into contact with an aqueous solution of inositol phosphate to obtain an antibacterial medical equipment in which inositol phosphate is bonded to the Ca compound. The method for producing an antibacterial medical equipment, wherein inositol phosphate is bonded to the Ca compound and then the Ca compound is brought into contact with an aqueous solution containing silver ions to obtain an antibacterial medical equipment in which silver ions are bonded to the inositol phosphate.


Patent
Nissha Printing Co. and Keio University | Date: 2011-06-23

The present invention has as an object to simplify the implant work in a series of the process from the separation of target cells by dielectrophresis to the cell cultivation and to realize a cell accumulation method that prevents bacteria contamination by bacteria. Method to achieve the objects The cell accumulation device includes the accumulation and cultivation vessel having a first electrode unit 16, an aggregation of the plural number of individual electrodes, allocated on the first substrate and a second electrode unit 17 allocated on the second substrate. The cell accumulation method has 1) a microbead trapping process, wherein microbeads 2 having biocompatibility are sent to the accumulation and cultivation vessel and AC voltage is applied to the first electrode unit and the second electrode unit to trap the microbeads on the individual electrodes and 2) a cell collection process, wherein after the microbead trapping process cellular suspension is sent into the inside of the vessel 101 of the accumulation and cultivation vessel 1 and AC voltage is applied to the first electrode unit and the second electrode unit to collect active cells 41 on said trapped microbeads.


Patent
Toyo Boseki Kabushiki Kaisha and Keio University | Date: 2010-05-11

The present invention provides a liquid crystal display method capable of when a screen thereof is observed through a polarizer such as sunglasses, ensuring an excellent visibility regardless of the angle of observation. In a liquid crystal display device at least having a backlight light source, a liquid crystal cell, and a polarizer disposed on a viewing side of the liquid crystal cell, a white light-emitting diode is used as the backlight light source; and a polymer film having a retardation of from 3,000 nm to 30,000 nm is used so as to be disposed on the viewing side of the polarizer so that an angle between an absorption axis of the polarizer and a slow axis of the polymer film becomes about 45 degrees.


Patent
Keio University, Dai Nippon Printing, Nitto Denko Corporation and Nitto Jushi Kogyo Co. | Date: 2014-12-24

A liquid crystal display apparatus of the present invention includes: a liquid crystal display panel including a liquid crystal cell between a first polarizing plate and a second polarizing plate; and a surface light source device for illuminating the liquid crystal display panel. The surface light source device includes: a light source unit; a light guide plate for outputting first directivity light having directivity of maximum intensity in a first direction, which forms a predetermined angle from a normal direction of the light output surface in a plane approximately parallel to a light guiding direction of light, and having a high ratio of a polarized light component oscillating in the plane; and a prism sheet being configured to convert the first directivity light into second directivity light directed in a second direction within a predetermined angle from the normal direction of the light output surface of the light guide plate while substantially maintaining a polarization state of the first directivity light.


Patent
Keio University, Nitto Denko Corporation, Dai Nippon Printing and Nitto Jushi Kogyo Co. | Date: 2014-12-24

A liquid crystal display apparatus of the present invention includes: a liquid crystal display panel including a liquid crystal cell between a first polarizing plate and a second polarizing plate; and a surface light source device for illuminating the liquid crystal display panel from the back surface side. The surface light source device includes: a light source unit; and a light guide plate for causing light from the light source unit to enter from a light incident surface opposed to the light source unit, and for output ting polarized light from a light output surface opposed to the liquid crystal display panel, the polarized light having directivity of maximum intensity in a direction that forms a predetermined angle from a normal direction of the light output surface in a plane approximately parallel to a light guiding direction of the light. In the polarized light output from the light guide plate, when the normal direction of the light output surface is defined to be at a polar angle of 90, and the light guiding direction of the light guide plate is defined to be a direction of an azimuth angle of 0-180, a ratio La/Lt of integrated intensity La of output light in ranges where the polar angle is 50 to 80 and the azimuth angle is 135 to 225, 0 to 45, and 315 to 360 to integrated intensity Lt of total output light is 0.3 or more.


Patent
Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha, Kyoto University and Keio University | Date: 2011-12-21

A storage system (300) comprising a semiconductor storage device (100) and a data reading device (300). The semiconductor storage device includes a substrate (102) and a plurality of storage cells (120) sealed in a film (120). Each of the storage cells includes a non-volatile storage unit, an electric power generation unit (50) for receiving energy in a non-contact fashion, and a transmitting unit (80) for transmitting the stored data by radio. The data reading device includes an energy supply unit (20) for supplying energy to the semiconductor storage device, a plurality of receiving units positioned at locations corresponding to the plurality of storage cells respectively, a data row assigned to each of the non-volatile storage units according to the address thereof, and a circuit for outputting, as a series of data row, the data respectively received in parallel by said plurality of receiving units.


Patent
Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha, Kyoto University and Keio University | Date: 2010-06-23

A pn junction type solar cell is formed in a predetermined region on a substrate (102) made of glass. Light emitted from a light emitting unit reaches an n-type semiconductor layer (124) after it passed through substrate (102). The solar cell generates electromotive force corresponding to a quantity of the emitted light. A control circuit (60), a mask ROM (70), a transmitting circuit (80) and an antenna (90) are formed on an upper side of the solar cell. A surface of a semiconductor storage device (100) is entirely covered with an insulating film (150) to block entry of outside air. The insulating film (150) is typically formed of physicochemically stable glass or silicon dioxide.


Patent
Keio University, Nitto Denko Corporation, Dai Nippon Printing and Nitto Jushi Kogyo Co. | Date: 2013-02-14

A liquid crystal display apparatus comprises: a liquid crystal display panel including a liquid crystal cell between a first polarizing plate and a second polarizing plate; and a surface light source device having a light source unit and a light guide plate. In a polarized light output from the light guide plate, when the normal direction of a light output surface is defined to be at a polar angle of 90, and the light guiding direction of the light guide plate is defined to be a direction of an azimuth angle of 0-180, a ratio La/Lt of integrated intensity La of output light in ranges where the polar angle is 50 to 80 and the azimuth angle is 135 to 225, 0 to 45, and 315 to 360 to integrated intensity Lt of total output light is 0.3 or more.


Patent
Keio University, Dai Nippon Printing, Nitto Denko Corporation and Nitto Jushi Kogyo Co. | Date: 2013-02-14

A liquid crystal display apparatus includes a liquid crystal display panel including a liquid crystal cell between first second polarizing plates; and a surface light source device. The surface light source device includes a light source unit, a light guide plate for outputting first directivity light having directivity of maximum intensity in a first direction, which forms a predetermined angle from a normal direction of the light output surface in a plane approximately parallel to a light guiding direction of light, and having a high ratio of a polarized light component oscillating in the plane and a prism sheet being configured to convert the first directivity light into second directivity light directed in a second direction within a predetermined angle from the normal direction of the light output surface of the light guide plate while substantially maintaining a polarization state of the first directivity light.


News Article | November 6, 2016
Site: www.techtimes.com

A Japanese designer has developed a unique but wildly accurate world map, which merges the design of a globe and that of a classical map. The complex project enables a 2D map to be converted into a 3D graphical representation so precise it can actually be folded into a globe without distorting land masses. Mapping the world has always been a work at the expense of accuracy. For a map to be designed on paper, the south and north had to be stretched in order to get a correct representation of the parallels. By flattening the representation of the Earth, cartographers managed to distort the representation of the world as we see it. From Antarctica being a lot smaller than its bi-dimensional version, to China being no bigger than the United States (including both Hawaii and Alaska), very few details remained proportionally accurate. Hajime Narukawa at Keio University's Graduate School of Media and Governance in Tokyo showed the world, through his project, that mapping something shouldn't be about sacrifice and simple mathematical shapes, but about showing accuracy in the final representation. This is what the AuthaGraph map design, which can be folded into a 3D masterpiece, does. The project has a number of products on which the new map, in various forms, can be printed. It can be delivered either as a poster depicting the world from different angles, or an image that can be folded into a globe. The AuthaGraph map maintains the correct proportions of land masses no matter which form it takes. The novelty of the map consists of the fact that it shrinks the distance between Russia and Alaska, depicting Antarctica in an accurate manner, and it does so without compromising any other fact as part of the representation. Because of the ingenuity of his project the student was awarded Japan's Good Design Award in October, outclassing all the other 1,000-plus submissions through the most basic design principle - accuracy. The AuthaGraph can be divided into smaller bits, from spheres to cones. Everything is designed by dividing the sphere equally using the geodesic dome theory. There is an extra-large version of the map available on the product's website, as well as composite poster made by arranging 40 AuthaGrpahic maps in such a way that users can view different points of the Earth from various perspectives. "It shows there are no 'four corners of the Earth' by arranging several world maps without visible seams around a world map with color. You can see Antarctica at the right bottom is close to not only South America but also Africa and Australia," states the website description of the project. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.


