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Okinawa, Japan

Sakima A.,University of Ryukyus | Kita T.,University of Miyazaki | Nakada S.,Keiaikai Chibana Clinic | Yokota N.,Yokota Naika | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

Although blockade of the renin-angiotensin system by increasing the dose of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) is recommended to achieve clinical benefits in terms of blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular and renal outcomes, the effect of this increased dose on ambulatory BP monitoring has not been evaluated completely in Japanese patients with uncontrolled hypertension undergoing medium-dose ARB therapy. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of the relatively high dose of the ARB candesartan (12 mg/day) on 24-h systolic BP and the attainment of target BP levels in uncontrolled hypertension treated with a medium dose of ARBs. A total of 146 hypertensive patients (age: 69.9 ± 9.3 years; females: 65.8%) completed the study. After switching to candesartan at 12 mg/day, all these BP measurements decreased significantly (p < 0.001). Attainment of the target office BP (p = 0.0014) and 24-h BP levels (p = 0.0296) also improved significantly. Subgroup analysis indicated that the reduction of 24-h systolic BP was larger in patients treated with diuretics than those without (p = 0.0206). Multivariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between the combined ARB and diuretic therapy, and the change in 24-h systolic BP irrespective of preceding ARBs. In conclusion, the switching therapy to increased dose of candesartan caused significant reductions in office and ambulatory BP levels, and improved the attainment of target BP levels in patients with uncontrolled hypertension treated with a medium dose of ARBs. Combination with diuretics enhanced this effect. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Kita T.,University of Miyazaki | Sakima A.,University of Ryukyus | Yokota N.,Yokota Naika | Tamaki N.,Tamaki Clinic | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

Blood pressure (BP) control throughout the entire day is recommended for cardiovascular protection. Angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely used in hypertensive patients because of beneficial class effects. It is uncertain, however, whether are there any differences in 24-h BP profiles among ARBs. We examined ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) among 211 Japanese hypertensive patients (age, 69.4 ± 9.6 years; female, 59.2%) under treatment with five different ARBs. Patients were divided into five groups according to ARBs prescribed. Patient backgrounds were almost identical in all the groups and there were no differences in office, 24-h and daytime BP; however, nighttime BP with olmesartan was significantly lower than with other ARBs. Office BPs with candesartan and telmisartan, but not other ARBs, correlated well with 24-h BP (p < 0.01). Also, there were higher correlations between daytime and nighttime BP with candesartan and telmisartan. In all patients, pulse pressure with office BP was significantly correlated with ambulatory arterial stiffness index (p = 0.001) and fluctuation of systolic BP on ABPM (p = 0.002). In conclusion, different ARB treatments produced meaningful differences in 24-h profiles. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source

Ohshiro K.,University of Ryukyus | Sakima A.,University of Ryukyus | Nakada S.,Keiaikai Chibana Clinic | Kohagura K.,University of Ryukyus | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

Among the angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), losartan (LOS) has uricosuric action. The clinical benefits of LOS compared with those of other ARBs may be apparent when it is combined with diuretics, which have an unfavorable influence on serum uric acid (SUA). The effects of switching from combinations of ARBs other than LOS and thiazides to a fixed-dose combination comprising 50 mg LOS and 12.5 mg hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure (BP), SUA, percent fractional excretion of UA (FEUA), and urine pH were assessed in 57 hypertensive outpatients. A significant reduction in BP was observed after 6 months (P < .01). The switching therapy significantly decreased SUA level (6.0 ± 1.3 vs. 5.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL, P < .01), which was accompanied by increases in FEUA (P < .01) and urine pH (P < .01). The change in SUA was negatively correlated with the changes in FEUA (P < .004) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (P < .05). The change in FEUA was positively correlated with the changes in urine pH (P < .05) but not with BP or estimated glomerular filtration rate. In a separate group of patients treated with ARBs other than LOS (n = 82), a significant BP reduction was observed, but no change in SUA or FEUA was observed. In conclusion, switching therapy decreased SUA level, which was accompanied by an increase in FEUA. This result may depend on the balance between LOS-induced inhibitory action of urate transporter 1 and hydrochlorothiazide-induced plasma volume reduction. The increase in urine pH plays a role in UA urinary excretion. © Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

Sakima A.,University of Ryukyus | Ohshiro K.,University of Ryukyus | Nakada S.,Keiaikai Chibana Clinic | Yamazato M.,University of Ryukyus | And 4 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension

The efficacy and tolerability of switching therapy from free combinations of angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and thiazide (A/T) to a fixed-dose of losartan and hydrochlorothiazide (L/H) has not been evaluated in Japan. We examined effects of switching therapy from variable-dose multiple-pill A/T to a fixed-dose L/H on blood pressure (BP) along with medication adherence and the degree of satisfaction in 91 hypertensive outpatients (mean age, 65.2 ± 9.6 years). After 6 months, a significant BP reduction (132 ± 9/76 ± 10 vs. 126 ± 12/72 ± 11 mm Hg), along with an improvement of attaining target BP (44.0 vs. 61.5%) and that of adherence, were observed. The magnitude of BP reduction in the participants increased their degree of satisfaction more significantly than in the participants who worsened their degree of satisfaction. The estimated glomerular filtration rate and the serum uric acid (UA) level decreased slightly but significantly. The hemoglobin A1c of participants with diabetes mellitus increased slightly but significantly. In conclusion, a switch in therapy from variable-dose, multiple-pill A/T combinations to a fixed-dose, single-pill L/H was effective in decreasing BP and serum UA in Japanese clinical practice. Metabolic side effects of L/H in patients with diabetes mellitus remain to be investigated. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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