In an initiative aiming to accelerate the use of productivity data by stakeholders across the Asia-Pacific region, the Asian Productivity Organization (APO) announced the online debut of the Asian Economic Productivity Map (AEPM) for National Productivity Organizations (NPOs), public and private policymakers, planners, and other user groups. The AEPM tool can be accessed at http://www.apo-tokyo.org/wedo/measurement/aepm/. The AEPM, a comprehensive online resource on 70 productivity and economic indicators, offers a user-friendly web interface with free access to productivity-related data, covering 30 Asian economies and benchmarks from multiple economic groups across the world including ASEAN, South Asia, the Gulf Cooperation Council, EU 15, and USA. Emphasizing on the strategic role that this online initiative can play in an increasingly digitized economic landscape, APO Secretary-General Santhi Kanoktanaporn said, "The need for a digital resource such as the AEPM has long been felt by productivity stakeholders across the region. The power of the AEPM lies in its simplicity and clarity of presentation, which make it a highly effective tool and reference point for governments and NPOs for their varied productivity benchmarking requirements." The AEPM is one of the tangible outcomes of the APO Productivity Databook and Database research project, which is an ongoing effort of the APO in collaboration with Keio Economic Observatory, Keio University, led by Professor Dr. Koji Nomura and assisted by a team of researchers. Elaborating upon the effectiveness of the AEPM resource as well as the Productivity Databook, Professor Nomura commented, "With the meticulous research work through the continuing partnership between the APO and Keio, we were able to harmonize and compile 40-year timeline data. Therefore the AEPM is being released as a new on-line tool for illustrating the productivity data offered by the APO. Baseline indicators on productivity and economic performance are calculated for 30 Asian economies, representing the 20 APO member economies and 10 nonmember economies in Asia, as well as for reference countries." "Based on the growth accounting framework, the sources of economic growth in each economy are further decomposed into factor inputs of labor and capital and total factor productivity (TFP) for 20 Asian economies, along with the US as a reference economy. I hope that the TFP data help the stakeholders analyze the potential for economic growth, showing room for further acceleration of sustainable economic growth to be realized through innovation and technological advances," Dr. Nomura continued. The 40-year timeline assures users that they can rely on the trends and analyses with a high degree of accuracy. Baseline indicators on economic growth and productivity are calculated for 30 Asian economies, representing the 20 APO member economies (APO20) and 10 nonmember economies in Asia. Based on the growth accounting framework, the sources of economic growth in each economy are further decomposed into factor inputs of labor and capital and total factor productivity (TFP) for 20 Asian economies, along with the US as a reference economy. The AEPM provides graphic dashboard views of productivity and economic trends. Productivity data are presented both by per-worker labor productivity and per-hour labor productivity, in addition to TFP growth rates. Labor productivity growth is computed for key sectors, such as agriculture, manufacturing, wholesale and retail, transportation, and communication. Data on other economic parameters including output, capital, demand, income, population, and prices are also available as one-point references. Notes for Media Editors: The APO Productivity Database project is a joint research effort between the APO and Keio Economic Observatory (KEO), of Keio University, Tokyo, Japan. The AEPM is highly relevant for a wide range of user groups including but not limited to government planners, policymakers, business analysts, economists and academics, investment bankers, trade organizations, entrepreneurs, industry leaders, and media correspondents. Through the AEPM, the APO's economic productivity data, widely regarded for unparalleled richness and detailed historical coverage dating back to 1970, have been made open. While the authenticity and credibility of the data are ensured as the APO is a neutral intergovernmental organization, they are reinforced by the fact that the research is carried out by highly qualified Keio University researchers. About the APO The Asian Productivity Organization (APO) is the sole nonprofit international organization in the Asia-Pacific devoted to productivity enhancement. Established in 1961 as a regional intergovernmental organization, the APO contributes to the sustainable socioeconomic development of the Asia-Pacific through productivity enhancement. The current membership comprises 20 economies. Three strategic directions guide the APO: strengthen NPOs and promote the development of SMEs and communities; catalyze innovation-led productivity growth; and promote Green Productivity. The main activities of the APO are capacity building of institutions and human resources development.


The Authagraph World Map: not much use for navigation, but a very clever way of projecting the globe onto a flat surface without size distortion(Credit: Authagraph) Most common world maps are highly size distorted, with any land masses located toward the poles tending to look much bigger than they really are, which, in some ways, makes this weird-looking projection a lot more accurate. How it's made is a fascinating process – now, what is it actually useful for? Creating 2-D maps of the entire Earth is a hard job. It's a sphere, and trying to nicely unwrap it into a neat rectangle leads to varying degrees of distortion. The map you're familiar with, that pretty much everyone has a copy of somewhere, is called the Mercator Projection, which was first presented by cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It works well for nautical navigation, but it also massively distorts the size and shape of land masses, particularly near the poles. Take Canada as an example – it looks absolutely enormous, but if you remove the cylindrical distortion, you find it's not actually that much bigger than Australia (if you don't consider an extra 2.3 million km2 (888,000 mi2) much): Another example: Greenland looks massive, but here it is in between Africa and South America with the size distortion removed. You can play around with this stuff yourself at TheTrueSize. There are other projections of the globe that seek to represent the size of land masses more fairly; take the Gall-Peters projection, which tries to even things up by vertically compressing the areas near the poles: Or the Mollweide projection, which throws out the idea of fitting everything onto a nice neat rectangle, and bends continents around in order to try to represent land mass as accurately as possible: Or the Boggs eumorphic projection, which takes something like the Mollweide idea and slices it up to try to undo some of that bending and show both the correct shape and land mass size, sacrificing any usable navigation abilities in the ocean areas: There are many more, and now another has joined the list. Winner of the Japan Institute of Design Promotion's Good Design Award for 2016, meet the Authagraph World Map: Clearly, nobody is using this thing to plot a course. Lines of longitude and latitude bend, twist and curl, and figuring out which way's north is a challenge in some spots. But in terms of representing the size and shape of land masses, it's actually very accurate. Created by Hajime Narukawa of the Keio University Graduate School of Media and Governance, the Authagraph map fits perfectly into a nice rectangular shape with a neat 3:4 aspect ratio thanks to its ingenious method of construction. First, the sphere is divided into some 96 regions and then these regions are mapped onto an inflated tetrahedron shape. The inflated tetrahedron is flattened into a regular tetrahedron, then the tetrahedron is cut out and flattened into a big triangle and lined up with a whole bunch of other ones. From there, you can choose where to cut your map out from, depending on what you need to highlight and whether you're comfortable cutting land masses in half. It's not officially yet an equal-area map in the eyes of the cartography community, which is rightly picky about such things, but with an increased number of subdivisions it could attain that rating.


News Article | December 19, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Scrapbox is a new style of team wiki that makes working together easier for coders, designers, and all kinds of people on the web. Combining a live markup editor with auto-sorting it enables faster brainstorms, meetings, and work that stays organized long-term. With Scrapbox everything has been designed to allow ideas to flow in one place and add to a clear big picture. The main uses are rapidly sharing ideas or doing work, exploring related pages in context, and seeing recent updates from your team on the homepage. There are several productivity features that are unique to Scrapbox which enhance collaboration when compared to slow traditional wikis, messy folder-based sharing services, and complex project management apps. Frictionless ideation Image and video links display with a simple Ctrl+v or right click then paste so visual ideas can be shared instantly. New pages can be started from any text so ideas can branch off naturally. And all the littlest scraps of information are related so the big picture stays visible and its easy to dive in. Making & creating seamlessly Imagine work flowing from idea to execution with much less friction. Super simple markup lets anyone create, expand, and explore ideas as fast as they can type. It's easy to add tags, code snippets, bullet points, titles, and more without leaving the text editor. Work side by side with anyone anywhere Collaborative editing lets a whole team work together on the same page from multiple screens. It provides a big boost in clarity and accessibility for working on shared tasks such as planning projects, brainstorming, or holding a meeting and especially for remote teams. Explore and expand ideas effortlessly With so many separate docs and folders work is slowed down when things are lost or duplicated, especially with remote teams. Scrapbox lets everyone see what everyone else is working on in a dynamic way with related tags so next steps stay clear and in context. A cloud app with all the modern amenities It can be edited, searched, and explored on any device with a modern web browser. Everything is saved while typing and updates can be seen on the homepage as well as in Slack, HipChat, and more coming soon. Manage members, who is on which projects, privacy settings, and billing with a single administrator account. How much better is this than a traditional wiki? "Scrapbox is focused on realtime collaboration within a wiki format. It makes working on many tasks with a team noticeably easier because changes are instant but everything stays well structured. The best result has been a sort of open sourcing of everyone's ideas. We've seen people really enjoy shared understanding because its so easy to add insights and learn from each other." - Isshu Rakusai, CEO of Scrapbox/Nota What is the vision for its impact on small teams and startups? "We use it to clarify and coordinate all our team meetings, projects, and visual elements of design through screenshots. For us, Scrapbox fits perfectly alongside Slack when you want to expand and add detail to ideas in a more structured way." -Isshu Rakusai, CEO of Scrapbox/Nota Who are the creators of Scrapbox? Nota was founded in late 2007 to enable creators of all kinds to communicate and work more efficiently online. From Kyoto, Japan to Silicon Valley and around the world they created several apps including Gyazo which is an instant screen capture app with roughly 10 million unique users per month. There is more information on the company website here: nota inc. How is it being used by the team that created it? Inside the Nota team Scrapbox has been used daily for the past six months to work on Scrapbox itself, Gyazo, and other business functions. The team has found many benefits from using it including improved execution speed and learning more from each other. The ease of adding Gyazo screenshot, image, and video links with text makes sharing ideas much more frequent. Began developing human-friendly software such as Kamicopi, a note-taking app which sold a million copies when in high school. Moved to the United States from 2007 to found Nota Inc. in Silicon Valley, and has been involved in developing applications and websites since then. Currently the flagship Nota service "Gyazo" boasts the top share of the world screenshot-taking market, with 10 million unique users per month. Rakusai also completed a Master's degree in Policy and Media at Keio University. Worked at Sharp, Sony Computer Science Laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, and Apple after graduating from the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering with a Master's degree. Has conducted various research related to user interfaces such as information visualization, information retrieval, example / prediction interface, text input system, ubiquitous computing, etc. Currently is known as a developer of "POBox" Japanese predictive conversion system on almost all mobile phones and smartphones, and of the flick input system on iPhone.


News Article | February 22, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

New research clarifies why some people seem to derive a heart-protective benefit from eating soy foods and others don’t. Japanese men who are able to produce equol—a substance made by some types of “good” gut bacteria when they metabolize isoflavones (micronutrients found in dietary soy)—have lower levels of a risk factor for heart disease than people that can’t produce it, according to a new study in the British Journal of Nutrition. “Scientists have known for some time that isoflavones protect against the buildup of plaque in arteries, known as atherosclerosis, in monkeys, and are associated with lower rates of heart disease in people in Asian countries,” says senior author Akira Sekikawa, associate professor of epidemiology at the University of Pittsburgh. “We were surprised when a large trial of isoflavones in the US didn’t show the beneficial effects among people with atherosclerosis in Western countries. Now, we think we know why.” All monkeys can produce equol, as can 50 to 60 percent of people in Asian countries. However, only 20 to 30 percent of people in Western countries can. For the study, researchers recruited 272 Japanese men aged 40 to 49 and performed blood tests to find out if they were producing equol. After adjusting for other heart disease risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking, and obesity, they found that the equol-producers had 90-percent lower odds of coronary artery calcification, a predictor of heart disease, than the equol non-producers. The daily intake of dietary isoflavones—found in traditional soy foods such as tofu, miso, and soymilk—is 25 to 50 milligrams in China and Japan, while it is less than 2 milligrams in Western countries. Equol is available as a supplement—bypassing the need for gut bacteria to produce it—though no clinical trials have been performed to determine a safe dosage for heart protective effects, or if it even does provide such protection. “I do not recommend that people start taking equol to improve their heart health or for any other reason unless advised by their doctor,” Sekikawa says. “Much more study is needed.” The researchers are now pursuing funding for a much larger observational study to expand on the findings and eventually a randomized clinical trial to examine the effect of taking equol on various medical conditions and diseases. “Our discovery about equol may have applications far beyond heart disease,” Sekikawa says. “We know that isoflavones may be associated with protecting against many other medical conditions, including osteoporosis, dementia, menopausal hot flashes, and prostate and breast cancers. Equol may have an even stronger effect on these diseases.” Additional researchers from the University of Pittsburgh and from Shiga University of Medical Science,  Shimane University, and Keio University, all in Japan, are coauthors of the study. The National Institutes of Health; Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; and a small grant from Pitt Public Health’s department of epidemiology funded the work.


Akimoto T.,Keio University | Miyaguchi T.,Osaka City University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2010

Statistical properties of the transport coefficient for deterministic subdiffusion are investigated from the viewpoint of infinite ergodic theory. We find that the averaged diffusion coefficient is characterized by the infinite invariant measure of the reduced map. We also show that when the time difference is much smaller than the total observation time, the time-averaged mean square displacement depends linearly on the time difference. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient becomes a random variable and its limit distribution is characterized by the universal law called the Mittag-Leffler distribution. © 2010 The American Physical Society.


Itoyama H.,Osaka City University | Maru N.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2013

We present the mechanism of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking at the metastable vacuum recently uncovered in the N=1 U(N) supersymmetric gauge theory that contains adjoint superfields and that is specified by Kähler and noncanonical gauge kinetic functions and a superpotential whose tree vacua preserve N=1 supersymmetry. The overall U(1) serves as the hidden sector, and no messenger superfield is required. The dynamical supersymmetry breaking is triggered by the nonvanishing D term coupled to the observable sector and is realized by the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type while it eventually brings us the nonvanishing F term as well. It is shown that theoretical analysis is resolved as a variational problem of the effective potential for three kinds of background fields, namely, the complex scalar, and the two order parameters D and F of supersymmetry, the last one being treated perturbatively. We determine the stationary point and numerically check the consistency of such treatment as well as the local stability of the scalar potential. The coupling to the N=1 supergravity is given, and the gravitino mass formula is derived. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Kakiuchi F.,Keio University | Kochi T.,Keio University | Mizushima E.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Murai S.,Nara Institute of Science and Technology
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2010

Mechanistic studies of the ruthenium-catalyzed reaction of aromatic ketones with olefins are presented. Treatment of the original catalyst, RuH 2(CO)(PPh3)3, with trimethylvinylsilane at 90 °C for 1-1.5 h afforded an activated ruthenium catalyst, Ru(o-C 6H4PPh2)(H)(CO)(PPh3)2, as a mixture of four geometric isomers. The activated complex showed high catalytic activity for C-H/olefin coupling, and the reaction of 2′-methylacetophenone with trimethylvinylsilane at room temperature for 48 h gave the corresponding ortho-alkylation product in 99% isolated yield. The activated catalyst was thermally robust and showed excellent catalytic activity under refluxing toluene conditions. 1H and 31P NMR studies of the C-H/olefin coupling at room temperature suggested that an ortho-ruthenated complex, P,P′-cis-C,H-cis-Ru(2′-(6′-MeC 6H4C(O)Me))(H)(CO)(PPh3)2, participated in the reaction as a key intermediate. Isotope labeling studies using acetophenone-d5 indicated that the rate-limiting step was the C-C bond formation, not the C-H bond cleavage, and that each step prior to the reductive elimination was reversible. The rate of C-H/olefin coupling was found to exhibit pseudo first-order kinetics and to show first-order dependence on the ruthenium complex concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.


Itoyama H.,Osaka City University | Maru N.,Keio University
International Journal of Modern Physics A | Year: 2012

Under a few mild assumptions, ${\mathcal N} = 1$ supersymmetry (SUSY) in four dimensions is shown to be spontaneously broken in a metastable vacuum in a self-consistent HartreeFock approximation of BardeenCooperSchrieffer/NambuJona-Lasinio (BCS/NJL) type to the leading order, in the gauge theory specified by the gauge kinetic function and the superpotential of adjoint chiral superfields, in particular, that possess ${\mathcal N} = 2$ extended SUSY spontaneously broken to ${\mathcal N} = 1$ at tree level. We derive an explicit form of the gap equation, showing the existence of a nontrivial solution. The ${\mathcal N} = 2$ gauginos in the observable sector receive mixed MajoranaDirac masses and are split due to both the nonvanishing 〈D 0〉 and 〈F 0〉 induced with 〈D 0〉. It is argued that proper physical applications and assessment of the range of the validity of our framework are made possible by rendering the approximation into $\frac{1}{N 2}$ expansion. © 2012 World Scientific Publishing Company.


Tsunashima N.,Sony Corporation | Katsura S.,Keio University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2012

Currently, the development of a leading-edge technology for saving and reproducing human motions in terms of haptic information is required for various fields. To address these requirements, a motion-copying system has already been proposed. This system is a key technology that enables the realization of the acquisition, preservation, and reproduction of real-world haptic information. In order to apply this system to various fields, the use of the concept involving two types of coupling is important: that involving spatial and temporal couplings. In this paper, the use of the concept mentioned earlier is proposed, and the related system is named spatiotemporal coupler. The proposed coupler is divided into two couplers. One is a spatial coupler, and the other is a temporal coupler. The spatial coupler connects human motions that are saved by haptic devices with different configurations according to the information for a human model. On the other hand, the temporal coupler integrates the saved motions temporally, and the integrated motion is reproduced as a single motion. The proposed concept is applied to finger motion in the experiments. The experimental results validate the proposed technology. © 2011 IEEE.


Yajima S.,Keio University | Yajima S.,Sony Corporation | Katsura S.,Keio University
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics | Year: 2014

This paper analyzes the performance of the motion-copying system based on velocity information. In previous studies, the motion-copying system was proposed for storage and reproduction of haptic information. The motion-copying system is expected to be applied to various fields such as industrial applications, training systems, medical and welfare human assist, and so on. In the conventional method, however, the saved motion cannot be reproduced precisely when the environmental location in the motion-loading phase is different from that in the motion-saving phase. To solve this problem, we proposed the motion-copying system based on velocity information. This paper shows that the proposed method is applied to a 2-degree-of-freedom robot, and the performance is discussed. By using the proposal, it is possible to reproduce the saved motion even though the environmental location is shifted parallel. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified by experimental results. © 1982-2012 IEEE.


Aikawa N.,Keio University | Kawasaki Y.,Ono Pharmaceutical Co
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management | Year: 2014

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a serious condition that can arise following direct or indirect lung injury. It is heterogeneous and has a high mortality rate. Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment and there is no definitive pharmacological treatment as yet. Sivelestat is a neutrophil elastase inhibitor approved in Japan and the Republic of Korea for acute lung injury, including acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The aim of this review is to examine the clinical utility of sivelestat in different disease states, using data from nonclinical and clinical studies. In nonclinical studies, sivelestat appears to show benefit in acute lung injury without inhibiting the host immune defense in cases of infection. Clinical studies do not yet provide a clear consensus. Phase III and IV Japanese studies have shown improvements in pulmonary function, length of intensive care unit stay, and mechanical ventilation, but a non-Japanese multicenter study did not demonstrate sivelestat to have an effect on ventilator-free days or 28-day all-cause mortality. Evidence of improvement in various parameters, including duration of stay in intensive care, mechanical ventilation, the ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FIO2 ratio) ratio, and lung injury scores, has been shown in patients with sepsis or gastric aspiration, and following the surgical treatment of esophageal cancer. To date, there are no particular concerns regarding adverse events, and the available data do not suggest that sivelestat might worsen infections. One study has analyzed cost-effectiveness, finding that sivelestat may reduce costs compared with standard care. The currently available evidence suggests that sivelestat may show some benefit in the treatment of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, although large, randomized controlled trials are needed in specific pathophysiological conditions to explore these potential benefits. © 2014 Aikawa and Kawasaki. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited.


Miyaguchi T.,Osaka City University | Akimoto T.,Keio University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2011

Fluctuations in the time-averaged mean-square displacement for random walks on hypercubic lattices with static disorder are investigated. It is analytically shown that the diffusion coefficient becomes a random variable as a manifestation of weak ergodicity breaking. For two- and higher- dimensional systems, the distribution function of the diffusion coefficient is found to be the Mittag-Leffler distribution, which is the same as for the continuous-time random walk, whereas for one-dimensional systems a different distribution (a modified Mittag-Leffler distribution) arises. We also present a comparison of these two distributions in terms of an ergodicity-breaking parameter and show that the modified Mittag-Leffler distribution has a larger deviation from ergodicity. Some remarks on similarities between these results and observations in biological experiments are presented. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Miyaguchi T.,Osaka City University | Akimoto T.,Keio University
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2011

We investigate continuous time random walks with truncated α-stable trapping times. We prove distributional ergodicity for a class of observables; namely, the time-averaged observables follow the probability density function called the Mittag-Leffler distribution. This distributional ergodic behavior persists for a long time, and thus the convergence to the ordinary ergodicity is considerably slower than in the case in which the trapping-time distribution is given by common distributions. We also find a crossover from the distributional ergodic behavior to the ordinary ergodic behavior. © 2011 American Physical Society.


Dhar A.,International Center for Theoretical science | Saito K.,Keio University | Derrida B.,University Paris Diderot
Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics | Year: 2013

The Lévy walk model is studied in the context of the anomalous heat conduction of one-dimensional systems. In this model, the heat carriers execute Lévy walks instead of normal diffusion as expected in systems where Fourier's law holds. Here we calculate exactly the average heat current, the large deviation function of its fluctuations, and the temperature profile of the Lévy walk model maintained in a steady state by contact with two heat baths (the open geometry). We find that the current is nonlocally connected to the temperature gradient. As observed in recent simulations of mechanical models, all the cumulants of the current fluctuations have the same system-size dependence in the open geometry. For the ring geometry, we argue that a size-dependent cutoff time is necessary for the Lévy walk model to behave like mechanical models. This modification does not affect the results on transport in the open geometry for large enough system sizes. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Hashimoto Y.,Kitami Institute of Technology | Ushiba J.,Keio University
Clinical Neurophysiology | Year: 2013

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate cortical lateralization of event-related (de)synchronization during left and right foot motor imagery tasks and to determine classification accuracy of the two imaginary movements in a brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigm. Methods: We recorded 31-channel scalp electroencephalograms (EEGs) from nine healthy subjects during brisk imagery tasks of left and right foot movements. EEG was analyzed with time-frequency maps and topographies, and the accuracy rate of classification between left and right foot movements was calculated. Results: Beta rebound at the end of imagination (increase of EEG beta rhythm amplitude) was identified from the two EEGs derived from the right-shift and left-shift bipolar pairs at the vertex. This process enabled discrimination between right or left foot imagery at a high accuracy rate (maximum 81.6% in single trial analysis). Conclusion: These data suggest that foot motor imagery has potential to elicit left-right differences in EEG, while BCI using the unilateral foot imagery can achieve high classification accuracy, similar to ordinary BCI, based on hand motor imagery. Significance: By combining conventional discrimination techniques, the left-right discrimination of unilateral foot motor imagery provides a novel BCI system that could control a foot neuroprosthesis or a robotic foot. © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology.


Patent
Keio University and Sony Corporation | Date: 2011-03-07

A photodynamic therapy apparatus as a determining apparatus is the photodynamic therapy apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, or a tissue absorbing the excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser catheter, including a connector, a light source, and a light detection unit. The laser catheter is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector. The light source outputs the excitation light to the laser catheter via the connector. The light detection unit detects intensity or a spectrum of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser catheter via the connector, to determine whether the tip portion of the laser catheter contacts the tissue or not.


Patent
Keio University and Sony Corporation | Date: 2011-03-07

[Object] To provide a calculation apparatus and a calculation method capable of calculating pharmaceutical concentration in a tissue in real time. [Solving Means] A photodynamic therapy apparatus as a calculation apparatus is an apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser catheter, including a connector, a light source, and a light detection unit. The laser catheter is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector. The light source outputs the excitation light to the laser catheter via the connector. The light detection unit detects intensity of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser catheter via the connector, to calculate concentration of the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical in a tissue, the tip portion of the laser catheter contacting the tissue.


Patent
Sony Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2013-11-27

[Object] To provide a laser therapy apparatus that is capable of determining a contact state between a tip portion of a laser catheter and a tissue, which includes a buried state of the tip portion in the tissue, a laser therapy system, and a determination method. [Solving Means] It includes a connection portion 210 to which a second end portion of a laser catheter 300 is connected, the laser catheter 300 including a first end portion, the second end portion, and an electrode, a laser beam entering and exiting from an apical surface of the first end portion, the electrode being provided at outer periphery of the first end portion along an axial direction of the first end portion, an emission unit 110 configured to emit a laser beam to the second end portion connected to the connection portion 210, an optical state detection unit 130 configured to cause light reflected from the second end portion connected to the connection portion 210 to enter, and to detect an optical state of the entered reflected light, an electrical state detection unit 135 configured to detect an electrical state of the electrode via the second end portion connected to the connection portion 210, and a determination unit 150 configured to determine, based on the detected optical state and electrical state, a contact state between the first end portion and a therapy-target tissue treated by using the laser catheter.


Patent
Sony Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2013-01-23

[Object] To provide a calculation apparatus and a calculation method capable of calculating pharmaceutical concentration in a tissue in real time. [Solving Means] A photodynamic therapy apparatus 1 as a calculation apparatus is an apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser catheter 300, including a connector 210, a light source 110, and a light detection unit 130. The laser catheter 300 is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector 210. The light source 110 outputs the excitation light to the laser catheter 300 via the connector 210. The light detection unit 130 detects intensity of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser catheter 300 via the connector 210, to calculate concentration of the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical in a tissue, the tip portion of the laser catheter 300 contacting the tissue.


Patent
Keio University and Sony Corporation | Date: 2011-03-07

A photodynamic therapy apparatus as an estimating apparatus is an apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser the catheter, including a connector, a light source, and a light detection unit. The laser the catheter is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector. The light source outputs the excitation light to the laser the catheter via the connector. The light detection unit detects intensity or a spectrum of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser the catheter via the connector, to estimate whether the tissue has changed because of reaction between the excitation light emitted from the tip portion of the laser the catheter and the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbed in the tissue.


Patent
Sony Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2013-01-23

[Object] To provide a determining apparatus capable of safely determining a contact state of the tip portion of a catheter with respect to a tissue in real time. [Solving Means] A photodynamic therapy apparatus 1 as a determining apparatus is the photodynamic therapy apparatus 1 for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, or a tissue absorbing the excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser catheter 300, including a connector 210, a light source 110, and a light detection unit 130. The laser catheter 300 is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector 210. The light source 110 outputs the excitation light to the laser catheter 300 via the connector 210. The light detection unit 130 detects intensity or a spectrum of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser catheter 300 via the connector 210, to determine whether the tip portion of the laser catheter 300 contacts the tissue or not.


Patent
Sony Corporation and Keio University | Date: 2013-01-23

[Object] To provide an estimating apparatus and an estimating method capable of estimating process of therapy using a laser the catheter 300 accurately in real time. [Solving Means] A photodynamic therapy apparatus 1 as an estimating apparatus is an apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser the catheter 300, including a connector 210, a light source 110, and a light detection unit 130. The laser the catheter 300 is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector 210. The light source 110 outputs the excitation light to the laser the catheter 300 via the connector 210. The light detection unit 130 detects intensity or a spectrum of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser the catheter 300 via the connector 210, to estimate whether the tissue has changed because of reaction between the excitation light emitted from the tip portion of the laser the catheter 300 and the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbed in the tissue.


A team of astronomers led by Tomoharu Oka, a professor at Keio University in Japan, has found an enigmatic gas cloud, called CO-0.40-0.22, only 200 light years away from the center of the Milky Way. What makes CO-0.40-0.22 unusual is its surprisingly wide velocity dispersion: the cloud contains gas with a very wide range of speeds. The team found this mysterious feature with two radio telescopes, the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope in Japan and the ASTE Telescope in Chile, both operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. To investigate the detailed structure, the team observed CO-0.40-0.22 with the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope again to obtain 21 emission lines from 18 molecules. The results show that the cloud has an elliptical shape and consists of two components: a compact but low density component with a very wide velocity dispersion of 100 km/s, and a dense component extending 10 light years with a narrow velocity dispersion. What makes this velocity dispersion so wide? There are no holes inside of the cloud. Also, X-ray and infrared observations did not find any compact objects. These features indicate that the velocity dispersion is not caused by a local energy input, such as supernova explosions. The team performed a simple simulation of gas clouds flung by a strong gravity source. In the simulation, the gas clouds are first attracted by the source and their speeds increase as they approach it, reaching maximum at the closest point to the object. After that the clouds continue past the object and their speeds decrease. The team found that a model using a gravity source with 100 thousand times the mass of the Sun inside an area with a radius of 0.3 light years provided the best fit to the observed data. "Considering the fact that no compact objects are seen in X-ray or infrared observations," Oka, the lead author of the paper that appeared in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, explains "as far as we know, the best candidate for the compact massive object is a black hole." If that is the case, this is the first detection of an intermediate mass black hole. Astronomers already know about two sizes of black holes: stellar-mass black holes, formed after the gigantic explosions of very massive stars; and supermassive black holes (SMBH) often found at the centers of galaxies. The mass of SMBH ranges from several million to billions of times the mass of the Sun. A number of SMBHs have been found, but no one knows how the SMBHs are formed. One idea is that they are formed from mergers of many intermediate mass black holes. But this raises a problem because so far no firm observational evidence for intermediate mass black holes has been found. If the cloud CO-0.40-0.22, located only 200 light years away from Sgr A* (the 400 million solar mass SMBH at the center of the Milky Way), contains an intermediate mass black hole, it might support the intermediate mass black hole merger scenario of SMBH evolution. These results open a new way to search for black holes with radio telescopes. Recent observations have revealed that there are a number of wide-velocity-dispersion compact clouds similar to CO-0.40-0.22. The team proposes that some of those clouds might contain black holes. A study suggested that there are 100 million black holes in the Milky Way Galaxy, but X-ray observations have only found dozens so far. Most of the black holes may be "dark" and very difficult to see directly at any wavelength. "Investigations of gas motion with radio telescopes may provide a complementary way to search for dark black holes" said Oka. "The on-going wide area survey observations of the Milky Way with the Nobeyama 45-m Telescope and high-resolution observations of nearby galaxies using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) have the potential to increase the number of black hole candidates dramatically." The observation results were published as Oka et al. "Signature of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Central Molecular Zone of Our Galaxy" in the Astrophysical Journal Letters issued on January 1, 2016. The research team members are Tomoharu Oka, Reiko Mizuno, Kodai Miura, Shunya Takekawa, all at Keio University. Explore further: Researchers find new relationship involving black holes in galaxies with small bulges More information: "Signature of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole in the Central Molecular Zone of Our Galaxy," T. Oka et al., 2016 Jan. 1, Astrophysical Journal Letters iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8205/816/1/L7 , On Arxiv: arxiv.org/abs/1512.04661


Nitta M.,Keio University | Vinci W.,University of Minnesota
Nuclear Physics B | Year: 2011

We use the moduli matrix approach to study the moduli space of 1/4 BPS kinks supported by vortices in the Higgs phase of N=2 supersymmetric U(N) gauge theories when non-zero masses for the matter hypermultiplets are introduced. We focus on the case of degenerate masses. In these special cases vortices acquire new orientational degrees of freedom, and become "non-Abelian". Kinks acquire new degrees of freedom too, and we will refer to them as "non-Abelian". As already noticed for the Abelian case, non-Abelian kinks must correspond to non-Abelian monopoles of the unbroken phase of SU(N) Yang-Mills.We show, in some special cases, that the moduli spaces of the two objects are in one-to-one correspondence. We argue that the correspondence holds in the most general case.The consequence of our result is two-fold. First, it gives an alternative way to construct non-Abelian monopoles, in addition to other well-known techniques (Nahm transform, spectral curves, rational maps). Second, it opens the way to the study of the quantum physics of non-Abelian monopoles, by considering the simpler non-Abelian kinks. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Siomi M.C.,Keio University | Siomi M.C.,Japan Science and Technology Agency | Sato K.,Keio University | Pezic D.,California Institute of Technology | Aravin A.A.,California Institute of Technology
Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology | Year: 2011

PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a distinct class of small non-coding RNAs that form the piRNA-induced silencing complex (piRISC) in the germ line of many animal species. The piRISC protects the integrity of the genome from invasion by 'genomic parasites'-transposable elements-by silencing them. Owing to their limited expression in gonads and their sequence diversity, piRNAs have been the most mysterious class of small non-coding RNAs regulating RNA silencing. Now, much progress is being made into our understanding of their biogenesis and molecular functions, including the specific subcellular compartmentalization of the piRNA pathway in granular cytoplasmic bodies. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Suzuki S.,Keio University | Utsugisawa K.,Hanamaki General Hospital | Suzuki N.,Keio University
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may have various non-motor symptoms in addition to fatigability and weakness of skeletal muscles. Thymomas contain abundant immature thymocytes and developing CD4 and CD8 T cells. Thymomas are found in 15-25% of patients with MG and are associated with severe symptoms. We suggest that non-motor symptoms are based on the autoimmune disorders probably owing to an abnormal T cell repertoire from thymomas. Using previously reported cases and cases from our multicentre cooperative study, we review the clinical characteristics of patients with thymoma-associated MG who have nonmotor symptoms. CD8 T cell cytotoxicity against haematopoietic precursor cells in bone marrow and unidentified autoantigens in hair follicles lead to the development of pure red cell aplasia, immunodeficiency and alopecia areata. In contrast, neuromyotonia, limbic encephalitis, myocarditis and taste disorders are autoantibody-mediated disorders, as is MG. Autoantibodies to several types of voltage-gated potassium channels and the related molecules can evoke various neurological and cardiac disorders. About 25% of patients with thymoma-associated MG have at least one non-motor symptom. Non-motor symptoms affect many target organs and result in a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from the impairment of quality of life to lethal conditions. Since relatively little attention is paid to non-motor symptoms in patients with thymomaassociated MG, the symptoms may be overlooked by many physicians. Early diagnosis is important, since non-motor symptoms can be treatable. A complete understanding of non-motor symptoms is necessary for the management of patients with thymoma-associated MG.


Lee W.-J.,Seoul National University | Hase K.,Keio University | Hase K.,Tokyo International University
Nature Chemical Biology | Year: 2014

Gut microbiota is found in virtually any metazoan, from invertebrates to vertebrates. It has long been believed that gut microbiota, more specifically, the activity of the microbiome and its metabolic products, directly influence a variety of aspects in metazoan physiology. However, the exact molecular relationship among microbe-derived gut metabolites, host signaling pathways, and host physiology remains to be elucidated. Here we review recent discoveries regarding the molecular links between gut metabolites and host physiology in different invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. We describe the different roles of gut microbiome activity and their metabolites in regulating distinct host physiology and the molecular mechanisms by which gut metabolites cause physiological homeostasis via regulating specific host signaling pathways. Future studies in this direction using different animal models will provide the key concepts to understanding the evolutionarily conserved chemical dialogues between gut microbiota and metazoan cells and also human diseases associated with gut microbiota and metabolites. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Vinci W.,University of Pisa | Cipriani M.,University of Pisa | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2012

When a color superconductor of high density QCD is rotating, superfluid vortices are inevitably created along the rotation axis. In the color-flavor locked phase realized at the asymptotically large chemical potential, there appear non-Abelian vortices carrying both circulations of superfluid and color magnetic fluxes. A family of solutions has a degeneracy characterized by the Nambu-Goldstone modes CP2, associated with the color-flavor locked symmetry spontaneously broken in the vicinity of the vortex. In this paper, we study electromagnetic coupling of the non-Abelian vortices and find that the degeneracy is removed with the induced effective potential. We obtain one stable vortex solution and a family of metastable vortex solutions, both of which carry ordinary magnetic fluxes in addition to color magnetic fluxes. We discuss quantum mechanical decay of the metastable vortices by quantum tunneling and compare the effective potential with the other known potentials, the quantum mechanically induced potential and the potential induced by the strange quark mass. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Lu L.-F.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Boldin M.P.,California Institute of Technology | Chaudhry A.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Lin L.-L.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2010

Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells maintain immune homeostasis by limiting different types of inflammatory responses. Here, we report that miR-146a, one of the miRNAs prevalently expressed in Treg cells, is critical for their suppressor function. The deficiency of miR-146a in Treg cells resulted in a breakdown of immunological tolerance manifested in fatal IFNγ-dependent immune-mediated lesions in a variety of organs. This was likely due to augmented expression and activation of signal transducer and activator transcription 1 (Stat1), a direct target of miR-146a. Likewise, heightened Stat1 activation in Treg cells subjected to a selective ablation of SOCS1, a key negative regulator of Stat1 phosphorylation downstream of the IFNγ receptor, was associated with analogous Th1-mediated pathology. Our results suggest that specific aspects of Treg suppressor function are controlled by a single miRNA and that an optimal range of Stat1 activation is important for Treg-mediated control of Th1 responses and associated autoimmunity. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Senti S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Takahasi H.,Keio University
Nonlinearity | Year: 2013

We study the dynamics of strongly dissipative Hénon maps at the first bifurcation parameter where the uniform hyperbolicity is destroyed by the formation of tangencies inside the limit set. We prove the existence of an equilibrium measure which minimizes the free energy associated with the non-continuous potential -t logJu, where is in a certain interval of the form (-∞, t0), t0 > 0 and Ju denotes the Jacobian in the unstable direction. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd & London Mathematical Society.


Hu J.-S.,National University of Tainan | Yin D.,Keio University | Hori Y.,University of Tokyo
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2011

This paper investigates a new traction control approach that requires neither chassis velocity nor information about tire-road conditions. Plant fault subject to the uncertainties of the mathematical model and slightly sensor fault are concerned. For general traction control of vehicles, the variation of model behavior may break down the steering stability if the chassis velocity is not monitored. This paper presents a fault-tolerant approach based on the maximum transmissible torque estimation (MTTE) scheme which has the ability to prevent electric vehicles from skidding. A PI-type disturbance observer is employed to enhance the steering stability of the MTTE approach. This proposed approach does not require both the differentiator and the inversion of the controlled plant. Finally, illustrated examples are given for evaluating the fault-tolerant performance and feasibility of the presented anti-slip strategy. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Takahashi K.,RIKEN | Takahashi K.,Molecular science Institute | Takahashi K.,Keio University | Tanase-Nicola S.,Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2010

Multisite covalent modification of proteins is omnipresent in eukaryotic cells. A well-known example is the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade where, in each layer of the cascade, a protein is phosphorylated at two sites. It has long been known that the response of a MAPK pathway strongly depends on whether the enzymes that modify the protein act processively or distributively. A distributive mechanism, in which the enzyme molecules have to release the substrate molecules in between the modification of the two sites, can generate an ultrasensitive response and lead to hysteresis and bistability.We study by Green's Function Reaction Dynamics (GFRD), a stochastic scheme that makes it possible to simulate biochemical networks at the particle level in time and space, a dual phosphorylation cycle in which the enzymes act according to a distributive mechanism. We find that the response of this network can differ dramatically from that predicted by a mean-field analysis based on the chemical rate equations. In particular, rapid rebindings of the enzyme molecules to the substrate molecules after modification of the first site can markedly speed up the response and lead to loss of ultrasensitivity and bistability. In essence, rapid enzyme-substrate rebindings can turn a distributive mechanism into a processive mechanism. We argue that slow ADP release by the enzymes can protect the system against these rapid rebindings, thus enabling ultrasensitivity and bistability.


Cipriani M.,University of Pisa | Nitta M.,Keio University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2013

We study vortex lattices in three-component Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) under rotation, where three kinds of fractional vortices winding one of three components are present. Unlike the cases of two-component BECs where the phases of square and triangular lattices are present depending on the intercomponent coupling constant and the rotation speed, we find triangular ordered "colorful" vortex lattices where three kinds of fractional vortices are placed in order without defects, in all parameter regions where the intercomponent coupling g′ is less than the intracomponent coupling g. When g>g′ on the other hand, we find the phase separation: In a region where one component is present, the other two components must vanish, where we find ghost vortices in these two components whose positions are separated. In the boundary g=g′, the accidental U(3) symmetry is present, in which case two vortices in different components are close to each other in some regions. © 2013 American Physical Society.


Tyryshkin A.M.,Princeton University | Tojo S.,Keio University | Morton J.J.L.,University of Oxford | Riemann H.,Institute For Kristallzuchtung | And 7 more authors.
Nature Materials | Year: 2012

Silicon is one of the most promising semiconductor materials for spin-based information processing devices. Its advanced fabrication technology facilitates the transition from individual devices to large-scale processors, and the availability of a 28Si form with no magnetic nuclei overcomes a primary source of spin decoherence in many other materials. Nevertheless, the coherence lifetimes of electron spins in the solid state have typically remained several orders of magnitude lower than that achieved in isolated high-vacuum systems such as trapped ions. Here we examine electron spin coherence of donors in pure 28Si material (residual 29Si concentration <50 ppm) with donor densities of 10 14-10 15 cm 3. We elucidate three mechanisms for spin decoherence, active at different temperatures, and extract a coherence lifetime T 2 up to 2 s. In this regime, we find the electron spin is sensitive to interactions with other donor electron spins separated by ∼200 nm. A magnetic field gradient suppresses such interactions, producing an extrapolated electron spin T 2 of 10 s at 1.8 K. These coherence lifetimes are without peer in the solid state and comparable to high-vacuum qubits, making electron spins of donors in silicon ideal components of quantum computers, or quantum memories for systems such as superconducting qubits. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Taniguchi K.,University of California at San Diego | Taniguchi K.,Kyushu University | Taniguchi K.,Keio University | Karin M.,University of California at San Diego | Karin M.,University of San Diego
Seminars in Immunology | Year: 2014

Inflammatory responses play pivotal roles in cancer development, including tumor initiation, promotion, progression, and metastasis. Cytokines are now recognized as important mediators linking inflammation and cancer, and are therefore potential therapeutic and preventive targets as well as prognostic factors. The interleukin (IL)-6 family of cytokines, especially IL-6 and IL-11, is highly up-regulated in many cancers and considered as one of the most important cytokine families during tumorigenesis and metastasis. This review discusses molecular mechanisms linking the IL-6 cytokine family to solid malignancies and their treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Zarkada G.,University of Helsinki | Heinolainen K.,University of Helsinki | Makinen T.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Makinen T.,Uppsala University | And 2 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2015

Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is regulated by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs). VEGFR2 is abundant in the tip cells of angiogenic sprouts, where VEGF/VEGFR2 functions upstream of the delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4)/Notch signal transduction pathway. VEGFR3 is expressed in all endothelia and is indispensable for angiogenesis during early embryonic development. In adults, VEGFR3 is expressed in angiogenic blood vessels and some fenestrated endothelia. VEGFR3 is abundant in endothelial tip cells, where it activates Notch signaling, facilitating the conversion of tip cells to stalk cells during the stabilization of vascular branches. Subsequently, Notch activation suppresses VEGFR3 expression in a negative feedback loop. Here we used conditional deletions and a Notch pathway inhibitor to investigate the cross-talk between VEGFR2, VEGFR3, and Notch in vivo. We show that postnatal angiogenesis requires VEGFR2 signaling also in the absence of Notch or VEGFR3, and that even small amounts of VEGFR2 are able to sustain angiogenesis to some extent. We found that VEGFR2 is required independently of VEGFR3 for endothelial DLL4 up-regulation and angiogenic sprouting, and for VEGFR3 functions in angiogenesis. In contrast, VEGFR2 deletion had no effect, whereas VEGFR3 was essential for postnatal lymphangiogenesis, and even for lymphatic vessel maintenance in adult skin. Knowledge of these interactions and the signaling functions of VEGFRs in blood vessels and lymphatic vessels is essential for the therapeutic manipulation of the vascular system, especially when considering multitargeted antiangiogenic treatments.


Kim M.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Lee S.,Seoul National University | Lee S.,Pape Family Pediatric Research Institute | Kuninaka S.,Keio University | And 3 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2013

Actin cytoskeletal damage induces inactivation of the oncoprotein YAP (Yes-associated protein). It is known that the serine/threonine kinase LATS (large tumour suppressor) inactivates YAP by phosphorylating its Ser127 and Ser381 residues. However, the events downstream of actin cytoskeletal changes that are involved in the regulation of the LATS-YAP pathway and the mechanism by which LATS differentially phosphorylates YAP on Ser127 and Ser381 in vivo have remained elusive. Here, we show that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates LATS and thereby enhances its activity sufficiently to phosphorylate YAP on Ser381. We also found that PKA activity is involved in all contexts previously reported to trigger the LATS-YAP pathway, including actin cytoskeletal damage, G-protein-coupled receptor activation, and engagement of the Hippo pathway. Inhibition of PKA and overexpression of YAP cooperate to transform normal cells and amplify neural progenitor pools in developing chick embryos. We also implicate neurofibromin 2 as an AKAP (A-kinase-anchoring protein) scaffold protein that facilitates the function of the cAMP/PKA-LATS-YAP pathway. Our study thus incorporates PKA as novel component of the Hippo pathway. © 2013 European Molecular Biology Organization.


Song J.,Seoul National University | Asakawa K.,Keio University | Chu Y.,University of Minnesota
Research Policy | Year: 2011

What determines knowledge sourcing from host locations of overseas R&D operations? We investigate factors that influence the extent to which overseas R&D laboratories source knowledge from host locations. Drawing on both the capabilities perspective and the embeddedness perspective, we have developed a conceptual model and then examined it empirically focusing on overseas R&D labs of Japanese multinationals. Statistical findings from negative binomial regressions show that both technological capabilities of the lab and external embeddedness in the local scientific and engineering communities matter. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Narayan S.,Johns Hopkins University | Nakajima K.,Keio University | Sawa A.,Johns Hopkins University
Neuroscientist | Year: 2013

For the past decade, DISC1 has been studied as a promising lead to understand the biology underlying major mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia. Consequently, many review articles on DISC1 have been published. In this article, rather than repeating comprehensive overviews of research articles, we will introduce the utility of DISC1 in the study of cortical development in association with a wide range of developmental brain disorders. Cortical development involves cell autonomous and cell nonautonomous mechanisms as well as host responses to environmental factors, all of which involve DISC1 function. Thus, we will discuss the significance of DISC1 in forming an overall understanding of multiple mechanisms that orchestrate corticogenesis and can serve as therapeutic targets in diseases caused by abnormal cortical development. © The Author(s) 2013.


Nitta M.,Keio University | Vinci W.,University of Minnesota
Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical | Year: 2012

We study the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld (BPS) vortices in the (1+1)- dimensional N = (2, 2) supersymmetric U(1) gauged double strok C Sign P 1 nonlinear sigma model.We use the moduli matrix approach to analytically construct the moduli space of solutions and solve numerically the BPS equations. We identify two topologically inequivalent types of magnetic vortices, which we call S and N vortices. Moreover, we discuss their relation to instantons (lumps) present in the ungauged case. In particular, we describe how a lump is split into a couple of component S-N vortices after gauging. We extend this analysis to the case of the extended Abelian Higgs model with two flavors, which is known to admit semi-local vortices. After gauging the relative phase between fields, semi-local vortices are also split into component vortices. We discuss interesting applications of this simple set-up. Firstly, the gauging of nonlinear sigma models reveals a semiclassical 'partonic' nature of instantons in 1+1 dimensions. Secondly, weak gauging provides for a new interesting regularization of the metric of semi-local vortices. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.


Otomo C.,Scripps Research Institute | Metlagel Z.,Scripps Research Institute | Metlagel Z.,Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory | Takaesu G.,Keio University | And 2 more authors.
Nature Structural and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

The autophagy factor ATG12∼ATG5 conjugate exhibits E3 ligase-like activity which facilitates the lipidation of members of the LC3 family. The crystal structure of the human ATG12∼ATG5 conjugate bound to the N-terminal region of ATG16L1, the factor that recruits the conjugate to autophagosomal membranes, reveals an integrated architecture in which ATG12 docks onto ATG5 through conserved residues. ATG12 and ATG5 are oriented such that other conserved residues on each molecule, including the conjugation junction, form a continuous surface patch. Mutagenesis data support the importance of both the interface between ATG12 and ATG5 and the continuous patch for E3 activity. The ATG12∼ATG5 conjugate interacts with the E2 enzyme ATG3 with high affinity through another surface location that is exclusive to ATG12, suggesting a different role of the continuous patch in E3 activity. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the mechanism of LC3 lipidation. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Machne R.,University of Vienna | Murray D.B.,Keio University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

When grown in continuous culture, budding yeast cells tend to synchronize their respiratory activity to form a stable oscillation that percolates throughout cellular physiology and involves the majority of the protein-coding transcriptome. Oscillations in batch culture and at single cell level support the idea that these dynamics constitute a general growth principle. The precise molecular mechanisms and biological functions of the oscillation remain elusive. Fourier analysis of transcriptome time series datasets from two different oscillation periods (0.7 h and 5 h) reveals seven distinct co-expression clusters common to both systems (34% of all yeast ORF), which consolidate into two superclusters when correlated with a compilation of 1,327 unrelated transcriptome datasets. These superclusters encode for cell growth and anabolism during the phase of high, and mitochondrial growth, catabolism and stress response during the phase of low oxygen uptake. The promoters of each cluster are characterized by different nucleotide contents, promoter nucleosome configurations, and dependence on ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling complexes. We show that the ATP:ADP ratio oscillates, compatible with alternating metabolic activity of the two superclusters and differential feedback on their transcription via activating (RSC) and repressive (Isw2) types of promoter structure remodeling. We propose a novel feedback mechanism, where the energetic state of the cell, reflected in the ATP:ADP ratio, gates the transcription of large, but functionally coherent groups of genes via differential effects of ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling machineries. Besides providing a mechanistic hypothesis for the delayed negative feedback that results in the oscillatory phenotype, this mechanism may underpin the continuous adaptation of growth to environmental conditions. © 2012 Machné, Murray.


Shin Y.,Korea University | Han S.,Korea University | Jeon J.S.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Yamamoto K.,Keio University | And 4 more authors.
Nature Protocols | Year: 2012

This protocol describes a simple but robust microfluidic assay combining three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture. The microfluidic platform comprises hydrogel-incorporating chambers between surface-accessible microchannels. By using this platform, well-defined biochemical and biophysical stimuli can be applied to multiple cell types interacting over distances of <1 mm, thereby replicating many aspects of the in vivo microenvironment. Capabilities exist for time-dependent manipulation of flow and concentration gradients as well as high-resolution real-time imaging for observing spatial-temporal single-cell behavior, cell-cell communication, cell-matrix interactions and cell population dynamics. These heterotypic cell type assays can be used to study cell survival, proliferation, migration, morphogenesis and differentiation under controlled conditions. Applications include the study of previously unexplored cellular interactions, and they have already provided new insights into how biochemical and biophysical factors regulate interactions between populations of different cell types. It takes 3 d to fabricate the system and experiments can run for up to several weeks. © 2012 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.


Okano H.,RIKEN | Okano H.,Keio University | Mitra P.,Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Neuroscience Research | Year: 2015

Globally, there is an increasing interest in brain-mapping projects, including the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative project in the USA, the Human Brain Project (HBP) in Europe, and the Brain Mapping by Integrated Neurotechnologies for Disease Studies (Brain/MINDS) project in Japan. These projects aim to map the structure and function of neuronal circuits to ultimately understand the vast complexity of the human brain. Brain/MINDS is focused on structural and functional mapping of the common marmoset (. Callithrix jacchus) brain. This non-human primate has numerous advantages for brain mapping, including a well-developed frontal cortex and a compact brain size, as well as the availability of transgenic technologies. In the present review article, we discuss strategies for structural and functional mapping of the marmoset brain and the relation of the common marmoset to other animals models. © 2014 The Authors.


Nurdin H.I.,Australian National University | Nurdin H.I.,University of New South Wales | Yamamoto N.,Keio University
Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics | Year: 2012

This paper studies a scheme of two spatially distant oscillator systems that are connected by Gaussian fields and examines distributed entanglement generation between two continuous-mode output Gaussian fields that are radiated by the oscillators. It is demonstrated that using measurement-feedback control while a nonlocal effective entangling operation is on can help to enhance the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen-like entanglement between the output fields. The effect of propagation delays and losses in the fields interconnecting the two oscillators and the effect of other losses in the system are also considered. In particular, for a range of time delays the measurement-feedback controller is able to maintain stability of the closed-loop system and the entanglement enhancement, but the achievable enhancement is only over a smaller bandwidth that is commensurate with the length of the time delays. © 2012 American Physical Society.


Patent
Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology, Keio University and Hitachi Ltd. | Date: 2013-03-25

A wavelength cross connect device includes an input demultiplexing optical system for demultiplexing light input from a plurality of input ports into respective wavelengths, a wavelength switching optical system for switching and outputting the lights of respective wavelengths input from the input demultiplexing optical system to respective desired ports, and an output multiplexing optical system for multiplexing the lights of respective wavelengths input from the wavelength switching optical system per port. The input demultiplexing optical system and the output multiplexing optical system includes a lens system that has a function of focusing lights independently in vertical and widthwise directions. The wavelength switching optical system includes two light deflector arrays for outputting incoming light of each wavelength after adjusting a horizontal reflection angle of the light, and a switching lens including a lens that has a focal length equal to the Rayleigh length and acts only in a widthwise direction.


Patent
Kumamoto University, Keio University and Link Genomics Inc. | Date: 2012-05-23

Disclosed is a prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent for dysmenorrhea and/or associated symptoms thereof. Specifically disclosed is a prophylactic and/or therapeutic agent for dysmenorrhea and/or associated symptoms thereof, which comprises tranilast as an active ingredient thereof.


Patent
Keio University and University of South Australia | Date: 2014-02-06

Disclosed is a method for improving the calibration of multiple projector systems in Spatial Augmented Reality systems where multiple projectors are used to project images directly onto objects of interest. The methods and system described herein improve the calibration of multiple projector systems in order to improve the alignment and clarity of projected images by reducing ghosting that can occur with poorly aligned projectors. The system uses a planar photodiode and the projector is used to project a plurality of projection regions, such as scan lines, across the planar photodetector and calculating the position based on weighting measurements by the measured light intensity and projected images in SAR.


Patent
Keio University and Mitsui Chemicals Inc. | Date: 2014-03-25

Disclosed is an optical film having low wavelength dispersibility which is obtained by stretching a film formed of a fluorine-containing cyclic olefin polymer including at least one selected from a repeating structural unit represented by the formula described below, wherein a phase difference at a wavelength of 550 nm is greater than or equal to 50 nm, wavelength dispersibility represented by a ratio Re (400 nm)/Re (550 nm) of a phase difference Re (400 nm) at a wavelength of 400 nm to a phase difference Re (550 nm) at a wavelength of 550 nm is 1.00 to 1.05, wavelength dispersibility represented by a ratio Re (400 nm)/Re (800 nm) of a phase difference Re (400 nm) at a wavelength of 400 nm to a phase difference Re (800 nm) at a wavelength of 800 nm is 1.00 to 1.05, and total light transmittance is greater than or equal to 92%.


Patent
Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology, Hitachi Ltd. and Keio University | Date: 2011-01-26

To provide a waveguide type wavelength domain optical switch which makes it possible to use a cheap lens, makes it possible to correct aberration of the demultiplexed wavelengths produced in a plurality of waveguide type demultiplexing circuits, a wavelength domain optical switch is provided with: an integrated element formed by laminating three or more waveguide type demultiplexing circuits; a first lens for collecting light emitted from the integrated element; a polarization separation element for separating light emitted from the first lens into X polarization and Y polarization and emitting the X polarization and the Y polarization at different angles; a second lens for collecting the X polarization and the Y polarization; a first reflective optical phase modulator for reflecting the collected X polarization and Y polarization at any angles; a -wavelength plate disposed between the second lens and the first reflective optical phase modulator in order to make polarization directions of the X polarization and the Y polarization identical; and a second reflective optical phase modulator for inputting light from the first reflective optical phase modulator into one of the waveguide type demultiplexing circuits.

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